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Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J., Fricker, S. & Petersen, K. (2019). Usage, Retention, and Abandonment of Agile Practices. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 13(1), 7-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usage, Retention, and Abandonment of Agile Practices
2019 (English)In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 7-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A number of Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to guide software organizations in their adoption of Agile practices. Typically the AMMs suggest that higher maturity levels are reached by gradually adding more practices. However, recent research indicates that certain Agile practices, like test-driven development and continuous integration are being abandoned. Little is known on the rationales for abandoning Agile practices. Aim: We aim to identify which Agile practices are abandoned in industry, as well as the reasons for abandoning them. Method: We conducted a web survey with 51 respondents and interviews with 11 industry practitioners with experience in Agile adoption to investigate why Agile practices are abandoned. Results: Of the 17 Agile practices that were included in the survey, all have been abandoned at some point. Nevertheless, respondents who retained all practices as well as those who abandoned one or more practices, perceived their overall adoption of Agile practices as successful. Conclusion: Going against the suggestions of the AMMs, i.e. abandoning Agile one or more practices, could still lead to successful outcomes. This indicates that introducing Agile practices gradually in a certain sequence, as the AMMs suggest, may not always be suitable in different contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Software Engineering Section of the Committee on Informatics of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Wrocław University of Science and Technology., 2019
Keywords
Agile maturity models (AMMs), Agile practices
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16236 (URN)10.5277/e-Inf190101 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J., Fricker, S. & Petersen, K. (2018). A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction. In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering: . Paper presented at International Workshop Series on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry (CESI’18), Gothenburg (pp. 25-28). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 25-28Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To assess the benefits of introducing Agile practices, it is important to get a clear understanding of the baseline situation, i.e. the situation before their introduction. Without a clear baseline, we cannot properly assess the extent of impacts, both positive and negative, of introducing Agile practices. This paper provides a preliminary guideline to help researchers in capturing and reporting baseline situations. The guideline has been developed through the study of literature and interviews with industry practitioners, and validated by experts in academia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Series
Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, ISSN 0270-5257
Keywords
Agile practices, checklist, baseline situation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16114 (URN)10.1145/3193965.3193969 (DOI)9781450357364 (ISBN)
Conference
International Workshop Series on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry (CESI’18), Gothenburg
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2018-08-21Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Petersen, K., Börstler, J. & Neto, P. (2018). Developing and Using Checklists to Improve Software Effort Estimation: a Multi-Case Study. Journal of Systems and Software, 146, 286-309
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing and Using Checklists to Improve Software Effort Estimation: a Multi-Case Study
2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, p. 286-309Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Expert judgment based effort estimation techniques are widely used for estimating software effort. In the absence of process support, experts may overlook important factors during estimation, leading to inconsistent estimates. This might cause underestimation, which is a common problem in software projects. This multi-case study aims to improve expert estimation of software development effort. Our goal is two-fold: 1) to propose a process to develop and evolve estimation checklists for agile teams, and 2) to evaluate the usefulness of the checklists in improving expert estimation processes. The use of checklists improved the accuracy of the estimates in two case companies. In particular, the underestimation bias was reduced to a large extent. For the third case, we could not perform a similar analysis, due to the unavailability of historical data. However, when checklist was used in two sprints, the estimates were quite accurate (median Balanced Relative Error (BRE) bias of -0.05 ). The study participants from the case companies observed several benefits of using the checklists during estimation, such as increased confidence in estimates, improved consistency due to help in recalling relevant factors, more objectivity in the process, improved understanding of the tasks being estimated, and reduced chances of missing tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Effort estimation, checklist, agile software development
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15871 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.09.054 (DOI)000451488900019 ()
Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Britto, R., Damm, L.-O. & Börstler, J. (2018). Effort Estimation in Large-Scale Software Development: An Industrial Case Study. Information and Software Technology, 99, 21-40
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effort Estimation in Large-Scale Software Development: An Industrial Case Study
2018 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 99, p. 21-40Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software projects frequently incur schedule and budget overruns. Planning and estimation are particularlychallenging in large and globally distributed projects. While software engineering researchers have beeninvestigating effort estimation for many years to help practitioners to improve their estimation processes, there is littleresearch about effort estimation in large-scale distributed agile projects.Objective: The main objective of this paper is three-fold: i) to identify how effort estimation is carried out in largescaledistributed agile projects; ii) to analyze the accuracy of the effort estimation processes in large-scale distributedagile projects; and iii) to identify the factors that impact the accuracy of effort estimates in large-scale distributed agileprojects.Method: We performed an exploratory longitudinal case study. The data collection was operationalized througharchival research and semi-structured interviews.Results: The main findings of this study are: 1) underestimation is the dominant trend in the studied case, 2) reestimationat the analysis stage improves the accuracy of the effort estimates, 3) requirements with large size/scopeincur larger effort overruns, 4) immature teams incur larger effort overruns, 5) requirements developed in multi-sitesettings incur larger effort overruns as compared to requirements developed in a collocated setting, and 6) requirementspriorities impact the accuracy of the effort estimates.Conclusion: Effort estimation is carried out at quotation and analysis stages in the studied case. It is a challengingtask involving coordination amongst many different stakeholders. Furthermore, lack of details and changes in requirements,immaturity of the newly on-boarded teams and the challenges associated with the large-scale add complexitiesin the effort estimation process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
ffort estimation; Large-scale software development; Global and agile software development
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15193 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2018.02.009 (DOI)000432767900003 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2017-09-22 Created: 2017-09-22 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J. & Fricker, S. (2018). Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 30(9), Article ID e1937.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization
2018 (English)In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 9, article id e1937Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software developing organizations strive to achieve flexibility to maintain a competitive advantage. There is no common understanding of what characterize flexibility for a software organization beyond the scope of the software product. Without a common understanding, it is difficult to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of software development approaches. The aim of this literature review is to collect attributes that characterize flexibility. The collected attributes are consolidated into a flexibility framework with 3 main attributes: properties of change, flexibility perspectives, and flexibility enablers. The resulting flexibility framework is then used to evaluate Agile and Lean practices. The evaluation shows that Agile and Lean practices address many flexibility attributes. However, some attributes are not addressed, such as infrastructure flexibility and strategic flexibility. On the basis of our evaluation, the classifications of flexibility attributes that we present in this paper could be used to aid software organization flexibility evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Agile; flexibility; Lean; literature review; software development
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15963 (URN)10.1002/smr.1937 (DOI)000444678900001 ()
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Minhas, N. M., Petersen, K., Börstler, J. & Wnuk, K. (2018). Regression testing for large-scale embedded software development: Exploring the state of practice.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regression testing for large-scale embedded software development: Exploring the state of practice
2018 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Context: A majority of the regression testing techniques proposed by the research have not been adopted in industry. To increase adoption rates, we need to better understand the practitioners' perspectives on regression testing.

Objective: This study aims at exploring the regression testing state of practice in the large-scale embedded software development. The study has two objectives, 1) to highlight the potential challenges in practice, and 2) to identify the industry-relevant research areas regarding regression testing.

Method: We conducted a qualitative study in two large-scale embedded software development companies, where we carried out semi-structured interviews with representatives from five software testing teams. We did conduct the detailed review of the process documentation of the companies to complement/validate the findings of the interviews.

Results: Mostly, the practitioners run regression testing with a selected scope, the selection of scope depends upon the size, complexity, and location of the change. Test cases are prioritized on the basis of risk and critical functionality. The practitioners rely on their knowledge and experience for the decision making regarding selection and prioritization of test cases.The companies are using both automated and manual regression testing, and mainly they rely on in-house developed tools for test automation. The challenges identified in the companies are: time to test, information management, test suite maintenance, lack of communication, test selection/prioritization, lack of assessment, etc. The proposed improvements are in line with the identified challenges. Regression testing goals identified in this study are customer satisfaction, critical defect detection, confidence, effectiveness, efficiency, and controlled slip through of faults.

Conclusions: Considering the current state of practice and identified challenges we conclude that there is a need to reconsider the regression test strategy in the companies. Researchers need to analyze the industry perspective while proposing new regression testing techniques. The industry-academia collaboration projects would be a good platform in this regard.

Keywords
Regression testing, practices, challenges, goals, multi-case study
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17362 (URN)
Projects
EASE - Embedded Applications Software Engineering
Funder
VINNOVA, 2015-03235
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Börstler, J. & Petersen, K. (2017). An Effort Estimation Taxonomy for Agile Software Development. International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, 27(4), 641-674
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Effort Estimation Taxonomy for Agile Software Development
2017 (English)In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 641-674Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Agile Software Development (ASD) effort estimation plays an important role during release and iteration planning. The state of the art and practice on effort estimation in ASD have been recently identified. However, this knowledge has not yet been organized. The aim of this study is twofold: (1) To organize the knowledge on effort estimation in ASD and (2) to use this organized knowledge to support practice and the future research on effort estimation in ASD. We applied a taxonomy design method to organize the identified knowledge as a taxonomy of effort estimation in ASD. The proposed taxonomy offers a faceted classification scheme to characterize estimation activities of agile projects. Our agile estimation taxonomy consists of four dimensions: estimation context, estimation technique, effort predictors and effort estimate. Each dimension in turn has several facets. We applied the taxonomy to characterize estimation activities of 10 agile projects identified from the literature to assess whether all important estimation-related aspects are reported. The results showed that studies do not report complete information related to estimation. The taxonomy was also used to characterize the estimation activities of four agile teams from three different software companies. The practitioners involved in the investigation found the taxonomy useful in characterizing and documenting the estimation sessions. © 2017 The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd, 2017
Keywords
agile software development, Effort estimation, taxonomy, Iterative methods, Software design, Taxonomies, Complete information, Effort estimates, Estimation techniques, Faceted Classification, Iteration planning, Software company, Software engineering
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-14472 (URN)10.1142/S0218194017500243 (DOI)000402062200006 ()2-s2.0-85019610980 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Fotrousi, F., Seyff, N. & Börstler, J. (2017). Ethical considerations in research on user feedback. In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2017: . Paper presented at 25th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, (REW), Lisbon (pp. 194-198). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethical considerations in research on user feedback
2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 194-198Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Collecting and using user feedback as a method to support requirements engineering, might undermine user rights. This becomes apparent when looking at related areas, e.g., research in user experience, where collecting user feedback also plays an important role. In such settings, researchers need to ensure that the stakeholders' rights and integrity are respected. This paper identifies and discusses some of the ethical challenges and issues a researcher can face, using an example case. Focusing on user feedback, this case can serve as an example for CrowdRE, i.e. several of our findings might apply to CrowdRE in general. However, further research is needed as our work mainly reflects the challenges experienced by the authors of this paper. © 2017 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
Keywords
Crowd, Ethics, Requirement engineering, User feedback, Philosophical aspects, Requirements engineering, Ethical considerations, User experience, Engineering research
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15609 (URN)10.1109/REW.2017.68 (DOI)000427148000031 ()2-s2.0-85034624639 (Scopus ID)9781538634882 (ISBN)
Conference
25th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, (REW), Lisbon
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Krusche, S., Seitz, A., Börstler, J. & Bruegge, B. (2017). Interactive Learning: Increasing Student Participation through Shorter Exercise Cycles. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Volume Part F126225: . Paper presented at Nineteenth Australasian Computing Education Conference (ACE),Geelong, Australia (pp. 17-26). ACM Digital Library
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive Learning: Increasing Student Participation through Shorter Exercise Cycles
2017 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series Volume Part F126225, ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 17-26Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In large classes, there is typically a clear separation between content delivery in lectures on the one hand and content deepening in practical exercises on the other hand. This temporal and spatial separation has several disadvantages. In particular, it separates students’ hearing about a new concept from being able to actually practicing and applying it, which may decrease knowledge retention.

To closely integrate lectures and practical exercises, we propose an approach which we call interactive learning: it is based on active, computer based and experiential learning, includes immediate feedback and learning from the reflection on experience. It decreases the time between content delivery and content deepening to a few minutes and allows for flexible and more efficient learning. Shorter exercise cycles allow students to apply and practice multiple concepts per teaching unit directly after they first heard about them.

We applied interactive learning in two large software engineering classes with 300 students each and evaluated its use qualitatively and quantitatively. The students’ participation increases compared to traditional classes: until the end ofthe course, around 50% of the students attend class and participate in exercises. Our evaluations show that students’ learning experience and exam grades correlate with the increased participation. While educators need more time to prepare the class and the exercises, they need less time to review exercise submissions. The overall teaching effort for instructors and teaching assistants does not increase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Digital Library, 2017
Keywords
Active Learning, Experiential Learning, Feedback, Software Engineering Education
National Category
Software Engineering Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-13384 (URN)10.1145/3013499.3013513 (DOI)978-1-4503-4823-2 (ISBN)
Conference
Nineteenth Australasian Computing Education Conference (ACE),Geelong, Australia
Available from: 2016-11-13 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Britto, R., Börstler, J. & Mendes, E. (2017). Taxonomies in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study and a revised taxonomy development method. Information and Software Technology, 85, 43-59
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taxonomies in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study and a revised taxonomy development method
2017 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 85, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software Engineering (SE) is an evolving discipline with new subareas being continuously developed and added. To structure and better understand the SE body of knowledge, taxonomies have been proposed in all SE knowledge areas. Objective: The objective of this paper is to characterize the state-of-the-art research on SE taxonomies. Method: A systematic mapping study was conducted, based on 270 primary studies. Results: An increasing number of SE taxonomies have been published since 2000 in a broad range of venues, including the top SE journals and conferences. The majority of taxonomies can be grouped into the following SWEBOI(knowledge areas: construction (19.55%), design (19.55%), requirements (15.50%) and maintenance (11.81%). Illustration (45.76%) is the most frequently used approach for taxonomy validation. Hierarchy (53.14%) and faceted analysis (39.48%) are the most frequently used classification structures. Most taxonomies rely on qualitative procedures to classify subject matter instances, but in most cases (86.53%) these procedures are not described in sufficient detail. The majority of the taxonomies (97%) target unique subject matters and many taxonomy-papers are cited frequently. Most SE taxonomies are designed in an ad-hoc way. To address this issue, we have revised an existing method for developing taxonomies in a more systematic way. Conclusion: There is a strong interest in taxonomies in SE, but few taxonomies are extended or revised. Taxonomy design decisions regarding the used classification structures, procedures and descriptive bases are usually not well described and motivated. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2017
Keywords
Taxonomy, Classification, Software engineering, Systematic mapping study
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15161 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2017.01.006 (DOI)000397553500003 ()
Available from: 2017-09-21 Created: 2017-09-21 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0639-4234

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