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• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
Med blicken mot landsbygden: En planeringsutmaning?2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science. BTH.
Interactive animation of single-layer cumulus clouds using cloudmap2019In: Eurographics Proceedings STAG: Smart Tools and Applications in Graphics (2019) / [ed] M. Agus, M. Corsini and R. Pintus, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)

In this paper, we present a physics-driven procedural method for the interactive animation of realistic, single-layered cumulus clouds for the landscape-scale size. Our method employs the coarse units called parcels for the physics simulation and achieves procedural micro-level volumetric amplification based on the macro physics parameters. However, contrary to the previous methods which achieve amplification directly inside the parcels, we make use of the two-dimensional texture called cloud mapsto this end. This not only improves the shape and distribution of the cloud cover over the landscape but also boosts the animation efficiency significantly, allowing the overall approach to run at high frame rates, which is verified by the experiments presented in the paper.

• Center of Excellence for Child Health Services, SWE.
Center of Excellence for Child Health Services, SWE. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
Parents' experiences of a health dialogue in the child health services: a qualitative study2019In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 774-Article in journal (Refereed)

BACKGROUND: The Child Health Services in Sweden is a well-attended health promoting setting, and thereby has an important role in promoting healthy living habits in families with young children. Due to lack of national recommendations for health dialogues, a Child Centred Health Dialogue (CCHD) model was developed and tested in two Swedish municipalities. The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences of health dialogues based on the CCHD model focusing on food and eating habits during the scheduled child health visit at four years of age. METHODS: A qualitative design with purposeful sampling was used. Twelve individual interviews with parents were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in three categories: The health dialogue provides guidance and understanding; Illustrations promote the health dialogue; and Space for children and parents in the health dialogue. In addition, analysis of the latent content resulted in a single theme reflecting the parents' voice on the importance of having a health dialogue on food and eating habits. The health dialogue, promoted by illustrations, provided guidance and understanding, and gave space for children's and parents' involvement. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that health dialogues using the CCHD- model create supportive conditions for family members' active participation in the visits, which may strengthen empowerment and health literacy. The study provides knowledge and guidance for further development, evaluation and implementation of the model.

• Public defence: 2019-12-12 08:30
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
Effects of Small-Scale Ionospheric Irregularities on GNSS Radio Occultation Signals: Evaluations Using Multiple Phase Screen Simulator2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Radio Occultation (RO) is a remote sensing technique which uses Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals tracked by a Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite to sound the earth's atmosphere both in low (troposphere, stratosphere) and high (ionosphere) altitudes. GNSS-RO provides global coverage and SI traceable measurements of atmospheric data with high-vertical resolution. Refractivity, dry temperature, pressure and water vapour profiles retrieved from RO measurements have a relevant contribution in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems and in climate-monitoring.

Due to the partial propagation through the ionosphere, a systematic bias is added to the lower atmospheric data product. Most of this contribution is removed by a linear combination of data for two frequencies. In climatology studies, one can apply a second-order correction - so called $\kappa$-correction - which relies on a priori information on the conditions in the ionosphere. However, both approaches do not remove high-order terms in the error due to horizontal gradient and earth's geomagnetic fields. The remaining residual ionospheric error (RIE) and its systematic bias in RO atmospheric data is a well-known issue and its mitigation is an open research topic.

In this licentiate dissertation, the residual ionospheric error after the standard correction is evaluated with computational simulations using a wave optics propagator (WOP). In this work, Multiple Phase Screen (MPS) method is used to simulate occultation events in different ionospheric scenarios, e.g. quiet and disturbed conditions. Electron density profiles (EDP) assumed in simulations are either defined by analytical equations or measurements. The disturbed cases are modelled as small-scale irregularities within F-region in two different ways: as sinusoidal fluctuations; and by using a more complex approach, where the irregularities follow a single-slope power-law that yields moderate to strong scintillation in the signal amplitude. Possible errors in MPS simulations assuming long segment of orbit and ionosphere are also evaluated.

The results obtained with the sinusoidal disturbances show minor influence in the RIE after the standard correction, with the major part of the error due to the F-region peak. The implementation of the single-slope power-law is validated and the fluctuations obtained in simulation show good agreement to the ones observed in RO measurements. Finally, an alternative to overcome limitations in MPS simulations considering occultations with long segment of orbit and ionosphere is introduced and validated.

The small-scale irregularities modelled in F-region with the power-law can be added in simulations of a large dataset subjected to $\kappa$-correction, in order to evaluate the RIE bending angle and the consequences in atmospheric parameters, e.g. temperature.

• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
Data-Driven Techniques for Modeling and Analysis of User Behavior2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Our society is becoming more digitalized for each day. Now, we are able to gather data from individual users with higher resolution than ever. With the increased amount of data on an individual user level, we can analyze their behavior. This is of interest in many different domains, for example service providers wanting to improve their service for their customers. If they know how their service is used, they have more insight in how they can improve. But, it also imposes additional difficulties. When we reach the individual user, the irregularities in the regular behavior makes it harder to model the normal behavior.

In this thesis, we explore data-driven techniques to model and analyze user behaviors. We aim to evaluate existing as well as develop novel technologies to identify approaches that are suitable for use on an individual user level. We use both supervised and unsupervised learning methods to model the user behavior and evaluate the approaches on real world electricity consumption data.

Firstly, we analyze household electricity consumption data and investigate the use of regression to model the household's behavior. We identify consumption trends, how data granularity affects modeling, and we show that regression is a viable approach to model user behavior. Secondly, we use clustering analysis to profile individual households in terms of their electricity consumption. We compare two dissimilarity measures, how they affect the clustering analysis, and we investigate how the produced clustering solutions differ. Thirdly, we propose a sequential clustering algorithm to model evolving user behavior. We evaluate the proposed algorithm on electricity consumption data and show how the produced model can be used to identify and trace changes in the user's behavior. The algorithm is robust to evolving behaviors and handles both dynamic and incremental aspects of streaming data.

• Blekinge Institute of Technology.
Linköpings universitet. Delft University of Technology. École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne. Delft University of Technology.
Transform project deliverable D3.1: A toolbox of real-time strategies for smart transfers2017Report (Other academic)

Organizing, financing and operating public transport service networks can be quite a challenge. The liberalization of the public transport sector within EU has introduced some additional challenges since the public transport systems nowadays more often consist of services operated by multiple organizations. When passengers move between public transport service networks that are operatedby different organizations, the need for effective coordination become evident. The importance of effective coordination and the associated challenge to achieve this – independent of organizational structure - is the point of origin for the TRANS-FORM project. The project focuses on the development of an integrated passenger-focused management approach that takes advantage of multiple datasources and state-of-the-art scheduling support.This document reports on the work performed in task 3.1 entitled “Real-time traffic management optimization” and task 3.2 entitled “Smart real-time strategies” of the TRANS-FORM project. These tasks were performed as part of work package 3 “Methods for Planning and Operating RobustServices”.The work in the mentioned tasks focus on how to model an integrated passenger-focused management approach including developing strategies that enable improved coordination and smooth passenger transfers. This document contains a specification of the configuration of each modelled level (hub,urban and regional) and the proposed types of management strategies as well as the requiredinformation flow. A specification of the proposed integration of those three levels and their interactionis also presented.

Additional project documentation can be found on the project website:

http://www.transform-project.org/index.php/progress-and-results/.

• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
Finding a needle in a haystack -  A comparative study of IPv6 scanning methods2019In: Proceeding of The 6th International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC 2019), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)

It has previously been assumed that the size of anIPv6 network would make it impossible to scan the network forvulnerable hosts. Recent work has shown this to be false, andseveral methods for scanning IPv6 networks have been suggested.However, most of these are based on external information likeDNS, or pattern inference which requires large amounts of knownIP addresses. In this paper, DeHCP, a novel approach based ondelimiting IP ranges with closely clustered hosts, is presentedand compared to three previously known scanning methods. Themethod is shown to work in an experimental setting with resultscomparable to that of the previously suggested methods, and isalso shown to have the advantage of not being limited to a specificprotocol or probing method. Finally we show that the scan canbe executed across multiple VLANs.

• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
Molflow, SwWE. RUAG Space AB, SWE. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
GNSS Radio Occultation Simulation Using MultiplePhase Screen Orbit Sampling2019In: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, ISSN 1545-598X, E-ISSN 1558-0571Article in journal (Refereed)

Wave optics propagators (WOPs) are commonlyused to describe the propagation of radio signals through earth’satmosphere. In radio occultation (RO) context, multiple phasescreen (MPS) method has been used to model the effects of theatmosphere in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signalsduring an occultation event. WOP implementation includes,in addition to MPS, a diffraction integral as the final step tocalculate the radio signal measured in the low-earth orbit (LEO)satellite. This approach considers vacuum as the propagationmedium at high altitudes, which is not always the case when theionosphere is taken into account in simulations. An alternativeapproach is using MPS all the way to LEO in order to samplethe GNSS signal in orbit. This approach, named MPS orbitsampling (MPS-OS), is evaluated in this letter. Different scenariosof setting occultation assuming a short segment of the LEO orbithave been simulated using MPS and MPS-OS. Results have beencompared to Abel transform references. Furthermore, a longsegment scenario has been evaluated as well. A comparison ofbending angle (BA) and residual ionospheric error (RIE) showsthe equivalence between MPS and MPS-OS results. The mainapplication of MPS-OS should be in occultation events with longsegments of orbit and including ionosphere, in which a standardWOP may not be appropriate.

• Public defence: 2019-12-09 10:00
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
Utilizing requirements to support sustainable product development: Introductory approaches for strategic sustainability integration2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The attention to sustainability impacts arising during the lifecycle of products is growing as industry wants to increase its contribution to a sustainable society. To do so, companies must find ways to navigate the complexity of the needs within the socio-ecological system in which they operate. In engineering design projects, the interpretation of needs into requirements is essential, as they represent the collective understanding of the design problem to be solved. Ideally, requirements are possible to verify and validate, which makes it challenging for industry to integrate socio-ecological considerations, often based on qualitative models, into requirements. Sustainability then tends not to be prioritized in trade-offs with traditionally identified requirements for engineering design.

A qualitative research approach within design research methodology framed a sequence of studies guided by the research question ‘How can requirements be utilized to support Sustainable Product Development?’ First, a research gap was identified from a literature review which indicated a lack of socio-ecological systems contextualization in the identification, as well as the traceability of sustainability criteria to integrate into requirements. Secondly, a conceptual model was established for how management of requirements can be improved to facilitate traceability, as well as how contextual socio-ecological systems perspective can be introduced in the selection, of sustainability criteria for engineering design projects. For this purpose, the results from a multiple-case study based on semi-structured interviews with seven design and manufacturing companies was triangulated with findings of an in-depth literature analysis. Five key elements of management of sustainability in requirements were proposed in a profile model corresponding to different levels of sustainability maturity. A third study explored, based on literature and prototype causal loop diagramming, the potential of a group model building approach to enhance contextual understanding of strategically identified, i.e., company-tailored, sustainability criteria in relation to traditional requirements in early phases of the product innovation process. A final study investigated how a strategic sustainability perspective can be integrated with engineering design methods and value modelling to create a decision support for concept selection.

The studies together indicate that key constituents of good requirements, traceability and systems contextualization, can be achieved also for socio-ecological sustainability considerations. This requires organizational commitment and will be reflected in the design of the operational management system for their product innovation process. Following the proposed five key elements of sustainability integration in requirements, a company is expected to increase the organizational sustainability maturity, and hence its capability to contribute to a sustainability transition. This research also shows that there is a gap in current methods and tools for enhanced socio-ecological systems contextualization. The two last studies of this thesis give promising approaches of tools and methods to be further developed and analyzed, namely group model building, system analysis and value modelling.

• Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
The Open University, GBR. Chalmers University of Technology, SWE. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Université Paris-Saclay, FRA. University of Luxembourg, LUX. Chalmers University of Technology, SWE. Tel Aviv University, ISR. Luleå University of Technology, SWE.
PERSPECTIVES ON INNOVATION: THE ROLE OF ENGINEERING DESIGN2019In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design 2019, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 1235-1244Conference paper (Refereed)

The aim of the paper is to foster a discussion in the engineering design community about itsunderstanding of the innovation phenomena and the unique contribution that comes from engineeringdesign. The paper reports on the dialouge originating from a series of workshops with participants fromdifferent backgrounds in engineering design, systems engineering, industrial design psychology andbusiness.Definitions of innovation are revisited as used in business, management and engineering designcontexts. The role of innovation is then discussed related to product development from (i) themanagement perspective, (ii) a systems architecture perspective and (iii) in relation to sustainabledevelopment as one driver of innovation.It is argued that engineering design has a central role in how to realise the novelty aspect of innovationand often plays a critical role in maturing these into the valuable products, and there is a need to articulatethe role of engineering design in innovation to better resonate with the business and managementresearch.

• The Open University, GBR.
Chalmers University of Technology, SWE. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Chalmers University of Technology, SWE. Luleå University of Technology, SWE. Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
Industry Trends to 20402019In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design 2019, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 2121-2128Conference paper (Refereed)
• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
GKN Aerospace Engine System AB, SWE.
SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: LEARNINGS FROM A LONGITUDINAL STUDY2019In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design 2019, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 3381-3390Conference paper (Refereed)

Industry is a main stakeholder when it comes to realising the transition towards a sustainable future. Academia, with its, knowledge and methods, needs to support the industry on this journey. This paper, focuses on the practical learnings on how to implement sustainability research from an industrial perspective. It aims to share some lessons learnt from a longitudinal case study and a development journey in implementing sustainability research in the product innovation process at GKN Aerospace Engine System. The paper gives an overview, based on a literature study, of what is required to successfully implement sustainability in product development. It also provides a summary of the different research projects at the company with learnings from practical and academic perspectives, and the main learnings and changes in relation to different development phases in the sustainability journey. Although, this journey began over ten years ago, and shows the importance of long-term collaboration, it provides key-factors that can be applied also in short term collaborations and for faster implementation of research in general and sustainable product development research in particular.

• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
"Att leva som alla andra": livsmiljö, bostadsbehov och samverkan.2019In: PLAN, Vol. 5-6, p. 65-70Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
Vad kan vi och vad vill vi göra?: Samtal med tre masterstudenter i fysisk planering på BTH.2019In: PLAN, p. 49-56Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
"Vi hade roligt, men vi slet också hårt": Samtal med Eva Öresjö och Anders Törnqvist om de formativa åren för fysisk planering.2019In: PLAN, Vol. 5-6, p. 15-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
Välkommen till vuxenvärlden institutionen för fysisk planering vid Blekinge tekniska högskola2019In: PLAN, ISSN 0032-0560, Vol. 5-6, p. 7-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• Public defence: 2019-12-19 10:00 Rio Grande, KarlshamnGulbrandsen, Elisabeth
The New Production of Politics: Between the No Longer and the Not Yet2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Indications that the global environmental and inequality crises are intimately linked to our western ways of living, challenge the self-understanding of participants in the modern research-complex. As researchers we not only observe, unveil, analyse and solve problems "out there". Our knowledge-producing activities are (re)productive forces whose effects are not contained by the walls of any "ivory tower". As researchers we do not have a standpoint outside of a research-dependent culture. We are implicated in it. How do we convert this implication into resources for transformative movements in science and society?

The main objective motivating the texts presented has been to explore conditions for developing responsible technoscientific cultures - in and beyond - the academy. The linearity as well as the division of labour suggested by the "technology push" and "society pull" policy models are heavily criticized for ignoring the complexity and dynamics that emerge partly as a consequence of the success and pervasiveness of science and technology in late modernity. Science and society have both become transgressive invading each other's domains, and science policy questions are enhanced into political questions. A third, more interactive policy model is emerging figured in transdiscursive terms like 'strategic science', 'innovation system', 'post-normal science', 'technoscience', 'mode 2' and 'agora'.

The more specific objective has been to situate research processes as "triple loop" learning processes and to figure both 'research quality' and 'politics' in innovative ways that help responsible technoscientific cultures emerge. Resources from European traditions of "action learning" and "action research" as well as the recent U.S. trend of "technoscience as culture" are employed as frameworks for the analysis. Conditions for responsible innovation are explored through trying transformations or "participant provocations" at the University of Oslo (1986-1994) and at the Research Council of Norway (1998-2017). These experiments are documented in published articles and function as "original communications" to the thesis.

• Chalmers University of Technology, Division of Product Development, Department of Industrial and Materials Science.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development. Chalmers, SWE. Astra Zeneca, SWE.
Decision Support for Re-Designed Medicinal Products: Assessing Consequences of a Customizable Product Design on the Value Chain from a Sustainability Perspective2019In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, Cambridge University Press, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)

Despite advances in pharmacological research providing means for individually customized patient attribute treatments, the 'one-size-fits-all' paradigm remains. Customization is associated with cost increases and the value assessment of customized medicinal products shows upon a narrow economic focus. Inspired by value models, emerging in manufacturing industry research, this study suggests a novel methodology encompassing a full sustainability perspective, including the social, economic and ecological dimension, for design decision support for medicinal products. A concept screening matrix is adapted, using sustainability criteria as value indicators. The focus is to create value for the whole pharmaceutical value chain whilst keeping the core purpose of medicinal products, i.e. to bring societal benefits. An illustrative case study presents an application of the methodology on a commercial product for curing hypertension. The traditional product design for hypertension treatment is compared to a customized product design. Results indicate that a customized product design is preferable if value is to be created from a social or/and an ecological sustainability perspective.

• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
Evaluating Success Factors of Health Information Systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Health information systems are our technological response to the growing demand for health care. However, their success in their mission can be challenging due to the complexity of evaluating technological interventions in health care. In the series of studies compiled in this dissertation, we looked at the evaluation of these systems. We focused on the evaluation of factors that lead to success, where success is indicated by user satisfaction and can be induced by both intervention-specific and individual-specific factors.

Study 1 developed a method, called UVON, to elicit and organise the user-demanded qualities in the outcomes of the health information system intervention. Through the application of the UVON method in the FI-STAR project, an EU project which developed and deployed seven e-health applications in seven member countries, ten categories of quality and their subcategories were identified. These qualities formed two questionnaires, specific to the patient and health professional users. Through the questionnaires, the patients and health-professionals users evaluated and graded both the occurrence of those demanded qualities in the project outcomes and their general satisfaction.

Study 2 analysed the survey results to find out which of those ten qualities have the highest impact on satisfaction or can predict it better. Two partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) models were constructed, for the patient and health professionals, based on the Unified eValuation using ONtology (UVON) and survey outputs. The models showed that effectiveness is an important quality in creating satisfaction for both user groups. Besides, affordability for the health professionals and efficiency plus safety for the patients were the most influential. A satisfaction index is also introduced for simple and fast inferring of the changes in the outcome qualities.

Study 5 recruited outputs and learnings from studies 1 and 2 to design a system that partially automates the process of evaluating success factors in health information systems, making it continuous and real-time, and replacing hard-to-run surveys with automatically captured indicators and analytics.

Study 3 focused on individual-specific factors in using health information systems, particularly the technophilia personality trait. A short six-items instrument, called TechPH, was designed to measure technophilia in users, tuned for older users. The study recruited empirical data from the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care (SNAC) project. Two factors, labelled techAnxiety and techEnthusiams, are identified by the factor analysis method. A TechPH score was introduced as a scalar measurement of technophilia.

Study 4 elicited and discussed the ethical challenges of evaluating and researching health information systems. Both a scoping review and a novel systematic postulation approach were recruited to identify twenty ethical challenges. The identified ethical challenges were discussed and mapped into a three-dimensional space of evaluation stages, demanded qualities, and major involving entities (stakeholder and artefacts), which fosters further postulation of ethical challenges.

• Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
Orchestrating Future Service Chains in the Next Generation of Clouds2019In: Proceedings of SNCNW 2019: The 15th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop, Luleå, 2019, p. 18-22Conference paper (Refereed)

Service Chains have developed into an important concept in service provisioning in today’s and future Clouds. Cloud systems, e.g., Amazon Web Services (AWS), permit the implementation and deployment of new applications, services and service chains rapidly and flexibly. They employ the idea of Infrastructure as Code (IaC), which is the process of managing and provisioning computing infrastructure and its configuration through machine-processable definition files.

In this paper, we first detail future service chains with particular focus on Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and machine learning in AI. Afterwards, we analyze and summarize the capabilities of today’s IaC tools for orchestrating Cloud infrastructures and service chains. We compare the functionality of the major five IaC tools: Puppet, Chef, SaltStack, Ansible, and Terraform. In addition, we demonstrate how to analyze the functional capabilities of one of the tools. Finally, we give an outlook on future research issues on using IaC tools across multiple operators, data center domains, and different stockholders that collaborate on service chains.