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Šmite, Darja
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Publications (10 of 61) Show all publications
Šāblis, A., Gonzalez-Huerta, J., Zabardast, E. & Šmite, D. (2019). Building lego towers: An exercise for teaching the challenges of global work. ACM Transactions on Computing Education, 19(2), Article ID a15.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Building lego towers: An exercise for teaching the challenges of global work
2019 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 19, no 2, article id a15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global software engineering has changed the way software is developed today. To address the new challenges, many universities have launched specially tailored courses to train young professionals to work in globally distributed projects. However, a mere acknowledgment of the geographic, temporal, and cultural differences does not necessarily lead to a deep understanding of the underlying practical implications. Therefore, many universities developed alternative teaching and learning activities, such as multi-university collaborative projects and small-scale simulations or games. In this article, we present a small-scale exercise that uses LEGO bricks to teach skills necessary for global work. We describe the many different interventions that could be implemented in the execution of the exercise. We had seven runs of the exercises and report our findings from executing seven runs of the exercise with the total of 104 students from five different courses in two different universities. Our results suggest that the exercise can be a valuable tool to help students dealing with troublesome knowledge associated with global software engineering and a useful complement to the courses dedicated to this subject. © 2019 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2019
Keywords
Communication and coordination, Distributed software development, Distributed teams, Global software engineering, Practical exercise, Teaching, Curricula, Distributed computer systems, Human resource management, Software design, Collaborative projects, Distributed projects, Teaching and learning, Young professionals
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17539 (URN)10.1145/3218249 (DOI)000458016600009 ()2-s2.0-85059857336 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Moe, N. B., Wigander, J. & Esser, H. (2019). Corporate-level communities at ericsson: Parallel organizational structure for fostering alignment for autonomy. In: Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process.: . Paper presented at 20th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2019; Montreal; Canada; 21 May 2019 through 25 May (pp. 173-188). Springer Verlag, 355
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corporate-level communities at ericsson: Parallel organizational structure for fostering alignment for autonomy
2019 (English)In: Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process., Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 355, p. 173-188Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Organizational management traditionally has taken care of all the important strategy, structure, and work-design decisions, as well as most of the ongoing decisions about work procedures. In large-scale corporations with many geographically distributed sites and high divisional detachment, such strategies are yet doomed to result in implementing irrelevant work methods and procedures that conflict with the local interests. As Tayloristic habits are disappearing, organizations willingly or unwillingly change their decision-making approaches to enable more participation and influence from the performers. These trends are associated with the rise of participation-based parallel structures, such as quality circles, task forces or communities of practice. In this paper, we present our findings from studying corporate-level communities by the means of a multi-case study at Ericsson. We found that the main hindrances are related to the limited decision-making authority of parallel structure, member selection and achieving representation across the organizational units. Our results suggest that parallel structures highly depend on the authority of the members within their local communities, and their ability to not only channel the dialog between the units they represent and the community, but also enable the active engagement of the unit in the community studies. As such, we believe that special attention shall be put on the ambassador role of the community members. © The Author(s) 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2019
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348
Keywords
Alignment for autonomy, Bottom-up governance, Communities, Empirical, Large-scale agile, Organizational agility, Parallel structures, Ecosystems, Job analysis, Software design, Bottom up, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18011 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-19034-7_11 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065866537 (Scopus ID)9783030190330 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2019; Montreal; Canada; 21 May 2019 through 25 May
Note

Open access

Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Moe, N., Krekling, T. & Stray, V. (2019). Offshore Outsourcing Costs: Known or Still Hidden?. In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019: . Paper presented at 14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE, Montreal, 25 May 2019 through 26 May 2019 (pp. 40-47). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8807622.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Offshore Outsourcing Costs: Known or Still Hidden?
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 40-47, article id 8807622Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Offshore outsourcing of software development has been both famous for the promises of great cost reductions, and infamous for the hidden costs associated with the challenges of organizing software work over distance. Experience shows that many of these costs do not receive the deserved attention and are often excluded when making offshoring decisions. As a result, there is often a significant deviation between the expected and the realized costs of offshoring. In this paper, we investigate the awareness of the extra costs when making an offshoring decision, and the significance of the actual cost deviations. We conducted a single case study of a company that carried out an offshore outsourcing pilot project. We collected qualitative data from interviews, observations and a retrospective, and quantitative data on the costs and effort associated with the project. We conclude that the company was aware of the hidden cost factors, but largely underestimated their significance. The costs that surfaced in the studied project accounted for a total deviation of 181% and several individual cost categories with more than 400% overrun. The two main cost drivers in our study were the distance and poor process fit, which escalated the investments needed to make the collaboration work. Our results suggest that pilots are useful to understand the key problem areas in an offshoring collaboration, but too limited to shed light on all potential problems (e.g. turnover) due to the short timeframe. We also conclude that results of pilot projects shall not be the only data source when calculating the true costs of offshoring, since the start-up phase of an offshoring relationship carries large investments. Finally, we provide recommendations for companies in a similar situation on how to run and learn from offshore outsourcing pilot projects. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
cost-savings, extra costs, global software engineering, hidden costs, offshore outsourcing, offshoring, Cost reduction, Offshore oil well production, Outsourcing, Software design, Cost saving, Off-shoring, Cost engineering
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18674 (URN)10.1109/ICGSE.2019.00022 (DOI)9781538691960 (ISBN)
Conference
14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE, Montreal, 25 May 2019 through 26 May 2019
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Britto, R., Šmite, D., Damm, L.-O. & Börstler, J. (2019). Performance Evolution of Newcomers in Large-Scale Distributed Software Projects: An Industrial Case Study. In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019: . Paper presented at 14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE, Montreal, 25 May 2019 through 26 May 2019 (pp. 1-11). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8807643.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evolution of Newcomers in Large-Scale Distributed Software Projects: An Industrial Case Study
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 1-11, article id 8807643Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount of complex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges and the difficulty in acquiring knowledge about massive amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. These problems may lead to extended periods of low performance. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the performance evolution of offshore newcomers onboarded in a large-scale globally distributed project and how it relates to the employed onboarding strategy. To achieve our objective, we conducted a case study in Ericsson. We identified that the following aspects in the onboarding strategy employed in the investigated case seem to be related to the unexpectedly low performance evolution: i) the distance to mentors; ii) the used formal training approach, which did not fit the sociocultural background of the newcomers; iii) allocation of large and distributed tasks in the early stages of the onboarding process; and iv) team instability. We conclude that the onboarding of newcomers in globally distributed projects must be planned well ahead and should consider avoiding the aspects mentioned above. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
developer onboarding, global software engineering, large scale software development, performance, Life cycle, Offshore oil well production, Distributed projects, Distributed software, Industrial case study, Onboarding, Performance evolutions, Primary objective, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18673 (URN)10.1109/ICGSE.2019.00000 (DOI)9781538691960 (ISBN)
Conference
14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE, Montreal, 25 May 2019 through 26 May 2019
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-09-19Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Moe, N. B., Levinta, G. & Floryan, M. (2019). Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations. IEEE Software, 36(2), 51-57, Article ID 8648260.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spotify Guilds: How to Succeed With Knowledge Sharing in Large-Scale Agile Organizations
2019 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 51-57, article id 8648260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The new generation of software companies has revolutionized the way companies are designed. While bottom-up governance and team autonomy improve motivation, performance, and innovation, managing agile development at scale is a challenge. We describe how Spotify cultivates guilds to help the company share knowledge, align, and make collective decisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2019
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17712 (URN)10.1109/MS.2018.2886178 (DOI)000459536000008 ()
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-03-21Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Solingen, R. V. & Chatzipetrou, P. (2019). The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India. IEEE Software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Offshoring Elephant in the Room: Turnover Strategies for Addressing Turnover When Offshoring to India
2019 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Staffing software projects with engineers from best-cost locations has become a commonality. However, distributed development remains practically challenging with many recurring problems, such as decreased productivity, low quality, and high unforeseen extra costs. One main underlying reason for these challenges is high employee turnover, although often overlooked. In developing locations such as India turnover is significantly large due to personal benefits from ‘job-hopping’. Why is turnover such a problem? Should companies stop sourcing to countries with high turnover or are there known remedies? This research puts turnover of software engineers in India in the spotlight and derives strategies to address it. We share experiences from two industrial cases, discuss important variables for portraying the actual turnover state and its negative impacts. Furthermore, we put forward ten recommendations for actively reducing turnover itself and lowering its negative consequences. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2019
Keywords
Attrition, Global software development, Global software engineering, Hidden costs, Offshoring, Turnover, Cost engineering, Outsourcing, Off-shoring, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17770 (URN)10.1109/MS.2018.2886179 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062971088 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Wnuk, K., Wohlin, C., Franke, U., Šmite, D. & Cicchetti, A. (2018). A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components. Journal of Systems and Software, 135, 88-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2018
Keywords
Case study, Component-based software engineering, Decision-making, Competition, Concrete pavements, Open source software, Software engineering, Competitive advantage, Decision makers, Decision making process, Open sources, Selection of software, Software assets, Specific ordering, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15512 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2017.09.033 (DOI)000418308800006 ()2-s2.0-85032856583 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Sablis, A., Šmite, D. & Moe, N. B. (2018). Exploring cross-site networking in large-scale distributed projects. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at 19th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, PROFES 2018; Wolfsburg; Germany; 28 November 2018 through 30 November 2018 (pp. 318-333). Springer Verlag, 11271
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring cross-site networking in large-scale distributed projects
2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11271, p. 318-333Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context: Networking in a distributed large-scale project is complex because of many reasons: time zone problems can make it challenging to reach remote contacts, teams rarely meet face-to-face which means that remote project members are often unfamiliar with each other, and applying activities for growing the network across sites is also challenging. At the same time, networking is one of the primary ways to share and receive knowledge and information important for developing software tasks and coordinating project activities. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to explore the actual networks of teams working in large-scale distributed software development projects and project characteristics that might impact their need for networking. Method: We conducted a multi-case study with three project cases in two companies, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized 20 individual interviews to characterize the development projects and surveyed 96 members from the total of 14 teams to draw the actual teams networks. Results: Our results show that teams in large-scale projects network in order to acquire knowledge from experts, and to coordinate tasks with other teams. We also learned that regardless of project characteristics, networking between sites in distributed projects is relatively low. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of networking. Therefore, we suggest that similar companies should pay extra attention for cultivating a networking culture in the large to strengthen their cross-site communication. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743
Keywords
Coordination networks, Distributed, Knowledge networks, Large-scale, Software development, Cultivation, Process engineering, Software engineering, Distributed projects, Distributed software development, Project characteristics, Software development teams, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17418 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-03673-7_23 (DOI)2-s2.0-85057273567 (Scopus ID)9783030036720 (ISBN)
Conference
19th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, PROFES 2018; Wolfsburg; Germany; 28 November 2018 through 30 November 2018
Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Britto, R., Cruzes, D., Šmite, D. & Šāblis, A. (2018). Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 30(4), Article ID e1921.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e1921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Onboarding is the process of supporting new employees regarding their social and performance adjustment to their new job. Software companies have faced challenges with recruitment and onboarding of new team members and there is no study that investigates it in a holistic way. In this paper, we conducted a multi-case study to investigate the onboarding of software developers/teams, associated challenges, and areas for further improvement in three globally distributed legacy projects. We employed Bauer's model for onboarding to identify the current state of the onboarding strategies employed in each case. We learned that the employed strategies are semi-formalized. Besides, in projects with multiple sites, some functions are executed locally and the onboarding outcomes may be hard to control. We also learned that onboarding in legacy projects is especially challenging and that decisions to distribute such projects across multiple locations shall be approached carefully. In our cases, the challenges to learn legacy code were further amplified by the project scale and the distance to the original sources of knowledge. Finally, we identified practices that can be used by companies to increase the chances of being successful when onboarding software developers and teams in globally distributed legacy projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Global software development, Global software engineering, Legacy, Onboarding
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15195 (URN)10.1002/smr.1921 (DOI)000430299400004 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved
Chatzipetrou, P., Šmite, D. & Van Solingen, R. (2018). When and who leaves matters: Emerging results from an empirical study of employee turnover. In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2018): . Paper presented at 12th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM 2018, Oulu, 11 October 2018 through 12 October. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Article ID a53.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When and who leaves matters: Emerging results from an empirical study of employee turnover
2018 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2018), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, article id a53Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Employee turnover in GSD is an extremely important issue, especially in Western companies offshoring to emerging nations. Aims: In this case study we investigated an offshore vendor company and in particular whether the employees' retention is related with their experience. Moreover, we studied whether we can identify a threshold associated with the employees' tendency to leave the particular company. Method: We used a case study, applied and presented descriptive statistics, contingency tables, results from Chi-Square test of association and post hoc tests. Results: The emerging results showed that employee retention and company experience are associated. In particular, almost 90% of the employees are leaving the company within the first year, where the percentage within the second year is 50-50%. Thus, there is an indication that the 2 years' time is the retention threshold for the investigated offshore vendor company. Conclusions: The results are preliminary and lead us to the need for building a prediction model which should include more inherent characteristics of the projects to aid the companies avoiding massive turnover waves. © 2018 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018
Keywords
GSD, Project management, Software engineering, Turnover, Job satisfaction, Offshore oil well production, Statistical tests, Contingency table, Descriptive statistics, Empirical studies, Employee retention, Employee turnover, Inherent characteristics, Prediction model
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17702 (URN)10.1145/3239235.3267431 (DOI)000469776800053 ()2-s2.0-85061513487 (Scopus ID)9781450358231 (ISBN)
Conference
12th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM 2018, Oulu, 11 October 2018 through 12 October
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
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