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Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J., Fricker, S. & Petersen, K. (2018). A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction. In: International Workshop Series on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry (CESI’18), Gothenburg: . Paper presented at International Workshop Series on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry (CESI’18), Gothenburg. ACM Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction
2018 (English)In: International Workshop Series on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry (CESI’18), Gothenburg, ACM Publications, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To assess the benefits of introducing Agile practices, it is important

to get a clear understanding of the baseline situation, i.e. the situation

before their introduction. Without a clear baseline, we cannot

properly assess the extent of impacts, both positive and negative,

of introducing Agile practices. This paper provides a preliminary

guideline to help researchers in capturing and reporting baseline

situations. The guideline has been developed through the study of

literature and interviews with industry practitioners, and validated

by experts in academia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Publications, 2018
Keywords
Agile practices, checklist, baseline situation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16114 (URN)
Conference
International Workshop Series on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry (CESI’18), Gothenburg
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-05-30Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Britto, R., Damm, L.-O. & Börstler, J. (2018). Effort Estimation in Large-Scale Software Development: An Industrial Case Study. Information and Software Technology, 99, 21-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effort Estimation in Large-Scale Software Development: An Industrial Case Study
2018 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 99, p. 21-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software projects frequently incur schedule and budget overruns. Planning and estimation are particularlychallenging in large and globally distributed projects. While software engineering researchers have beeninvestigating effort estimation for many years to help practitioners to improve their estimation processes, there is littleresearch about effort estimation in large-scale distributed agile projects.Objective: The main objective of this paper is three-fold: i) to identify how effort estimation is carried out in largescaledistributed agile projects; ii) to analyze the accuracy of the effort estimation processes in large-scale distributedagile projects; and iii) to identify the factors that impact the accuracy of effort estimates in large-scale distributed agileprojects.Method: We performed an exploratory longitudinal case study. The data collection was operationalized througharchival research and semi-structured interviews.Results: The main findings of this study are: 1) underestimation is the dominant trend in the studied case, 2) reestimationat the analysis stage improves the accuracy of the effort estimates, 3) requirements with large size/scopeincur larger effort overruns, 4) immature teams incur larger effort overruns, 5) requirements developed in multi-sitesettings incur larger effort overruns as compared to requirements developed in a collocated setting, and 6) requirementspriorities impact the accuracy of the effort estimates.Conclusion: Effort estimation is carried out at quotation and analysis stages in the studied case. It is a challengingtask involving coordination amongst many different stakeholders. Furthermore, lack of details and changes in requirements,immaturity of the newly on-boarded teams and the challenges associated with the large-scale add complexitiesin the effort estimation process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
ffort estimation; Large-scale software development; Global and agile software development
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15193 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2018.02.009 (DOI)000432767900003 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J. & Fricker, S. (2018). Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization
2018 (English)In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15963 (URN)10.1002/smr.1937 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-05-28Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Börstler, J. & Petersen, K. (2017). An Effort Estimation Taxonomy for Agile Software Development. International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, 27(4), 641-674
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Effort Estimation Taxonomy for Agile Software Development
2017 (English)In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 641-674Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Agile Software Development (ASD) effort estimation plays an important role during release and iteration planning. The state of the art and practice on effort estimation in ASD have been recently identified. However, this knowledge has not yet been organized. The aim of this study is twofold: (1) To organize the knowledge on effort estimation in ASD and (2) to use this organized knowledge to support practice and the future research on effort estimation in ASD. We applied a taxonomy design method to organize the identified knowledge as a taxonomy of effort estimation in ASD. The proposed taxonomy offers a faceted classification scheme to characterize estimation activities of agile projects. Our agile estimation taxonomy consists of four dimensions: estimation context, estimation technique, effort predictors and effort estimate. Each dimension in turn has several facets. We applied the taxonomy to characterize estimation activities of 10 agile projects identified from the literature to assess whether all important estimation-related aspects are reported. The results showed that studies do not report complete information related to estimation. The taxonomy was also used to characterize the estimation activities of four agile teams from three different software companies. The practitioners involved in the investigation found the taxonomy useful in characterizing and documenting the estimation sessions. © 2017 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd, 2017
Keywords
agile software development, Effort estimation, taxonomy, Iterative methods, Software design, Taxonomies, Complete information, Effort estimates, Estimation techniques, Faceted Classification, Iteration planning, Software company, Software engineering
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-14472 (URN)10.1142/S0218194017500243 (DOI)000402062200006 ()2-s2.0-85019610980 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Fotrousi, F., Seyff, N. & Börstler, J. (2017). Ethical considerations in research on user feedback. In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2017: . Paper presented at 25th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, (REW), Lisbon (pp. 194-198). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical considerations in research on user feedback
2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 194-198Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Collecting and using user feedback as a method to support requirements engineering, might undermine user rights. This becomes apparent when looking at related areas, e.g., research in user experience, where collecting user feedback also plays an important role. In such settings, researchers need to ensure that the stakeholders' rights and integrity are respected. This paper identifies and discusses some of the ethical challenges and issues a researcher can face, using an example case. Focusing on user feedback, this case can serve as an example for CrowdRE, i.e. several of our findings might apply to CrowdRE in general. However, further research is needed as our work mainly reflects the challenges experienced by the authors of this paper. © 2017 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
Keywords
Crowd, Ethics, Requirement engineering, User feedback, Philosophical aspects, Requirements engineering, Ethical considerations, User experience, Engineering research
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15609 (URN)10.1109/REW.2017.68 (DOI)000427148000031 ()2-s2.0-85034624639 (Scopus ID)9781538634882 (ISBN)
Conference
25th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, (REW), Lisbon
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Fotrousi, F., Seyff, N. & Börstler, J. (2017). Ethical Considerations in Research on User Feedback. In: : . Paper presented at 2nd International Workshop on Crowd-Based Requirements Engineering (CrowdRE 2017), Lisbon.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical Considerations in Research on User Feedback
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Collecting and using user feedback as a method to support requirements engineering, might undermine user rights. This becomes apparent when looking at related areas, e.g., research in user experience, where collecting user feedback also plays an important role.  In such settings, researchers need to ensure that the stakeholders’ rights and integrity are respected. This paper identifies and discusses some of the ethical challenges and issues a researcher can face, using an example case. Focusing on user feedback, this case can serve as an example for CrowdRE, i.e. several of our findings might apply to CrowdRE in general. However, further research is needed as our work mainly reflects the challenges experienced by the authors of this paper.

Keywords
Ethics, User Feedback, Crowd, Requirement Engineering
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16199 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Workshop on Crowd-Based Requirements Engineering (CrowdRE 2017), Lisbon
Note

In conjunction with RE '17 – 4 September 2017, Lisbon, Portugal

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-18 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved
Krusche, S., Seitz, A., Börstler, J. & Bruegge, B. (2017). Interactive Learning: Increasing Student Participation through Shorter Exercise Cycles. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Volume Part F126225: . Paper presented at Nineteenth Australasian Computing Education Conference (ACE),Geelong, Australia (pp. 17-26). ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive Learning: Increasing Student Participation through Shorter Exercise Cycles
2017 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Volume Part F126225, ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 17-26Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In large classes, there is typically a clear separation between content delivery in lectures on the one hand and content deepening in practical exercises on the other hand. This temporal and spatial separation has several disadvantages. In particular, it separates students’ hearing about a new concept from being able to actually practicing and applying it, which may decrease knowledge retention.

To closely integrate lectures and practical exercises, we propose an approach which we call interactive learning: it is based on active, computer based and experiential learning, includes immediate feedback and learning from the reflection on experience. It decreases the time between content delivery and content deepening to a few minutes and allows for flexible and more efficient learning. Shorter exercise cycles allow students to apply and practice multiple concepts per teaching unit directly after they first heard about them.

We applied interactive learning in two large software engineering classes with 300 students each and evaluated its use qualitatively and quantitatively. The students’ participation increases compared to traditional classes: until the end ofthe course, around 50% of the students attend class and participate in exercises. Our evaluations show that students’ learning experience and exam grades correlate with the increased participation. While educators need more time to prepare the class and the exercises, they need less time to review exercise submissions. The overall teaching effort for instructors and teaching assistants does not increase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2017
Keywords
Active Learning, Experiential Learning, Feedback, Software Engineering Education
National Category
Software Engineering Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13384 (URN)10.1145/3013499.3013513 (DOI)978-1-4503-4823-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Nineteenth Australasian Computing Education Conference (ACE),Geelong, Australia
Available from: 2016-11-13 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Britto, R., Börstler, J. & Mendes, E. (2017). Taxonomies in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study and a revised taxonomy development method. Information and Software Technology, 85, 43-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taxonomies in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study and a revised taxonomy development method
2017 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 85, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software Engineering (SE) is an evolving discipline with new subareas being continuously developed and added. To structure and better understand the SE body of knowledge, taxonomies have been proposed in all SE knowledge areas. Objective: The objective of this paper is to characterize the state-of-the-art research on SE taxonomies. Method: A systematic mapping study was conducted, based on 270 primary studies. Results: An increasing number of SE taxonomies have been published since 2000 in a broad range of venues, including the top SE journals and conferences. The majority of taxonomies can be grouped into the following SWEBOI(knowledge areas: construction (19.55%), design (19.55%), requirements (15.50%) and maintenance (11.81%). Illustration (45.76%) is the most frequently used approach for taxonomy validation. Hierarchy (53.14%) and faceted analysis (39.48%) are the most frequently used classification structures. Most taxonomies rely on qualitative procedures to classify subject matter instances, but in most cases (86.53%) these procedures are not described in sufficient detail. The majority of the taxonomies (97%) target unique subject matters and many taxonomy-papers are cited frequently. Most SE taxonomies are designed in an ad-hoc way. To address this issue, we have revised an existing method for developing taxonomies in a more systematic way. Conclusion: There is a strong interest in taxonomies in SE, but few taxonomies are extended or revised. Taxonomy design decisions regarding the used classification structures, procedures and descriptive bases are usually not well described and motivated. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
Keywords
Taxonomy, Classification, Software engineering, Systematic mapping study
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15161 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2017.01.006 (DOI)000397553500003 ()
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Jabangwe, R., Wohlin, C., Petersen, K., Šmite, D. & Börstler, J. (2016). A method for investigating the quality of evolving object-oriented software using defects in global software development projects. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 28(8), 622-641
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for investigating the quality of evolving object-oriented software using defects in global software development projects
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 622-641Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Global software development (GSD) projects can have distributed teams that work independently in different locations or team members that are dispersed. The various development settings in GSD can influence quality during product evolution. When evaluating quality using defects as a proxy, the development settings have to be taken into consideration. Objective: The aim is to provide a systematic method for supporting investigations of the implication of GSD contexts on defect data as a proxy for quality. Method: A method engineering approach was used to incrementally develop the proposed method. This was done through applying the method in multiple industrial contexts and then using lessons learned to refine and improve the method after application. Results: A measurement instrument and visualization was proposed incorporating an understanding of the release history and understanding of GSD contexts. Conclusion: The method can help with making accurate inferences about development settings because it includes details on collecting and aggregating data at a level that matches the development setting in a GSD context and involves practitioners at various phases of the investigation. Finally, the information that is produced from following the method can help practitioners make informed decisions when planning to develop software in comparable circumstances. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
Computer software selection and evaluation; Copyrights; Defects; Software design, Defect analysis; Distributed software development; Global software development; Object oriented software; Software Evolution; Software Quality, Object oriented programming
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-12980 (URN)10.1002/smr.1788 (DOI)000388301300001 ()2-s2.0-84981275207 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Börstler, J., Caspersen, M. E. & Nordström, M. (2016). Beauty and the Beast: on the readability of object-oriented example programs. Software quality journal, 24(2), 231-246
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beauty and the Beast: on the readability of object-oriented example programs
2016 (English)In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 231-246Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some solutions to a programming problem are more elegant or more simple than others and thus more understandable for students. We review desirable properties of example programs from a cognitive and a measurement point of view. Certain cognitive aspects of example programs are captured by common software measures, but they are not sufficient to capture a key aspect of understandability: readability. We propose and discuss a simple readability measure for software, SRES, and apply it to object-oriented textbook examples. Our results show that readability measures correlate well with human perceptions of quality. Compared with other readability measures, SRES is less sensitive to commenting and white-space. These results also have implications for software maintainability measures.

Abstract [sv]

Studien undersöker begripligheten av objektorienterade exempelprogram. Läsbarhet är en avgörande faktor för begriplighet. Vi presenterar ett mått för läsbarhet (SRES) och applicera det på exempel från vanliga läroböcker. Resultaten visar att SRES korrelerar väl med experters subjektiva kvalitetsintryck. Objektorientering, kvalitet, läsbarhet av kod.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
Object-oriented programming, Software quality, Software masurement, Software readability, Programming education
National Category
Pedagogy Software Engineering Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6412 (URN)10.1007/s11219-015-9267-5 (DOI)000373861100002 ()
Available from: 2015-02-24 Created: 2015-02-20 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0639-4234

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