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  • Sievert, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, SWE.
    Carlström, Anders
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Comparing reflection signatures in radio occultation measurements using the full spectrum inversion and phase matching methods2018In: PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 10786; Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XXIII, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation (GNSS-RO) is an important technique used to sound the Earth's atmosphere and provide data products to numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems as well as toclimate research. It provides a high vertical resolution and SI-traceability that are both valuable complements toother Earth observation systems. In addition to direct components refracted in the atmosphere, many received RO signals contain reflected components thanks to the specular and relatively smooth characteristics of the ocean. These reflected components can interfere the retrieval of the direct part of the signal, and can also contain meteorological information of their own, e.g., information about the refractivity at the Earth's surface. While the conventional method to detect such reflections is by using radio-holographic methods, it has been shown that it is possible to see reflections using wave optics inversion, specically while inspecting the amplitude of the output of phase matching (PM). The primary objective of this paper is to analyze the appearance of these reflections in the amplitude output from another wave optics algorithm, namely the much faster full spectrum inversion (FSI). PM and FSI are closely related algorithms - they both use the method of stationary phase to derive the bending angle from a measured signal. We apply our own implementation of FSI to the same GNSS-RO measurements that PM was previously applied to and show that the amplitudes of the outputs again indicate reflection in the surface of the ocean. Our results show that the amplitudes output from the FSI and PM algorithms are practically identical and that the reflection signatures thus appear equally well.

  • Kuzminykh, Ievgeniia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Franksson, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Liljegren, Alexander
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Measuring a LoRa Network: Performance, Possibilities and Limitations2018In: Internet of Things, Smart Spaces, and Next Generation Networks and Systems 18th International Conference, NEW2AN 2018, and 11th Conference, ruSMART 2018, St. Petersburg, Russia, August 27–29, 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Galinina O., Andreev S., Balandin S., Koucheryavy Y., Cham, 2018, Vol. 11118, p. 116-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low power wide area (LPWA) technologies becomes popular for IoT use cases because LPWA is enable the broad range communications and allows to transmit small amounts of information in a long distance. Among LPWA technologies there are LTE-M, SigFox, LoRa, Symphony Link, Ingenu RPMA, Weightless, and NB-IoT. Currently all these technologies suffer from lack of documentation about deployment recommendation, have non-investigated limitations that can affect implementations and products using such technologies. This paper is focused on the testing of LPWAN LoRa technology to learn how a LoRa network gets affected by different environmental attributes such as distance, height and surrounding area by measuring the signal strength, signal to noise ratio and any resulting packet loss. The series of experiments for various use cases are conducted using a fully deployed LoRa network made up of a gateway and sensor available through the public network. The results will show the LoRa network limitation for such use cases as forest, city, open space. These results allow to give the recommendation for companies during early analysis and design stages of network life circle, and help to choose properly technology for deployment an IoT application.

  • Kuzminykh, Ievgeniia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Analysis of Assets for Threat Risk Model in Avatar-Oriented IoT Architecture2018In: Internet of Things, Smart Spaces, and Next Generation Networks and Systems. NEW2AN 2018, ruSMART 2018. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11118 / [ed] Galinina O., Andreev S., Balandin S., Koucheryavy Y. (eds), Springer, 2018, Vol. 11118, p. 52-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper represents new functional architecture for the Internet of Things systems that use an avatar concept in displaying interaction between components of the architecture. Object-oriented representation of “thing” in the avatar concept allows simplify building and deployment of IoT systems over the web network and bind “things” to such application protocols as HTTP, CoAP, and WebSockets mechanism. The assets and stakeholders for ensuring security in IoT were specified. These assets are needed to isolate the risks associated with each of assets of IoT system. Example of Thing Instance’s description and its functionality using JSON format is shown also in the paper.

  • Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    On Track for 2030: Roadmap for a fast transition to sustainable personal transport: English short version with foreword by Peter Newman2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector's dependence on fossil fuels is one of the biggest challenges in a shift towards a climate-neutral and sustainable society.

    This roadmap report aims to investigate how electric vehicle systems can contribute to a faster transition to sustainable passenger transport in Southeast Sweden, as well as to present a methodology for guidance of similar work for faster transitions in other regions and sectors.

    This work has been guided by a scientifically designed and proven Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Specifically, answers are given to four research questions structured in relation to the four subsystems 'Politics and instruments', 'Users and markets', 'Vehicles and infrastructure' and 'Energy and materials':

    1. What could a sustainable vision for passenger transport in Southeast Sweden look like?
    2. What could be a milestone goal for 2030?
    3. What is the current reality in relation to the 2030 goal and the vision?
    4. How could the gap between the present, 2030 and the vision be bridged?

    The report's results show that today's focus on fossil independence and measures against climate change must be broadened to cover the whole sustainability challengeso that other sustainability issues are addressed and so that solutions to some of the sustainability issues do not create new ones.

    The report also clarifies that it is necessary, practically possible and economically advantageous for Southeast Sweden to make a faster sustainability transition of passenger transportthan what has been proposed in previous studies and investigations. It is also likely that the same applies to the entire transport system and for the whole of Sweden and the world.

    Even geopolitical benefits are likely. A global transition to transport and energy systems based on energy from widely available flow resources like sun and wind instead of the limited fossil fuels would likely reduce the conflicts risks in the world.Restricted cobalt, lithium and platinum resources that battery and fuel cell cars depend on, and other metals needed for solar cells and wind turbines can, however, give rise to similar conflict risks. This roadmap report's recommendations on reduced transport needs and car dependency and its focus on resource efficiency counteract these conflict risks by striking against underlying resource-driving mechanisms. Should this roadmap be translated into practical policies, the forthcoming transition would therefore likely be made considerably more 'future-proof'.

  • Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Karapıçak, Çağrı Murat
    Middle East Technical, University (METU), Ankara, TUR.
    Yılmaz, Uğur
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, TUR.
    Testing embedded software: A survey of the literature2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 104, p. 14-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Information Technology Group, Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mäntylä, Mika
    M3S, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, FIN.
    Guidelines for including grey literature and conducting multivocal literature reviews in software engineering2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A Multivocal Literature Review (MLR) is a form of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) which includes the grey literature (e.g., blog posts, videos and white papers) in addition to the published (formal) literature (e.g., journal and conference papers). MLRs are useful for both researchers and practitioners since they provide summaries both the state-of-the art and –practice in a given area. MLRs are popular in other fields and have recently started to appear in software engineering (SE). As more MLR studies are conducted and reported, it is important to have a set of guidelines to ensure high quality of MLR processes and their results. Objective: There are several guidelines to conduct SLR studies in SE. However, several phases of MLRs differ from those of traditional SLRs, for instance with respect to the search process and source quality assessment. Therefore, SLR guidelines are only partially useful for conducting MLR studies. Our goal in this paper is to present guidelines on how to conduct MLR studies in SE. Method: To develop the MLR guidelines, we benefit from several inputs: (1) existing SLR guidelines in SE, (2), a literature survey of MLR guidelines and experience papers in other fields, and (3) our own experiences in conducting several MLRs in SE. We took the popular SLR guidelines of Kitchenham and Charters as the baseline and extended/adopted them to conduct MLR studies in SE. All derived guidelines are discussed in the context of an already-published MLR in SE as the running example. Results: The resulting guidelines cover all phases of conducting and reporting MLRs in SE from the planning phase, over conducting the review to the final reporting of the review. In particular, we believe that incorporating and adopting a vast set of experience-based recommendations from MLR guidelines and experience papers in other fields have enabled us to propose a set of guidelines with solid foundations. Conclusion: Having been developed on the basis of several types of experience and evidence, the provided MLR guidelines will support researchers to effectively and efficiently conduct new MLRs in any area of SE. The authors recommend the researchers to utilize these guidelines in their MLR studies and then share their lessons learned and experiences. © 2018

  • Reheman, Wureguli
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, LTH, SWE.
    Ståhle, Per
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Durgé, Ellias
    Lund University, LTH, SWE.
    Singh, Ram N.
    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
    Phase Field Modelling of Formation and Fracture of Expanding Precipitates2017In: Procedia Structural Integrity / [ed] Francesco Iacoviello, Luca Susmel, Donato Firrao, Giuseppe Ferro, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 3, p. 477-483p. 477-483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a common belief that embedded expanding inclusions are subjected to an internal homogeneous compressive hydrostatic stress. Still, cracks that appear in precipitates that occupy a larger volume than the original material, are frequently observed. The appearance of cracks has since long been regarded as a paradox. In the present study it is shown that matrix materials that increases its volume even several percent during the precipitation process develop a tensile hydrostatic stress in the centre of the precipitate. This is the result of a complicated mechanical-chemical phase transformation process. The process is here studied using a Landau phase feld model. Before the material is transformed and incorporated in a precipitate it undergoes stretching beyond the elastic strain limit because of the presence of already expanded material. During the phase transformation, the accompanying volumetric expansion cannot be fully accommodated which instead creates an internal compressive stress and adds tension in the surrounding material. As the growth of the precipitate proceeds, a region with increasing tensile stress develops in the interior of the precipitate. This is suggested to be the most probable cause of the observed cracks. First the mechanics that lead to the tension is computed. The infuence of elastic-plastic properties is studied both for cases both with and without cracks. The growth history from microscopic to macroscopic precipitates is followed and the result is compared with observations of so called hydride blisters that are formed on surfaces of zirconium alloys in the presence of hydrogen. A common practical situation is when the zirconium is in contact with an object of lower temperature. Then the cooled spot attracts hydrogen that make the zirconium transform to a metal hydride with the shape of a blister. The simulations predicts a final size and position of the growing crack that compares well with the experimental observations.

  • Reheman, Wureguli
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, LTH, SWE.
    Ståhle, Per
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Interface instability of growing hydrides2016In: Procedia Structural Integrity / [ed] Francesco Iacoviello, Luca Susmel, Donato Firrao, Giuseppe Ferro, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 2, p. 589-596p. 589-596Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation of metal hydrides is a serious complication that occur when hydride forming metals such as zirconium, niobium, vanadium and magnesium are exposed to long term hydrogen environment. The main concern is that the hydride, as being a brittle material, has very poor fracture mechanical properties. Formation of hydride is associated with transportation of hydrogen along the gradients of increasing hydrostatic stress, which leads to crack tips and other stress concentrators, where it forms the hydride. In the present study the thermodynamics of the evolving hydrides is studied. The process is driven by the release of free strain, chemical, and gradient energies. A phase field model is used to capture the driving forces that the release of the free energy causes. The study gives the conditions that lead to hydride advancement versus retreat and under which conditions the metal-hydride interface becomes unstable and develops a waviness. The spatial frequency spectrum leading to instability is found to depend on the ratio of the elastic strain energy density and parameters related to the interface energy.

  • Linde, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.
    BTH Newsletter on Science Publishing and Open Access Issues: September 20182018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Abghari, Shahrooz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Ericsson AB.
    Shaikh, Junaid
    Ericsson AB.
    Outlier Detection for Video Session Data Using Sequential Pattern Mining2018In: ACM SIGKDD Workshop On Outlier Detection De-constructed, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of Internet video and over-the-top transmission techniqueshas enabled online video service providers to deliver highquality video content to viewers. To maintain and improve thequality of experience, video providers need to detect unexpectedissues that can highly affect the viewers’ experience. This requiresanalyzing massive amounts of video session data in order to findunexpected sequences of events. In this paper we combine sequentialpattern mining and clustering to discover such event sequences.The proposed approach applies sequential pattern mining to findfrequent patterns by considering contextual and collective outliers.In order to distinguish between the normal and abnormal behaviorof the system, we initially identify the most frequent patterns. Thena clustering algorithm is applied on the most frequent patterns.The generated clustering model together with Silhouette Index areused for further analysis of less frequent patterns and detectionof potential outliers. Our results show that the proposed approachcan detect outliers at the system level.

  • Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Lappi, Emma
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, SWE.
    Product regulations and persistence of profits: OECD evidence2018In: Journal of Regulatory Economics, ISSN 0922-680X, E-ISSN 1573-0468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In competitive markets, profits deviating from the norm will not persist for extended periods. If unimpeded, entry and exit of firms should restore profits to competitive levels. This dynamic process is influenced by regulations that temporarily or permanently impede competition. We study how product market regulations (PMR)—as measured by the OECD—affect competition by their impact on the profit persistence (Wölfl et al. in Ten years of product market reform in OECD countries-insights from a revised PMR indicator, 2009, Product market regulation: extending the analysis beyond OECD countries, 2010). To examine profit dynamics, we follow the methodology developed by Mueller (Economica 44(176):369–380, 1977), which measures both the short run persistence of profits and the long run permanent rents. The method can be used to measure: (1) short run transitory rents; (2) long run permanent rents. To this end we use firm level data from 30 OECD countries over the period 1998–2013. Results show that PMR increase the permanent rents of firms but we find no significant effect on short run profit persistence. We conclude that PMR negatively influence competition and increase permanent rents, resulting in misallocation of resources. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • Jerčić, Petar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sennersten, Charlotte
    CSIRO Mineral Resources, AUS.
    Lindley, Craig
    Intelligent Sensing and Systems Laboratory, CSIRO ICT Centre, AUS .
    Modeling cognitive load and physiological arousal through pupil diameter and heart rate2018In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates individuals’ cognitive load processing abilities while engaged on a decision-making task in serious games, to explore how a substantial cognitive load dominates over the physiological arousal effect on pupil diameter. A serious game was presented to the participants, which displayed the on–line biofeedback based on physiological measurements of arousal. In such dynamic decision-making environment, the pupil diameter was analyzed in relation to the heart rate, to evaluate if the former could be a useful measure of cognitive abilities of individuals. As pupil might reflect both cognitive activity and physiological arousal, the pupillary response will show an arousal effect only when the cognitive demands of the situation are minimal. Evidence shows that in a situation where a substantial level of cognitive activity is required, only that activity will be observable on the pupil diameter, dominating over the physiological arousal effect indicated by the pupillary response. It is suggested that it might be possible to design serious games tailored to the cognitive abilities of an individual player, using the proposed physiological measurements to observe the moment when such dominance occurs. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • Wilson, Magnus
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Silvander, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Literature Review on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Business Modeling2018In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 265-302Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Achieving and maintaining a strategic competitive advantage through business and technology innovation via continually improving effectiveness and efficiency of the operations are the critical survival factors for software-intensive product development companies. These companies invest in business modeling and tool support for integrating business models into their product development, but remain uncertain, if such investments generate desired results. Aim: This study explores the effects of business modeling on effectiveness and efficiency for companies developing software-intensive products. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review using the snowballing methodology, followed by thematic and narrative analysis. 57 papers were selected for analysis and synthesis, after screening 16 320 papers from multiple research fields. Results: We analyzed the literature based on purpose, benefit, challenge, effectiveness, and efficiency with software and software-intensive products as the unit of analysis. The alignment between strategy and execution is the primary challenge, and we found no evidence that business modeling increases effectiveness and efficiency for a company. Any outcome variations may simply be a result of fluctuating contextual or environmental factors rather than the application of a specific business modeling method. Therefore, we argue that governance is the fundamental challenge needed for business modeling, as it must efficiently support simultaneous experimentation with products and business models while turning experiences into knowledge. Conclusion: We propose a conceptual governance model for exploring the effectiveness and efficiency of business modeling to occupy the missing link between business strategy, processes and software tools. We also recommend managers to introduce a systematic approach for experimentation and organizational learning, collaboration, and value co-creation.

  • Demirsoy, Ali
    et al.
    Borsa Istanbul, TUR.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Semantic Knowledge Management System to Support Software Engineers: Implementation and Static Evaluation through Interviews at Ericsson2018In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 237-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In large-scale corporations in the software engineering context information overload problems occur as stakeholders continuously produce useful information on process life-cycle issues, matters related to specific products under development, etc. Information overload makes finding relevant information (e.g., how did the company apply the requirements process for product X?) challenging, which is in the primary focus of this paper. Contribution: In this study the authors aimed at evaluating the ease of implementing a semantic knowledge management system at Ericsson, including the essential components of such systems (such as text processing, ontologies, semantic annotation and semantic search). Thereafter, feedback on the usefulness of the system was collected from practitioners. Method: A single case study was conducted at a development site of Ericsson AB in Sweden. Results: It was found that semantic knowledge management systems are challenging to implement, this refers in particular to the implementation and integration of ontologies. Specific ontologies for structuring and filtering are essential, such as domain ontologies and ontologies distinct to the organization. Conclusion: To be readily adopted and transferable to practice, desired ontologies need to be implemented and integrated into semantic knowledge management frameworks with ease, given that the desired ontologies are dependent on organizations and domains.

  • Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Shrinking and scaffolding: supporting behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To start to include sustainability in a design project is a transition. This transition requires change in how people do things, that is, behaviour change, and it takes place in the midst of the usual pressures of product design. Prior research on sustainable design has mostly explored the so-called technical side – identifying what tasks should be performed, such as specifics of including sustainability criteria when analysing product concepts. Recent studies have advocated the consideration of the human nature of the people who are to implement these ‘technical’ tasks, to undergo and drive the transition.

    We therefore embarked on an action research project to support behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design in the individual members of design project teams. Our action research partner was a design consultancy who wanted to begin working with sustainable design. Our research question was: How might the partner organisation support individual behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design?

    Firstly, we identified some barriers to behaviour change; these barriers were related to motivation, capability and opportunity to apply sustainable design. Secondly, to investigate how to address the barriers and support individual behaviour change, we integrated concepts on behaviour change, motivation, learning for sustainability and climate communication to form a conceptual system (a theoretical model). In parallel, we undertook a participatory action research project with the consultancy, where we iteratively and collaboratively employed our model to develop ideas for specific actions that the organisation could take. We also tried out some of these actions and observed the outcomes.

    We learnt that it is important to not just define what ‘technical’ tasks project teams should ideally perform, but to also scaffold the journey as a series of simpler steps. Shrinking the ‘technical’ tasks into meaningful steps that are within reach helps individuals to feel confident and competent, which in turn leads to increased intrinsic motivation and behaviour change. Progressively achieving small steps aligned with their values reduces the risk of dissonance and denial, and therefore increases the potential for action.

    In this article, we present our model and our learnings.

  • Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Sustainable product development and tricks on the mind: Formulating conceptual models of cognitive illusions and mitigating actions2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to visual illusions playing tricks on your eyes, cognitive illusions cause you to misjudge reality and therefore potentially make biased decisions. You are especially vulnerable when starting to introduce sustainability into concept development decision-making since this setting offers unfamiliarity, and complexity. Given a shortage of theories regarding which cognitive illusions product developers are susceptible to, we formulated a conceptual model. This model is based on the decision-making tasks that product developers undertake when they are developing concepts and the conditions that they experience when integrating sustainability into this decision-making. From decision-making literature, we identified the following cognitive illusions as occurring when undertaking those tasks under those conditions: availability, anchoring and confirmation bias when generating ideas; illusory correlation and validity effect when selecting between ideas; evaluability bias and status quo bias when gate reviewing. Based on the model, we synthesised literature on how to mitigate for the identified illusions and organised this synthesis according to when (during which task type) a product developer should perform the mitigating actions. These mitigating actions vary according to task type and focus on the quality of the decision-making process.

  • Sundelin, Anders
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Test-Driving FinTech Product Development: An Experience Report2018In: Conference Proceedings PROFES 2018, Springer, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present experiences from eight years of developing a financial transaction engine, using what can be described as an integration-test-centric software development process.We discuss the product and the relation between three different categories of its software and how the relative weight of these artifacts has varied over the years.In addition to the presentation, some challenges and future research directions are discussed.

  • Rakus-Andersson, Elisabeth
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Fuzzy decision-making model with qualitative states and fuzzified outcomes2018In: Proceedia Computer Science: Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information & Engineering Systems: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference, KES-2018 / [ed] Robert J. Howlett, Carlos Toro, Yulia Hicks, Lakhmi C. Jain, Elsevier, 2018, p. 2030-2039, article id k18is-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical fuzzy decision-making model is now tested for qualitative compound states-symptoms to select the most efficacious medicine, acting on all symptoms. Instead of terminating the decision procedure in the way comparing values of total utilities of decisions-treatments, we test the aggregated utility values in utility levels. This activity lets us assign a verbally verified utility to each medicine.

  • Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    PSS cost engineering: A model-based approach for concept design2018In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies are increasingly moving toward delivering combinations of products and services to provide higher value to their customers. The development of such Product Service Systems (PSS) escalates in complexity when several products developed by different suppliers need to be integrated into a unique system. For first tier suppliers, it is a great challenge to model and simulate the impact of changing design variables at the micro-level on both hardware properties and governing behaviours of services over the entire life-cycle of the PSS. The paper describes a model-based approach developed to estimate the life cycle cost of a PSS hardware already at a concept design stage.  The proposed approach computes the relative cost efficiency of a set of design variants using as input the data generated by the simulations run in the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. The approach allows the exploration of the design space of a PSS given by the variation of the geometry of a Computer Aided Design (CAD) model, building on the computation of customised cost modules selected by a generic list of PSS cost dimensions. For each evaluated design case, the model produces as output a unique monetary figure of the cost expected to incur by owning or using the asset throughout the lifetime. The work has been conducted in collaboration with a tier-one aerospace component manufacturer, and the application of the model is exemplified through a case study related to the development of a turbine rear structure (TRS) for commercial jet engines. The approach is most suitable for the development of complex systems in which new products and components are integrated into a shared product platform. The results are discussed in relation to the current literature on PSS cost engineering, highlighting challenges to be addressed to increase cost estimation accuracy and increase uncertainty identification and awareness.

  • Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Most Influential Qualities in Creating Satisfaction Among the Users of Health Information Systems: A Study in Seven EU Countries2018In: JMIR Medical InformaticsArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Several models suggest how the qualities of a product or service influence user satisfaction. Models, such as the Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and Delone and McLean Information Systems Success (D&M IS), demonstrate those relations and have been used in the context of health information systems.

    Objective:

    We want to investigate which qualities foster greater satisfaction among patient and professional users. In addition, we are interested in knowing to what extent improvement in those qualities can explain user satisfaction and if this makes user satisfaction a proxy indicator of those qualities.

    Methods:

    The Unified eValuation using ONtology (UVON) method was utilised to construct an ontology of the required qualities for seven e-health applications being developed in the FI-STAR project, a European Union (EU) project in e-health. The e-health applications were deployed across seven EU countries. The ontology included and unified the required qualities of those systems together with the aspects suggested by the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine applications (MAST) evaluation framework. Two similar questionnaires, for 87 patient users and 31 health professional users, were elicited from the ontology. In the questionnaires, user was asked if the system has improved the specified qualities and if the user was satisfied with the system. The results were analysed using Kendall correlation coefficients matrices, incorporating the quality and satisfaction aspects. For the next step, two Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) path models were developed using the quality and satisfaction measure variables and the latent construct variables that were suggested by the UVON method.

    Results:

    Most of the quality aspects grouped by the UVON method are highly correlated. Strong correlations in each group suggest that the grouped qualities can be measures which reflect a latent quality construct. The PLS-SEM path analysis for the patients reveals that the effectiveness, safety, and efficiency of treatment provided by the system are the most influential qualities in achieving and predicting user satisfaction. For the professional users, effectiveness and affordability are the most influential. The parameters of the PLS-SEM that are calculated allow for the measurement of a user satisfaction index similar to CSI for similar health information systems.

    Conclusions:

    For both patients and professionals, the effectiveness of systems highly contributes to their satisfaction. Patients care about improvements in safety and efficiency, while professionals care about improvements in the affordability of treatments with health information systems. User satisfaction is reflected more in the users' evaluation of system output and fulfilment of expectations, but slightly less in how far the system is from ideal. Investigating satisfaction scores can be a simple, fast way to infer if the system has improved the abovementioned qualities in treatment and care.