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Wohlin, Claes
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 166) Show all publications
Badampudi, D., Wnuk, K., Wohlin, C., Franke, U., Šmite, D. & Cicchetti, A. (2018). A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components. Journal of Systems and Software, 135, 88-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2018
Keywords
Case study, Component-based software engineering, Decision-making, Competition, Concrete pavements, Open source software, Software engineering, Competitive advantage, Decision makers, Decision making process, Open sources, Selection of software, Software assets, Specific ordering, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15512 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2017.09.033 (DOI)2-s2.0-85032856583 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Falessi, D., Juristo, N., Wohlin, C., Turhan, B., Münch, J., Jedlitschka, A. & Oivo, M. (2018). Empirical software engineering experts on the use of students and professionals in experiments. Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, 23(1), 452-489
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical software engineering experts on the use of students and professionals in experiments
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 452-489Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

[Context] Controlled experiments are an important empirical method to generate and validate theories. Many software engineering experiments are conducted with students. It is often claimed that the use of students as participants in experiments comes at the cost of low external validity while using professionals does not. [Objective] We believe a deeper understanding is needed on the external validity of software engineering experiments conducted with students or with professionals. We aim to gain insight about the pros and cons of using students and professionals in experiments. [Method] We performed an unconventional, focus group approach and a follow-up survey. First, during a session at ISERN 2014, 65 empirical researchers, including the seven authors, argued and discussed the use of students in experiments with an open mind. Afterwards, we revisited the topic and elicited experts’ opinions to foster discussions. Then we derived 14 statements and asked the ISERN attendees excluding the authors, to provide their level of agreement with the statements. Finally, we analyzed the researchers’ opinions and used the findings to further discuss the statements. [Results] Our survey results showed that, in general, the respondents disagreed with us about the drawbacks of professionals. We, on the contrary, strongly believe that no population (students, professionals, or others) can be deemed better than another in absolute terms. [Conclusion] Using students as participants remains a valid simplification of reality needed in laboratory contexts. It is an effective way to advance software engineering theories and technologies but, like any other aspect of study settings, should be carefully considered during the design, execution, interpretation, and reporting of an experiment. The key is to understand which developer population portion is being represented by the participants in an experiment. Thus, a proposal for describing experimental participants is put forward.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2018
Keywords
Experimentation, Generalization, Participants in experiments, Subjects of experiments, Threats to validity, Education, Software engineering, Surveys, Controlled experiment, Empirical Software Engineering, External validities, Software engineering experiments, Software engineering theories, Students
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-14840 (URN)10.1007/s10664-017-9523-3 (DOI)000424199400012 ()2-s2.0-85020375670 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-03 Created: 2017-07-03 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Mourao, E., Kalinowski, M., Murta, L., Mendes, E. & Wohlin, C. (2017). Investigating the Use of a Hybrid Search Strategy for Systematic Reviews. In: 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2017): . Paper presented at 11th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM), Toronto (pp. 193-198). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the Use of a Hybrid Search Strategy for Systematic Reviews
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2017 (English)In: 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2017), IEEE , 2017, p. 193-198Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

[Background] Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs) are one of the important pillars when employing an evidence-based paradigm in Software Engineering. To date most SLRs have been conducted using a search strategy involving several digital libraries. However, significant issues have been reported for digital libraries and applying such search strategy requires substantial effort. On the other hand, snowballing has recently arisen as a potentially more efficient alternative or complementary solution. Nevertheless, it requires a relevant seed set of papers. [Aims] This paper proposes and evaluates a hybrid search strategy combining searching in a specific digital library (Scopus) with backward and forward snowballing. [Method] The proposed hybrid strategy was applied to two previously published SLRs that adopted database searches. We investigate whether it is able to retrieve the same included papers with lower effort in terms of the number of analysed papers. The two selected SLRs relate respectively to elicitation techniques (not confined to Software Engineering (SE)) and to a specific SE topic on cost estimation. [Results] Our results provide preliminary support for the proposed hybrid search strategy as being suitable for SLRs investigating a specific research topic within the SE domain. Furthermore, it helps overcoming existing issues with using digital libraries in SE. [Conclusions] The hybrid search strategy provides competitive results, similar to using several digital libraries. However, further investigation is needed to evaluate the hybrid search strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ISSN 1938-6451
Keywords
systematic review, search strategy, hybrid strategy, snowballing
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15980 (URN)10.1109/ESEM.2017.30 (DOI)000425929000023 ()978-1-5090-4039-1 (ISBN)
Conference
11th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM), Toronto
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Moe, N. B., Šablis, A. & Wohlin, C. (2017). Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development. Information and Software Technology, 86(JUN), 71-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development
2017 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, no JUN, p. 71-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Agile, Case study, Cross-functional, Empirical, Feature teams, Intellectual capital, Knowledge networks, Large-scale software development, Social capital, Teams, Complex networks, Human resource management, Investments, Knowledge management, Personnel training, Software engineering, Surveys, Social capitals, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13929 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2017.01.003 (DOI)000399855200005 ()2-s2.0-85010957499 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Jabangwe, R., Wohlin, C., Petersen, K., Šmite, D. & Börstler, J. (2016). A method for investigating the quality of evolving object-oriented software using defects in global software development projects. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 28(8), 622-641
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for investigating the quality of evolving object-oriented software using defects in global software development projects
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 622-641Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Global software development (GSD) projects can have distributed teams that work independently in different locations or team members that are dispersed. The various development settings in GSD can influence quality during product evolution. When evaluating quality using defects as a proxy, the development settings have to be taken into consideration. Objective: The aim is to provide a systematic method for supporting investigations of the implication of GSD contexts on defect data as a proxy for quality. Method: A method engineering approach was used to incrementally develop the proposed method. This was done through applying the method in multiple industrial contexts and then using lessons learned to refine and improve the method after application. Results: A measurement instrument and visualization was proposed incorporating an understanding of the release history and understanding of GSD contexts. Conclusion: The method can help with making accurate inferences about development settings because it includes details on collecting and aggregating data at a level that matches the development setting in a GSD context and involves practitioners at various phases of the investigation. Finally, the information that is produced from following the method can help practitioners make informed decisions when planning to develop software in comparable circumstances. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
Computer software selection and evaluation; Copyrights; Defects; Software design, Defect analysis; Distributed software development; Global software development; Object oriented software; Software Evolution; Software Quality, Object oriented programming
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-12980 (URN)10.1002/smr.1788 (DOI)000388301300001 ()2-s2.0-84981275207 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Britto, R., Mendes, E. & Wohlin, C. (2016). A Specialized Global Software Engineering Taxonomy for Effort Estimation. In: International Conference on Global Software Engineering: . Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE),Irvine, Orange county, US (pp. 154-163). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Specialized Global Software Engineering Taxonomy for Effort Estimation
2016 (English)In: International Conference on Global Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 154-163Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by Global Software Engineering (GSE) researchers and practitioners, the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification scheme has been identified, and as a consequence, a taxonomy and an extension were proposed. In addition, one systematic literature review and a survey on respectively the state of the art and practice of effort estimation in GSE were conducted, showing that despite its importance in practice, the GSE effort estimation literature is rare and reported in an ad-hoc way. Therefore, this paper proposes a specialized GSE taxonomy for effort estimation, which was built on the recently proposed general GSE taxonomy (including the extension) and was also based on the findings from two empirical studies and expert knowledge. The specialized taxonomy was validated using data from eight finished GSE projects. Our effort estimation taxonomy for GSE can help both researchers and practitioners by supporting the reporting of new GSE effort estimation studies, i.e. new studies are to be easier to identify, compare, aggregate and synthesize. Further, it can also help practitioners by providing them with an initial set of factors that can be considered when estimating effort for GSE projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2016
Series
International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ISSN 2329-6313
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13454 (URN)10.1109/ICGSE.2016.11 (DOI)000387142700022 ()978-1-5090-2680-7 (ISBN)
Conference
11th International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE),Irvine, Orange county, US
Projects
TEDD
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Britto, R., Wohlin, C. & Mendes, E. (2016). An Extended Global Software Engineering Taxonomy. Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development, 4(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Extended Global Software Engineering Taxonomy
2016 (English)In: Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development, ISSN 2195-1721, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Global Software Engineering (GSE), the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification has been identified to facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by GSE researchers and practitioners. A GSE taxonomy was recently proposed to address such a need, focusing on a core set of dimensions; however its dimensions do not represent an exhaustive list of relevant GSE factors. Therefore, this study extends the existing taxonomy, incorporating new GSE dimensions that were identified by means of two empirical studies conducted recently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13453 (URN)10.1186/s40411-016-0029-2 (DOI)
Projects
TEDD
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Note

Open access

Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D. & Wohlin, C. (2016). Bayesian Synthesis for Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering: Method and Illustration. In: 2016 42th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA): . Paper presented at Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), Limassol, CYPRUS. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bayesian Synthesis for Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering: Method and Illustration
2016 (English)In: 2016 42th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), IEEE, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Systematic literature reviews in software engineering are necessary to synthesize evidence from multiple studies to provide knowledge and decision support. However, synthesis methods are underutilized in software engineering research. Moreover, translation of synthesized data (outcomes of a systematic review) to provide recommendations for practitioners is seldom practiced. The objective of this paper is to introduce the use of Bayesian synthesis in software engineering research, in particular to translate research evidence into practice by providing the possibility to combine contextualized expert opinions with research evidence. We adopted the Bayesian synthesis method from health research and customized it to be used in software engineering research. The proposed method is described and illustrated using an example from the literature. Bayesian synthesis provides a systematic approach to incorporate subjective opinions in the synthesis process thereby making the synthesis results more suitable to the context in which they will be applied. Thereby, facilitating the interpretation and translation of knowledge to action/application. None of the synthesis methods used in software engineering allows for the integration of subjective opinions, hence using Bayesian synthesis can add a new dimension to the synthesis process in software engineering research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
Series
2016 42th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), ISSN 2376-9505
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11771 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2016.45 (DOI)000386649000024 ()978-1-5090-2819-1 (ISBN)
Conference
Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), Limassol, CYPRUS
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-20Bibliographically approved
Wohlin, C. (2016). Is there a Future for Empirical Software Engineering?. In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement: . Paper presented at 10th International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement(ESEM),Ciudad Real, Spain. ACM/IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is there a Future for Empirical Software Engineering?
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM/IEEE , 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM/IEEE, 2016
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13455 (URN)
Conference
10th International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement(ESEM),Ciudad Real, Spain
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Wohlin, C. (2016). Second-generation systematic literature studies using snowballing. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 20th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2016; Limerick. ACM Press, 01-03-June-2016
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Second-generation systematic literature studies using snowballing
2016 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, ACM Press, 2016, Vol. 01-03-June-2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Systematic literature studies have become standard practice in software engineering to synthesize evidence in different areas of the discipline. As more such studies are published, there is also a need to extend previously published systematic literature studies to cover new research papers. These first extensions become second-generation systematic literature studies. It has been asserted that snowballing would be a suitable search strategy for these types of second-generation studies, since newer studies ought to refer to previous research on a topic, and in particular to systematic literature studies published in an area. This paper compares using a snowballing search strategy with a published second-generation study using a database search strategy in the area of cross-company vs. within-company effort estimation. It is concluded that the approaches are comparable when it comes to which papers they find, although the snowballing approach is more efficient in this particular case. Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2016
Keywords
Publishing; Search engines, Database searches; Effort Estimation; Empirical research method; Literature studies; Search strategies; Snowballing; Standard practices; Systematic literature review, Software engineering
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13120 (URN)10.1145/2915970.2916006 (DOI)2-s2.0-84978516310 (Scopus ID)978-145033691-8 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2016; Limerick
Note

Conference of 20th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2016 ; Conference Date: 1 June 2016 Through 3 June 2016; Conference Code:122245

Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2016-11-08Bibliographically approved
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