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Iftikhar, U., Ali, N. b., Börstler, J. & Usman, M. (2024). A tertiary study on links between source code metrics and external quality attributes. Information and Software Technology, 165, Article ID 107348.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A tertiary study on links between source code metrics and external quality attributes
2024 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 165, article id 107348Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Several secondary studies have investigated the relationship between internal quality attributes, source code metrics and external quality attributes. Sometimes they have contradictory results. Objective: We synthesize evidence of the link between internal quality attributes, source code metrics and external quality attributes along with the efficacy of the prediction models used. Method: We conducted a tertiary review to identify, evaluate and synthesize secondary studies. We used several characteristics of secondary studies as indicators for the strength of evidence and considered them when synthesizing the results. Results: From 711 secondary studies, we identified 15 secondary studies that have investigated the link between source code and external quality. Our results show : (1) primarily, the focus has been on object-oriented systems, (2) maintainability and reliability are most often linked to internal quality attributes and source code metrics, with only one secondary study reporting evidence for security, (3) only a small set of complexity, coupling, and size-related source code metrics report a consistent positive link with maintainability and reliability, and (4) group method of data handling (GMDH) based prediction models have performed better than other prediction models for maintainability prediction. Conclusions: Based on our results, lines of code, coupling, complexity and the cohesion metrics from Chidamber & Kemerer (CK) metrics are good indicators of maintainability with consistent evidence from high and moderate-quality secondary studies. Similarly, four CK metrics related to coupling, complexity and cohesion are good indicators of reliability, while inheritance and certain cohesion metrics show no consistent evidence of links to maintainability and reliability. Further empirical studies are needed to explore the link between internal quality attributes, source code metrics and other external quality attributes, including functionality, portability, and usability. The results will help researchers and practitioners understand the body of knowledge on the subject and identify future research directions. © 2023 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Code quality, Evidence, Product quality, Quality models, Tertiary review, Tertiary study, Codes (symbols), Computer programming languages, Data handling, Forecasting, Object oriented programming, Reliability, External quality, Internal quality, Products quality, Quality attributes, Quality modeling, Source code metrics, Maintainability
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-25555 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2023.107348 (DOI)001102357100001 ()2-s2.0-85174715019 (Scopus ID)
Funder
ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile CommunicationsKnowledge Foundation, 20190081
Available from: 2023-11-06 Created: 2023-11-06 Last updated: 2023-12-15Bibliographically approved
Iftikhar, U., Ali, N. b., Börstler, J. & Usman, M. (2023). A catalog of source code metrics – a tertiary study. In: Daniel Mendez, Dietmar Winkler, Johannes Kross, Stefan Biffl, Johannes Bergsmann (Ed.), Software Quality: Higher Software Quality through Zero Waste Development. Paper presented at 15th International Conference on Software Quality, SWQD 2023, Munich, Germany, May 23-25, 2023 (pp. 87-106). Springer, 472
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A catalog of source code metrics – a tertiary study
2023 (English)In: Software Quality: Higher Software Quality through Zero Waste Development / [ed] Daniel Mendez, Dietmar Winkler, Johannes Kross, Stefan Biffl, Johannes Bergsmann, Springer, 2023, Vol. 472, p. 87-106Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context: A large number of source code metrics are reported in the literature. It is necessary to systematically collect, describe and classify source code metrics to support research and practice.Objective: We aim to utilize existing secondary studies to develop a cat- alog of source code metrics together with their descriptions. The catalog will also provide information about which units of code (e.g., operators, operands, lines of code, variables, parameters, code blocks, or functions) are used to measure the internal quality attributes and the scope on which they are collected. 

Method: We conducted a tertiary study to identify secondary studies re- porting source code metrics. We have classified the source code metrics according to the measured internal quality attributes, the units of code used in the measures, and the scope at which the source code metrics are collected. 

Results: From 711 secondary studies, we identified 52 relevant secondary studies. We reported 423 source code metrics together with their de- scriptions and the internal quality attributes they measure. Source code metrics predominantly incorporate function as a unit of code to measure internal quality attributes. In contrast, several source code metrics use more than one unit of code when measuring internal quality attributes. Nearly 51% of the source code metrics are collected at the class scope, while almost 12% and 15% of source code metrics are collected at module and application levels, respectively. 

Conclusions: Researchers and practitioners can use the extensive catalog to assess which source code metrics meet their individual needs based on the description and classification scheme presented. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348, E-ISSN 1865-1356 ; 472
Keywords
Internal quality attributes, Code measurement, Code quality, Ter- tiary study, Source code metrics
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24650 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-31488-9_5 (DOI)2-s2.0-85161231906 (Scopus ID)978-3-031-31487-2 (ISBN)978-3-031-31488-9 (ISBN)
Conference
15th International Conference on Software Quality, SWQD 2023, Munich, Germany, May 23-25, 2023
Funder
ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications, B07
Available from: 2023-05-30 Created: 2023-05-30 Last updated: 2023-10-20Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Ali, N. b. & Wohlin, C. (2023). A Quality Assessment Instrument for Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 17(1), Article ID 230105.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Quality Assessment Instrument for Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering
2023 (English)In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 230105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Systematic literature reviews (SLRs) have become a standard practice as part of software engineering (SE) research, although their quality varies. To build on the reviews, both for future research and industry practice, they need to be of high quality.Aim: To assess the quality of SLRs in SE, we put forward an appraisal instrument for SLRs.Method: A well-established appraisal instrument from research in healthcare was used as a starting point to develop the instrument. It is adapted to SE using guidelines, checklists, and experiences from SE. The first version was reviewed by four external experts on SLRs in SE and updated based on their feedback. To demonstrate its use, the updated version was also used by the authors to assess a sample of six selected systematic literature studies.Results: The outcome of the research is an appraisal instrument for quality assessment of SLRs in SE. The instrument includes 15 items with different options to capture the quality. The instrument also supports consolidating the items into groups, which are then used to assess the overall quality of an SLR.Conclusion: The presented instrument may be helpful support for an appraiser in assessing the quality of SLRs in SE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wroclaw University of Technology, 2023
Keywords
Systematic reviews, quality assessment, critical appraisal, AMSTAR 2, systematic literature review, tertiary study
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24415 (URN)10.37190/e-Inf230105 (DOI)000944209900001 ()2-s2.0-85152967598 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180127Knowledge Foundation, 20190081ELLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2023-04-05 Created: 2023-04-05 Last updated: 2023-04-28Bibliographically approved
Sarika, P. K., Badampudi, D., Josyula, S. P. & Usman, M. (2023). Automating Microservices Test Failure Analysis using Kubernetes Cluster Logs. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 27th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2023, Oulu, 14 June 2023 through 16 June 2023 (pp. 192-195). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automating Microservices Test Failure Analysis using Kubernetes Cluster Logs
2023 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 192-195Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Kubernetes is a free, open-source container orchestration system for deploying and managing Docker containers that host microservices. Kubernetes cluster logs help in determining the reason for the failure. However, as systems become more complex, identifying failure reasons manually becomes more difficult and time-consuming. This study aims to identify effective and efficient classification algorithms to automatically determine the failure reason. We compare five classification algorithms, Support Vector Machines, K-Nearest Neighbors, Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Classifier, and Multilayer Perceptron. Our results indicate that Random Forest produces good accuracy while requiring fewer computational resources than other algorithms. © 2023 Owner/Author.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023
Keywords
Kubernetes cluster logs, machine learning, microservices, Failure (mechanical), Nearest neighbor search, Open systems, Support vector machines, Classification algorithm, Gradient boosting, Kubernetes cluster log, Machine-learning, Microservice, Nearest-neighbour, Open-source, Random forests, Support vectors machine, Test failure, Containers
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-25058 (URN)10.1145/3593434.3593472 (DOI)001112128800021 ()2-s2.0-85162267482 (Scopus ID)9798400700446 (ISBN)
Conference
27th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2023, Oulu, 14 June 2023 through 16 June 2023
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190081
Available from: 2023-06-30 Created: 2023-06-30 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Chen, X., Usman, M. & Badampudi, D. (2023). Using InnerSource for Improving Internal Reuse: An Industrial Case Study. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 27th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2023, Oulu, 14 June 2023 through 16 June 2023 (pp. 348-357). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using InnerSource for Improving Internal Reuse: An Industrial Case Study
2023 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 348-357Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: InnerSource consists of the use of open source development techniques within the corporation. It helps improve software reuse through increased transparency and inter-team collaboration. Companies need to understand their context and specific needs before deciding to adopt any specific InnerSource practices since they cannot apply all InnerSource practices at once. Aim: This study aims to support the case company in assessing its readiness for adopting InnerSource practices to improve its internal reuse, identify and prioritize the improvement areas, and identify suitable solutions. Method: We performed a case study using a questionnaire and a workshop to check the current and desired status of adopting InnerSource practices and collect potential solutions. Results: The study participants identified that the company needs to prioritize the improvements related to the discoverability, communication channels, and ownership of the reusable assets. In addition, they identified certain InnerSource practices as solutions for the prioritized improvement areas, such as better structured repositories for storing and searching the reusable assets and standardized documentation of the reusable assets. Conclusion: The questionnaire instrument aids the case company in identifying the improvement areas related to InnerSource and reuse practices. InnerSource practices could improve the development and maintenance of reusable assets. Keywords: InnerSource, software reuse, readiness © 2023 Owner/Author.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023
Keywords
Inner Source, Readiness, Software reuse, Open source software, Open systems, Development technique, Industrial case study, Open source development, Reusable assets, Reuse, Software-reuse, Suitable solutions, Team collaboration, Computer software reusability
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-25059 (URN)10.1145/3593434.3593466 (DOI)001112128800051 ()2-s2.0-85162238531 (Scopus ID)9798400700446 (ISBN)
Conference
27th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2023, Oulu, 14 June 2023 through 16 June 2023
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190081
Available from: 2023-06-30 Created: 2023-06-30 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Usman, M., Badampudi, D., Smith, C. & Nayak, H. (2022). An Ecosystem for the Large-Scale Reuse of Microservices in a Cloud-Native Context. IEEE Software, 39(5), 68-75
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Ecosystem for the Large-Scale Reuse of Microservices in a Cloud-Native Context
2022 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents an ecosystem that Ericsson developed to systematically practice large-scale reuse of microservices in a cloud-native context. We discuss how various ecosystem aspects, such as its continuous delivery mechanism, marketplace, and automated checking of design rules, facilitated the development and reuse of microservices across Ericsson. We also share lessons learned while developing the ecosystem including the initiatives related to the adoption of InnerSource practices for sustaining the ecosystem. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2022
Keywords
Companies, Containers, Ecosystems, Licenses, Microservice architectures, Pipelines, Security
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-22898 (URN)10.1109/ms.2022.3167447 (DOI)000844129400012 ()2-s2.0-85128625526 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190081
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-05-06 Created: 2022-05-06 Last updated: 2022-09-16Bibliographically approved
Tanveer, B. & Usman, M. (2022). An Empirical Study on the Use of CDIO in Software Engineering Education. IEEE Transactions on Education, 65(4), 684-694
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Empirical Study on the Use of CDIO in Software Engineering Education
2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359, E-ISSN 1557-9638, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 684-694Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contribution: In this study, we accumulated the knowledge and generated evidence on how and in what context CDIO framework has been used in software engineering (SE) education. The aggregated evidence will enable SE academics in making informed decisions while adopting CDIO for SE education and build upon it. Background: CDIO framework is relevant for SE as it focuses on enabling engineering graduates in conceiving, designing, implementing, and operating complex systems and products. We were not able to find any study that identifies and aggregates the evidence on the use of CDIO for SE education. Research Questions: This study attempts to answer the following research questions: 1) how CDIO has been used in SE education? and 2) what are the experiences of academics in applying the CDIO framework in SE education? Methodology: Using a mixed-method approach (systematic mapping study and interview study with experienced academics in SE), we established the state of the art and practice on the use of CDIO in SE education. Findings: Getting a commitment from the higher management, teachers, and students is a major challenge in the adoption of the CDIO initiative followed by a lack of competence, finance, and resources. Ownership, motivation, persistence, and training of teachers and students are required not only to adopt CDIO for SE but also to sustain it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Education, Interviews, Standards, Systematics, Software engineering, Databases, Software, CDIO, empirical study, software engineering (SE) education, systematic mapping study (SMS)
National Category
Software Engineering Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-22875 (URN)10.1109/TE.2022.3163911 (DOI)000782821200001 ()2-s2.0-85128276341 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190081Knowledge Foundation, 20180010
Available from: 2022-04-28 Created: 2022-04-28 Last updated: 2022-11-18Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Fotrousi, F., Cartaxo, B. & Usman, M. (2022). Reporting Consent, Anonymity and Confidentiality Procedures Adopted in Empirical Studies Using Human Participants. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 16(1), Article ID 220109.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reporting Consent, Anonymity and Confidentiality Procedures Adopted in Empirical Studies Using Human Participants
2022 (English)In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 220109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Empirical studies involving human participants need to follow procedures to avoid causing harm to the subjects. However, it is not always clear how researchers should report these procedures. Aim: This study investigates how researchers report ethical issues in the software engineering journal publications, particularly informed consent, confidentiality, and anonymity. Method: We conducted a literature review to understand the reporting of ethical issues in software engineering journals. In addition, in a workshop, we discussed the importance of reporting the different ethical issues. Results: The results indicate that 49 out of 95 studies reported some ethical issues. Only six studies discussed all three ethical issues. The subjects were mainly informed about the study purpose and procedure. There are limited discussions on how the subjects were informed about the risks involved in the study. Studies reported on how authors ensured confidentiality have also discussed anonymity in most cases. The results of the workshop discussion indicate that reporting ethical issues is important to improve the reliability of the research results. We propose a checklist based on the literature review, which we validated through a workshop. Conclusion: The checklist proposed in this paper is a step towards enhancing ethical reporting in software engineering research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wroclaw University of Technology, 2022
Keywords
research ethics, informed consent, confidentiality, anonymity
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-23496 (URN)10.37190/e-Inf220109 (DOI)000816574300001 ()2-s2.0-85134386956 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190081
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-08-08 Created: 2022-08-08 Last updated: 2022-12-13Bibliographically approved
Chen, X., Badampudi, D. & Usman, M. (2022). Reuse in Contemporary Software Engineering Practices - An Exploratory Case Study in A Medium-sized Company. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 16(1), Article ID 220110.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reuse in Contemporary Software Engineering Practices - An Exploratory Case Study in A Medium-sized Company
2022 (English)In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 220110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Software practice is evolving with changing technologies and practices such as InnerSource, DevOps, and microservices. It is important to investigate the impact of contemporary software engineering (SE) practices on software reuse.Aim: This study aims to characterize software reuse in contemporary SE practices and investigate its implications in terms of costs, benefits, challenges, and potential improvements in a medium-sized company.Method: We performed an exploratory case study by conducting interviews, group discussions, and reviewing company documentation to investigate software reuse in the context of contemporary SE practices in the case company.Results: The results indicate that the development for reuse in contemporary SE practices incurs additional coordination, among other costs. Development with reuse led to relatively fewer additional costs and resulted in several benefits such as better product quality and less development and delivery time. Ownership of reusable assets is challenging in contemporary SE practice. InnerSource practices may help mitigate the top perceived challenges: discoverability and ownership of the reusable assets, knowledge sharing and reuse measurement.Conclusion: Reuse in contemporary SE practices is not without additional costs and challenges. However, the practitioners perceive costs as investments that benefit the company in the long run.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wroclaw University of Technology, 2022
Keywords
software reuse, contemporary SE practices, software reuse costs and benefits, software reuse challenges and improvements, InnerSource
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-23662 (URN)10.37190/e-Inf220110 (DOI)000850816000001 ()2-s2.0-85140768762 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190081
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-09-16 Created: 2022-09-16 Last updated: 2023-09-18Bibliographically approved
Koyyada, S. P., Deshmukh, D., Badampudi, D., Ahmadi Mehri, V. & Usman, M. (2022). Towards automated open source assessment - An empirical study. In: Lee S.,Anwar S., (Ed.), CEUR Workshop Proceedings: . Paper presented at 1st International Workshop on Intelligent Software Engineering, ISE 2022, Virtual, Online, 6 December through 9 December 2022. Technical University of Aachen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards automated open source assessment - An empirical study
Show others...
2022 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Lee S.,Anwar S.,, Technical University of Aachen , 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The open source software (OSS) assessment has become important given the increased adoption of OSS in commercial product development. Researchers proposed many OSS assessment models. However, little is known about the industrial relevance of the models. In this study, we proposed an automated tool based on the OSS assessment attributes identified together with a European cloud provider company. We analyzed 51 repositories to observe patterns in maintenance activities over their lifetime (from inception to the latest release). Based on the analysis, we propose a novel approach for evaluating the maturity of the OSS project. Finally, we assessed the usefulness of our automated solution in a pilot study. © 2022 Copyright for this paper by its authors. Use permitted under Creative Commons License Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Technical University of Aachen, 2022
Series
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, E-ISSN 1613-0073 ; 3362
Keywords
commit classification, OSS assessment automation, software maturity, Automation, Open systems, Assessment models, Commercial products, Empirical studies, Open source software assessment automation, Open-source, Open-source softwares, Software assessment, Software maturities, Source assessment, Open source software
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24473 (URN)2-s2.0-85151663143 (Scopus ID)
Conference
1st International Workshop on Intelligent Software Engineering, ISE 2022, Virtual, Online, 6 December through 9 December 2022
Available from: 2023-04-26 Created: 2023-04-26 Last updated: 2023-04-26Bibliographically approved
Projects
OSIR- Open Source Inspired Reuse [20190081]; Blekinge Institute of Technology; Publications
Iftikhar, U., Ali, N. b., Börstler, J. & Usman, M. (2024). A tertiary study on links between source code metrics and external quality attributes. Information and Software Technology, 165, Article ID 107348. Iftikhar, U., Ali, N. b., Börstler, J. & Usman, M. (2023). A catalog of source code metrics – a tertiary study. In: Daniel Mendez, Dietmar Winkler, Johannes Kross, Stefan Biffl, Johannes Bergsmann (Ed.), Software Quality: Higher Software Quality through Zero Waste Development. Paper presented at 15th International Conference on Software Quality, SWQD 2023, Munich, Germany, May 23-25, 2023 (pp. 87-106). Springer, 472Usman, M., Ali, N. b. & Wohlin, C. (2023). A Quality Assessment Instrument for Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 17(1), Article ID 230105. Sarika, P. K., Badampudi, D., Josyula, S. P. & Usman, M. (2023). Automating Microservices Test Failure Analysis using Kubernetes Cluster Logs. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 27th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2023, Oulu, 14 June 2023 through 16 June 2023 (pp. 192-195). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)Chen, X. (2023). Improving Internal Software Reuse in the Context of Contemporary Software Engineering Practices. (Licentiate dissertation). Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska HögskolaBadampudi, D., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Britto, R. (2023). Modern Code Reviews - Survey of Literature and Practice. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, 32(4), Article ID 107. Chen, X., Usman, M. & Badampudi, D. (2023). Using InnerSource for Improving Internal Reuse: An Industrial Case Study. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 27th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering, EASE 2023, Oulu, 14 June 2023 through 16 June 2023 (pp. 348-357). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)Usman, M., Badampudi, D., Smith, C. & Nayak, H. (2022). An Ecosystem for the Large-Scale Reuse of Microservices in a Cloud-Native Context. IEEE Software, 39(5), 68-75Tanveer, B. & Usman, M. (2022). An Empirical Study on the Use of CDIO in Software Engineering Education. IEEE Transactions on Education, 65(4), 684-694Badampudi, D., Fotrousi, F., Cartaxo, B. & Usman, M. (2022). Reporting Consent, Anonymity and Confidentiality Procedures Adopted in Empirical Studies Using Human Participants. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 16(1), Article ID 220109.
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8132-0107

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