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Wohlin, Claes
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Mourão, E., Pimentel, J. F., Murta, L. G., Kalinowski, M., Mendes, E. & Wohlin, C. (2020). On the performance of hybrid search strategies for systematic literature reviews in software engineering. Information and Software Technology, 123, Article ID 106294.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the performance of hybrid search strategies for systematic literature reviews in software engineering
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2020 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 123, article id 106294Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: When conducting a Systematic Literature Review (SLR), researchers usually face the challenge of designing a search strategy that appropriately balances result quality and review effort. Using digital library (or database) searches or snowballing alone may not be enough to achieve high-quality results. On the other hand, using both digital library searches and snowballing together may increase the overall review effort. Objective: The goal of this research is to propose and evaluate hybrid search strategies that selectively combine database searches with snowballing. Method: We propose four hybrid search strategies combining database searches in digital libraries with iterative, parallel, or sequential backward and forward snowballing. We simulated the strategies over three existing SLRs in SE that adopted both database searches and snowballing. We compared the outcome of digital library searches, snowballing, and hybrid strategies using precision, recall, and F-measure to investigate the performance of each strategy. Results: Our results show that, for the analyzed SLRs, combining database searches from the Scopus digital library with parallel or sequential snowballing achieved the most appropriate balance of precision and recall. Conclusion: We put forward that, depending on the goals of the SLR and the available resources, using a hybrid search strategy involving a representative digital library and parallel or sequential snowballing tends to represent an appropriate alternative to be used when searching for evidence in SLRs. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2020
Keywords
Database Search, Search Strategy, Snowballing, Software Engineering, Systematic literature review, Database systems, Information retrieval, Iterative methods, Search engines, Software quality, Database searches, Hybrid search strategies, Hybrid strategies, Precision and recall, Search strategies, Systematic literature review (SLR), Digital libraries
National Category
Software Engineering Information Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-19405 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2020.106294 (DOI)000530651200011 ()2-s2.0-85082688364 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-28Bibliographically approved
Mendes, E., Wohlin, C., Felizardo, K. & Kalinowski, M. (2020). When to update systematic literature reviews in software engineering. Journal of Systems and Software, 167, Article ID 110607.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When to update systematic literature reviews in software engineering
2020 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 167, article id 110607Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

[Context] Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs) have been adopted by the Software Engineering (SE) community for approximately 15 years to provide meaningful summaries of evidence on several topics. Many of these SLRs are now potentially outdated, and there are no systematic proposals on when to update SLRs in SE. [Objective] The goal of this paper is to provide recommendations on when to update SLRs in SE. [Method] We evaluated, using a three-step approach, a third-party decision framework (3PDF) employed in other fields, to decide whether SLRs need updating. First, we conducted a literature review of SLR updates in SE and contacted the authors to obtain their feedback relating to the usefulness of the 3PDF within the context of SLR updates in SE. Second, we used these authors’ feedback to see whether the framework needed any adaptation; none was suggested. Third, we applied the 3PDF to the SLR updates identified in our literature review. [Results] The 3PDF showed that 14 of the 20 SLRs did not need updating. This supports the use of a decision support mechanism (such as the 3PDF) to help the SE community decide when to update SLRs. [Conclusions] We put forward that the 3PDF should be adopted by the SE community to keep relevant evidence up to date and to avoid wasting effort with unnecessary updates. © 2020

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2020
Keywords
Software engineering, Systematic literature review update, Systematic literature reviews, Decision support systems, Decision framework, Decision supports, Literature reviews, Systematic literature review, Third parties, Three-step approach
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-19525 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2020.110607 (DOI)2-s2.0-85084732557 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-05-29 Created: 2020-05-29 Last updated: 2020-05-29Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Wohlin, C. & Gorschek, T. (2019). An Evaluation of Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering. In: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement: . Paper presented at 13th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM, Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, 19 September through 20 September. IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evaluation of Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering
2019 (English)In: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, IEEE Computer Society , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Knowledge translation is defined, in health sciences, as 'the exchange, synthesis and ethically sound application of research results in practice'. The objective of this paper is to implement and conduct a feasibility evaluation of a knowledge translation framework in software engineering. We evaluated the outcome of the knowledge translation framework in an industrial setting, along with the effectiveness of the interventions undertaken as part of knowledge translation in a multi-case study. The results of the evaluation suggest that the practitioners perceive the knowledge translation framework to be valuable and useful. In conclusion, this paper contributes towards the reporting of a systematic implementation of knowledge translation and evaluating its use in software engineering. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2019
Keywords
Knowledge translation, systematic literature reviews, technology transfer, Software engineering, Evaluation of knowledge, Health science, Industrial settings, Research results, Systematic literature review, Knowledge management
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18923 (URN)10.1109/ESEM.2019.8870165 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074267675 (Scopus ID)9781728129686 (ISBN)
Conference
13th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM, Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, 19 September through 20 September
Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Wohlin, C. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Contextualizing research evidence through knowledge translation in software engineering. In: PROCEEDINGS OF EASE 2019 - EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING: . Paper presented at 23rd Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering Conference, EASE Copenhagen, 14 April 2019 through 17 April 2019 (pp. 306-311). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contextualizing research evidence through knowledge translation in software engineering
2019 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF EASE 2019 - EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 306-311Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Usage of software engineering research in industrial practice is a well-known challenge. Synthesis of knowledge from multiple research studies is needed to provide evidence-based decision-support for industry. The objective of this paper is to present a vision of how a knowledge translation framework may look like in software engineering research, in particular how to translate research evidence into practice by combining contextualized expert opinions with research evidence. We adopted the framework of knowledge translation from health care research, adapted and combined it with a Bayesian synthesis method. The framework provided in this paper includes a description of each step of knowledge translation in software engineering. Knowledge translation using Bayesian synthesis intends to provide a systematic approach towards contextualized, collaborative and consensus-driven application of research results. In conclusion, this paper contributes towards the application of knowledge translation in software engineering through the presented framework. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2019
Keywords
Bayesian synthesis, Decision-making, Knowledge translation, Application programs, Decision making, Decision support systems, Industrial research, Bayesian, Evidence- based decisions, Expert opinion, Industrial practices, Multiple research, Research results, Synthesis method, Engineering research
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17891 (URN)10.1145/3319008.3319358 (DOI)000493383400032 ()2-s2.0-85064754769 (Scopus ID)9781450371452 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering Conference, EASE Copenhagen, 14 April 2019 through 17 April 2019
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Mendes, E., Felizardo, K., Wohlin, C. & Kalinowski, M. (2019). Search Strategy to Update Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering. In: Proceedings - 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2019: . Paper presented at 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA, Kallithea, Chalkidiki; Greece, 28 August 2019 through 30 August 2019 (pp. 355-362). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Search Strategy to Update Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 355-362Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

[Context] Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs) have been adopted within the Software Engineering (SE) domain for more than a decade to provide meaningful summaries of evidence on several topics. Many of these SLRs are now outdated, and there are no standard proposals on how to update SLRs in SE. [Objective] The goal of this paper is to provide recommendations on how to best to search for evidence when updating SLRs in SE. [Method] To achieve our goal, we compare and discuss outcomes from applying different search strategies to identifying primary studies in a previously published SLR update on effort estimation. [Results] The use of a single iteration forward snowballing with Google Scholar, and employing the original SLR and its primary studies as a seed set seems to be the most cost-effective way to search for new evidence when updating SLRs. [Conclusions] The recommendations can be used to support decisions on how to update SLRs in SE. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Searching for evidence!, Snowballing, Software Engineering, Systematic Literature Review Update, Systematic Literature Reviews, Cost effectiveness, Iterative methods, Cost effective, Effort Estimation, Google scholar, Search strategies, Searching for evidence, Seed set, Systematic literature review, Application programs
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-19050 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2019.00061 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076019859 (Scopus ID)9781728132853 (ISBN)
Conference
45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA, Kallithea, Chalkidiki; Greece, 28 August 2019 through 30 August 2019
Available from: 2019-12-27 Created: 2019-12-27 Last updated: 2019-12-27Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Wnuk, K., Wohlin, C., Franke, U., Šmite, D. & Cicchetti, A. (2018). A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components. Journal of Systems and Software, 135, 88-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2018
Keywords
Case study, Component-based software engineering, Decision-making, Competition, Concrete pavements, Open source software, Software engineering, Competitive advantage, Decision makers, Decision making process, Open sources, Selection of software, Software assets, Specific ordering, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15512 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2017.09.033 (DOI)000418308800006 ()2-s2.0-85032856583 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Falessi, D., Juristo, N., Wohlin, C., Turhan, B., Münch, J., Jedlitschka, A. & Oivo, M. (2018). Empirical software engineering experts on the use of students and professionals in experiments. Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, 23(1), 452-489
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empirical software engineering experts on the use of students and professionals in experiments
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 452-489Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

[Context] Controlled experiments are an important empirical method to generate and validate theories. Many software engineering experiments are conducted with students. It is often claimed that the use of students as participants in experiments comes at the cost of low external validity while using professionals does not. [Objective] We believe a deeper understanding is needed on the external validity of software engineering experiments conducted with students or with professionals. We aim to gain insight about the pros and cons of using students and professionals in experiments. [Method] We performed an unconventional, focus group approach and a follow-up survey. First, during a session at ISERN 2014, 65 empirical researchers, including the seven authors, argued and discussed the use of students in experiments with an open mind. Afterwards, we revisited the topic and elicited experts’ opinions to foster discussions. Then we derived 14 statements and asked the ISERN attendees excluding the authors, to provide their level of agreement with the statements. Finally, we analyzed the researchers’ opinions and used the findings to further discuss the statements. [Results] Our survey results showed that, in general, the respondents disagreed with us about the drawbacks of professionals. We, on the contrary, strongly believe that no population (students, professionals, or others) can be deemed better than another in absolute terms. [Conclusion] Using students as participants remains a valid simplification of reality needed in laboratory contexts. It is an effective way to advance software engineering theories and technologies but, like any other aspect of study settings, should be carefully considered during the design, execution, interpretation, and reporting of an experiment. The key is to understand which developer population portion is being represented by the participants in an experiment. Thus, a proposal for describing experimental participants is put forward.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2018
Keywords
Experimentation, Generalization, Participants in experiments, Subjects of experiments, Threats to validity, Education, Software engineering, Surveys, Controlled experiment, Empirical Software Engineering, External validities, Software engineering experiments, Software engineering theories, Students
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-14840 (URN)10.1007/s10664-017-9523-3 (DOI)000424199400012 ()2-s2.0-85020375670 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-07-03 Created: 2017-07-03 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Mourao, E., Kalinowski, M., Murta, L., Mendes, E. & Wohlin, C. (2017). Investigating the Use of a Hybrid Search Strategy for Systematic Reviews. In: 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2017): . Paper presented at 11th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM), Toronto (pp. 193-198). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the Use of a Hybrid Search Strategy for Systematic Reviews
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2017 (English)In: 11TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2017), IEEE , 2017, p. 193-198Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

[Background] Systematic Literature Reviews (SLRs) are one of the important pillars when employing an evidence-based paradigm in Software Engineering. To date most SLRs have been conducted using a search strategy involving several digital libraries. However, significant issues have been reported for digital libraries and applying such search strategy requires substantial effort. On the other hand, snowballing has recently arisen as a potentially more efficient alternative or complementary solution. Nevertheless, it requires a relevant seed set of papers. [Aims] This paper proposes and evaluates a hybrid search strategy combining searching in a specific digital library (Scopus) with backward and forward snowballing. [Method] The proposed hybrid strategy was applied to two previously published SLRs that adopted database searches. We investigate whether it is able to retrieve the same included papers with lower effort in terms of the number of analysed papers. The two selected SLRs relate respectively to elicitation techniques (not confined to Software Engineering (SE)) and to a specific SE topic on cost estimation. [Results] Our results provide preliminary support for the proposed hybrid search strategy as being suitable for SLRs investigating a specific research topic within the SE domain. Furthermore, it helps overcoming existing issues with using digital libraries in SE. [Conclusions] The hybrid search strategy provides competitive results, similar to using several digital libraries. However, further investigation is needed to evaluate the hybrid search strategy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ISSN 1938-6451
Keywords
systematic review, search strategy, hybrid strategy, snowballing
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15980 (URN)10.1109/ESEM.2017.30 (DOI)000425929000023 ()978-1-5090-4039-1 (ISBN)
Conference
11th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM), Toronto
Available from: 2018-03-23 Created: 2018-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-26Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Moe, N. B., Šablis, A. & Wohlin, C. (2017). Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development. Information and Software Technology, 86(JUN), 71-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development
2017 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, no JUN, p. 71-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Agile, Case study, Cross-functional, Empirical, Feature teams, Intellectual capital, Knowledge networks, Large-scale software development, Social capital, Teams, Complex networks, Human resource management, Investments, Knowledge management, Personnel training, Software engineering, Surveys, Social capitals, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13929 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2017.01.003 (DOI)000399855200005 ()2-s2.0-85010957499 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Jabangwe, R., Wohlin, C., Petersen, K., Šmite, D. & Börstler, J. (2016). A method for investigating the quality of evolving object-oriented software using defects in global software development projects. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 28(8), 622-641
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for investigating the quality of evolving object-oriented software using defects in global software development projects
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 622-641Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Global software development (GSD) projects can have distributed teams that work independently in different locations or team members that are dispersed. The various development settings in GSD can influence quality during product evolution. When evaluating quality using defects as a proxy, the development settings have to be taken into consideration. Objective: The aim is to provide a systematic method for supporting investigations of the implication of GSD contexts on defect data as a proxy for quality. Method: A method engineering approach was used to incrementally develop the proposed method. This was done through applying the method in multiple industrial contexts and then using lessons learned to refine and improve the method after application. Results: A measurement instrument and visualization was proposed incorporating an understanding of the release history and understanding of GSD contexts. Conclusion: The method can help with making accurate inferences about development settings because it includes details on collecting and aggregating data at a level that matches the development setting in a GSD context and involves practitioners at various phases of the investigation. Finally, the information that is produced from following the method can help practitioners make informed decisions when planning to develop software in comparable circumstances. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
Computer software selection and evaluation; Copyrights; Defects; Software design, Defect analysis; Distributed software development; Global software development; Object oriented software; Software Evolution; Software Quality, Object oriented programming
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-12980 (URN)10.1002/smr.1788 (DOI)000388301300001 ()2-s2.0-84981275207 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
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