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Šmite, Darja
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Publications (10 of 58) Show all publications
Šāblis, A., Gonzalez-Huerta, J., Zabardast, E. & Šmite, D. (2019). Building lego towers: An exercise for teaching the challenges of global work. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 19(2), Article ID a15.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building lego towers: An exercise for teaching the challenges of global work
2019 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 19, no 2, article id a15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global software engineering has changed the way software is developed today. To address the new challenges, many universities have launched specially tailored courses to train young professionals to work in globally distributed projects. However, a mere acknowledgment of the geographic, temporal, and cultural differences does not necessarily lead to a deep understanding of the underlying practical implications. Therefore, many universities developed alternative teaching and learning activities, such as multi-university collaborative projects and small-scale simulations or games. In this article, we present a small-scale exercise that uses LEGO bricks to teach skills necessary for global work. We describe the many different interventions that could be implemented in the execution of the exercise. We had seven runs of the exercises and report our findings from executing seven runs of the exercise with the total of 104 students from five different courses in two different universities. Our results suggest that the exercise can be a valuable tool to help students dealing with troublesome knowledge associated with global software engineering and a useful complement to the courses dedicated to this subject. © 2019 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2019
Keywords
Communication and coordination, Distributed software development, Distributed teams, Global software engineering, Practical exercise, Teaching, Curricula, Distributed computer systems, Human resource management, Software design, Collaborative projects, Distributed projects, Teaching and learning, Young professionals
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17539 (URN)10.1145/3218249 (DOI)000458016600009 ()2-s2.0-85059857336 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Moe, N. B., Levinta, G. & Floryan, M. (2019). Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations. IEEE Software, 36(2), 51-57, Article ID 8648260.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations
2019 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 51-57, article id 8648260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The new generation of software companies has revolutionized the way companies are designed. While bottom-up governance and team autonomy improve motivation, performance, and innovation, managing agile development at scale is a challenge. We describe how Spotify cultivates guilds to help the company share knowledge, align, and make collective decisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2019
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17712 (URN)10.1109/MS.2018.2886178 (DOI)000459536000008 ()
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Solingen, R. V. & Chatzipetrou, P. (2019). The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India. IEEE Software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India
2019 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Staffing software projects with engineers from best-cost locations has become a commonality. However, distributed development remains practically challenging with many recurring problems, such as decreased productivity, low quality, and high unforeseen extra costs. One main underlying reason for these challenges is high employee turnover, although often overlooked. In developing locations such as India turnover is significantly large due to personal benefits from ‘job-hopping’. Why is turnover such a problem? Should companies stop sourcing to countries with high turnover or are there known remedies? This research puts turnover of software engineers in India in the spotlight and derives strategies to address it. We share experiences from two industrial cases, discuss important variables for portraying the actual turnover state and its negative impacts. Furthermore, we put forward ten recommendations for actively reducing turnover itself and lowering its negative consequences. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2019
Keywords
Attrition, Global software development, Global software engineering, Hidden costs, Offshoring, Turnover, Cost engineering, Outsourcing, Off-shoring, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17770 (URN)10.1109/MS.2018.2886179 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062971088 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Wnuk, K., Wohlin, C., Franke, U., Šmite, D. & Cicchetti, A. (2018). A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components. Journal of Systems and Software, 135, 88-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2018
Keywords
Case study, Component-based software engineering, Decision-making, Competition, Concrete pavements, Open source software, Software engineering, Competitive advantage, Decision makers, Decision making process, Open sources, Selection of software, Software assets, Specific ordering, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15512 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2017.09.033 (DOI)000418308800006 ()2-s2.0-85032856583 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Sablis, A., Šmite, D. & Moe, N. B. (2018). Exploring cross-site networking in large-scale distributed projects. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at 19th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, PROFES 2018; Wolfsburg; Germany; 28 November 2018 through 30 November 2018 (pp. 318-333). Springer Verlag, 11271
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring cross-site networking in large-scale distributed projects
2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11271, p. 318-333Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context: Networking in a distributed large-scale project is complex because of many reasons: time zone problems can make it challenging to reach remote contacts, teams rarely meet face-to-face which means that remote project members are often unfamiliar with each other, and applying activities for growing the network across sites is also challenging. At the same time, networking is one of the primary ways to share and receive knowledge and information important for developing software tasks and coordinating project activities. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to explore the actual networks of teams working in large-scale distributed software development projects and project characteristics that might impact their need for networking. Method: We conducted a multi-case study with three project cases in two companies, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized 20 individual interviews to characterize the development projects and surveyed 96 members from the total of 14 teams to draw the actual teams networks. Results: Our results show that teams in large-scale projects network in order to acquire knowledge from experts, and to coordinate tasks with other teams. We also learned that regardless of project characteristics, networking between sites in distributed projects is relatively low. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of networking. Therefore, we suggest that similar companies should pay extra attention for cultivating a networking culture in the large to strengthen their cross-site communication. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743
Keywords
Coordination networks, Distributed, Knowledge networks, Large-scale, Software development, Cultivation, Process engineering, Software engineering, Distributed projects, Distributed software development, Project characteristics, Software development teams, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17418 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-03673-7_23 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057273567 (Scopus ID)9783030036720 (ISBN)
Conference
19th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, PROFES 2018; Wolfsburg; Germany; 28 November 2018 through 30 November 2018
Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Britto, R., Cruzes, D., Šmite, D. & Šāblis, A. (2018). Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 30(4), Article ID e1921.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e1921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Onboarding is the process of supporting new employees regarding their social and performance adjustment to their new job. Software companies have faced challenges with recruitment and onboarding of new team members and there is no study that investigates it in a holistic way. In this paper, we conducted a multi-case study to investigate the onboarding of software developers/teams, associated challenges, and areas for further improvement in three globally distributed legacy projects. We employed Bauer's model for onboarding to identify the current state of the onboarding strategies employed in each case. We learned that the employed strategies are semi-formalized. Besides, in projects with multiple sites, some functions are executed locally and the onboarding outcomes may be hard to control. We also learned that onboarding in legacy projects is especially challenging and that decisions to distribute such projects across multiple locations shall be approached carefully. In our cases, the challenges to learn legacy code were further amplified by the project scale and the distance to the original sources of knowledge. Finally, we identified practices that can be used by companies to increase the chances of being successful when onboarding software developers and teams in globally distributed legacy projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Global software development, Global software engineering, Legacy, Onboarding
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15195 (URN)10.1002/smr.1921 (DOI)000430299400004 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved
Chatzipetrou, P., Šmite, D. & Van Solingen, R. (2018). When and who leaves matters: Emerging results from an empirical study of employee turnover. In: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement: . Paper presented at 12th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM 2018, 11 October 2018 through 12 October 2018. IEEE Computer Society, Article ID a53.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When and who leaves matters: Emerging results from an empirical study of employee turnover
2018 (English)In: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, article id a53Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Employee turnover in GSD is an extremely important issue, especially in Western companies offshoring to emerging nations. Aims: In this case study we investigated an offshore vendor company and in particular whether the employees' retention is related with their experience. Moreover, we studied whether we can identify a threshold associated with the employees' tendency to leave the particular company. Method: We used a case study, applied and presented descriptive statistics, contingency tables, results from Chi-Square test of association and post hoc tests. Results: The emerging results showed that employee retention and company experience are associated. In particular, almost 90% of the employees are leaving the company within the first year, where the percentage within the second year is 50-50%. Thus, there is an indication that the 2 years' time is the retention threshold for the investigated offshore vendor company. Conclusions: The results are preliminary and lead us to the need for building a prediction model which should include more inherent characteristics of the projects to aid the companies avoiding massive turnover waves. © 2018 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Keywords
GSD, Project management, Software engineering, Turnover, Job satisfaction, Offshore oil well production, Statistical tests, Contingency table, Descriptive statistics, Empirical studies, Employee retention, Employee turnover, Inherent characteristics, Prediction model
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17702 (URN)10.1145/3239235.3267431 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061513487 (Scopus ID)9781450358231 (ISBN)
Conference
12th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM 2018, 11 October 2018 through 12 October 2018
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Britto, R. & Van Solingen, R. (2017). Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring. In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017: . Paper presented at 12th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE, Buenos Aires (pp. 96-105). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring
2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 96-105Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
Series
International Conference on Global Software Engineering
Keywords
Case study, Empirical, Extra cost, Global software development, Hidden cost, Large-scale software development, Offshore cost, Offshoring, Software transfer, Compensation (personnel), Economics, Outsourcing, Software design, Software engineering, Wages, Direct and indirect costs, Empirical case studies, Hidden costs, International corporation, Off-shoring, Software intensive systems, Costs
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15100 (URN)10.1109/ICGSE.2017.12 (DOI)000412758200014 ()2-s2.0-85027711232 (Scopus ID)9781538615874 (ISBN)
Conference
12th IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE, Buenos Aires
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 2012/0200
Available from: 2017-09-01 Created: 2017-09-01 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Diebold, P., Mendez, D., Wagner, S. & Šmite, D. (2017). Results of the 2nd international workshop on the impact of agile practices (ImpAct 2017). In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 2017 XP Scientific Workshops, XP, Cologne. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), F129907
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Results of the 2nd international workshop on the impact of agile practices (ImpAct 2017)
2017 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, Vol. F129907Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

At present, agile development is a dominating development process in software engineering. Yet, due to different contexts, also agile methods require adaptations (e.g. Scrum-but). Since adaptation means adding, modifying or dropping some agile elements, it is important to know what the effects and importance of these elements are. Given the weak state of empirical evidence in this area, we initiated the workshop series on the Impact of Agile Practices (ImpAct). This paper provides a summary of the second workshop of this series, especially its lightning talks and discussions. The major outcomes include interesting observations such as negatively rated practices and contradicting experiences as well as follow-up activities ordered in a roadmap. © 2017 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017
Keywords
Agile development, Agile practices, Impact, SPI
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15313 (URN)10.1145/3120459.3120484 (DOI)2-s2.0-85029829208 (Scopus ID)9781450352642 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 XP Scientific Workshops, XP, Cologne
Available from: 2017-10-06 Created: 2017-10-06 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Moe, N. B., Šablis, A. & Wohlin, C. (2017). Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development. Information and Software Technology, 86(JUN), 71-86
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software teams and their knowledge networks in large-scale software development
2017 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, no JUN, p. 71-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Large software development projects involve multiple interconnected teams, often spread around the world, developing complex products for a growing number of customers and users. Succeeding with large-scale software development requires access to an enormous amount of knowledge and skills. Since neither individuals nor teams can possibly possess all the needed expertise, the resource availability in a team's knowledge network, also known as social capital, and effective knowledge coordination become paramount. Objective: In this paper, we explore the role of social capital in terms of knowledge networks and networking behavior in large-scale software development projects. Method: We conducted a multi-case study in two organizations, Ericsson and ABB, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized focus groups with ten software teams and surveyed 61 members from these teams to characterize and visualize the teams' knowledge networks. To complement the team perspective, we conducted individual interviews with representatives of supporting and coordination roles. Based on survey data, data obtained from focus groups, and individual interviews, we compared the different network characteristics and mechanisms that support knowledge networks. We used social network analysis to construct the team networks, thematic coding to identify network characteristics and context factors, and tabular summaries to identify the trends. Results: Our findings indicate that social capital and networking are essential for both novice and mature teams when solving complex, unfamiliar, or interdependent tasks. Network size and networking behavior depend on company experience, employee turnover, team culture, need for networking, and organizational support. A number of mechanisms can support the development of knowledge networks and social capital, for example, introduction of formal technical experts, facilitation of communities of practice and adequate communication infrastructure. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of social capital and knowledge networks. Therefore, we suggest that, along with investments into training programs, software companies should also cultivate a networking culture to strengthen their social capital, a known driver of better performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Agile, Case study, Cross-functional, Empirical, Feature teams, Intellectual capital, Knowledge networks, Large-scale software development, Social capital, Teams, Complex networks, Human resource management, Investments, Knowledge management, Personnel training, Software engineering, Surveys, Social capitals, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13929 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2017.01.003 (DOI)000399855200005 ()2-s2.0-85010957499 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
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