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Nawaz, O., Fiedler, M. & Khatibi, S. (2024). QoE-Based Performance Comparison of AVC, HEVC, and VP9 on Mobile Devices with Additional Influencing Factors. Electronics, 13(2), Article ID 329.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>QoE-Based Performance Comparison of AVC, HEVC, and VP9 on Mobile Devices with Additional Influencing Factors
2024 (English)In: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While current video quality assessment research predominantly revolves around resolutions of 4 K and beyond, targeted at ultra high-definition (UHD) displays, effective video quality for mobile video streaming remains primarily within the range of 480 p to 1080 p. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the quality of experience (QoE) for widely implemented video codecs on mobile devices, specifically Advanced Video Coding (AVC), its successor High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), and Google’s VP9. Our choice of 720 p video sequences from a newly developed database, all with identical bitrates, aimed to maintain a manageable subjective assessment duration, capped at 35–40 min. To mimic real-time network conditions, we generated stimuli by streaming original video clips over a controlled emulated setup, subjecting them to eight different packet-loss scenarios. We evaluated the quality and structural similarity of the distorted video clips using objective metrics, including the Video Quality Metric (VQM), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Video Multi-Method Assessment Fusion (VMAF), and Multi-Scale Structural Similarity Index (MS-SSIM). Subsequently, we collected subjective ratings through a custom mobile application developed for Android devices. Our findings revealed that VMAF accurately represented the degradation in video quality compared to other metrics. Moreover, in most cases, HEVC exhibited an advantage over both AVC and VP9 under low packet-loss scenarios. However, it is noteworthy that in our test cases, AVC outperformed HEVC and VP9 in scenarios with high packet loss, based on both subjective and objective assessments. Our observations further indicate that user preferences for the presented content contributed to video quality ratings, emphasizing the importance of additional factors that influence the perceived video quality of end users. © 2024 by the authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2024
Keywords
HEVC and AVC comparison, mobile codecs efficiency, multimedia streaming, QoE IFs, QoE metrics, video quality assessments
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-25939 (URN)10.3390/electronics13020329 (DOI)001148927000001 ()2-s2.0-85183182089 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2024-02-05 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved
Zepernick, H.-J., Iqbal, M. I., Khatibi, S., Duong, T. Q., Jamil, M. & Esslinger, R. (2022). DMB Video Quality Enhancement Using Header Syntax Repair. In: 32nd International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, ITNAC 2022: . Paper presented at 32nd International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, ITNAC 2022, Wellington, 30 November through 2 December 2022 (pp. 219-226). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DMB Video Quality Enhancement Using Header Syntax Repair
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2022 (English)In: 32nd International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, ITNAC 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 219-226Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper studies a header syntax repair approach for quality enhancement of digital video broadcasting (DMB) videos. A sensitivity analysis of the impact of transmission errors in different parts of the header of the underlying MPEG-2 transport stream packets on DMB video quality is provided. On this basis, a header syntax repair approach is presented using header masks and bounded minimum distance decoding of the headers of the received DMB packets. Objective and subjective quality assessment show a tremendous improvement in the quality of the header syntax repaired DMB video clips. The concepts of the header syntax repair approach proposed for packets of DMB video streams may also be adapted to the syntax of packet formats of other digital video standards. © 2022 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
Keywords
Motion Picture Experts Group standards, Multimedia systems, Repair, Sensitivity analysis, Syntactics, Bounded Minimum Distance Decoding, Digital videos, MPEG-2 transport stream, Objective quality assessment, Quality enhancement, Stream packets, Transmission error, Video broadcasting, Video quality, Video quality enhancements, Computer graphics
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24259 (URN)10.1109/ITNAC55475.2022.9998368 (DOI)000930821700035 ()2-s2.0-85146728235 (Scopus ID)9781665471039 (ISBN)
Conference
32nd International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference, ITNAC 2022, Wellington, 30 November through 2 December 2022
Available from: 2023-02-02 Created: 2023-02-02 Last updated: 2023-03-09Bibliographically approved
Ranga, S. C., Khatibi, S. & Emam, S. M. (2022). Simulation of the UV Radiation Penetration into Seawater. In: Liu Q., Liu X., Cheng J., Shen T., Tian Y. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Networks: . Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Networks, CENet 2022, Haikou, 4 November through 7 November 2022 (pp. 936-943). Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of the UV Radiation Penetration into Seawater
2022 (English)In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Networks / [ed] Liu Q., Liu X., Cheng J., Shen T., Tian Y., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2022, p. 936-943Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

People around the globe are immensely trying to connect using light as a carrier due to its low power consumption and high data transfer rates. Sound and microwaves are examples of other carriers that can be used, although they are not nearly as efficient as light. Using light under the water, refractive index is an important parameter in optical communication. Lights propagation quality depends on the temperature, pressure, and salinity. The aim of this work is to show a new approach to simulating the underwater environment, including depth as one of the parameters. In this paper, the proposed model examines the ultraviolet wavelengths between 200–400 nm wider than previous studies in light traveling. We verify the usefulness of our model by conducting a pilot study in a virtual environment. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2022
Series
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, ISSN 1876-1100, E-ISSN 1876-1119 ; 961
Keywords
Data transfer rates, Refractive index, Underwater optical wireless communication, Virtual reality, Visible light communication, Cloud simulation, High data transfer rates, Low-power consumption, Lower-power consumption, New approaches, Point cloud simulation, Point-clouds, Radiation penetration, Underwater environments, Underwater optical communications, Data transfer, Underwater Optical Communication
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24247 (URN)10.1007/978-981-19-6901-0_96 (DOI)2-s2.0-85144517342 (Scopus ID)9789811969003 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Networks, CENet 2022, Haikou, 4 November through 7 November 2022
Available from: 2023-01-30 Created: 2023-01-30 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved
Xu, Y., Liu, T., Sun, B., Zhang, Y., Khatibi, S. & Sun, M. (2021). Indoor Vision/INS Integrated Mobile Robot Navigation Using Multimodel-Based Multifrequency Kalman Filter. Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), 2021, Article ID 6694084.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor Vision/INS Integrated Mobile Robot Navigation Using Multimodel-Based Multifrequency Kalman Filter
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2021 (English)In: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2021, article id 6694084Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to further improve positioning accuracy, this paper proposes an indoor vision/INS integrated mobile robot navigation method using multimodel-based multifrequency Kalman filter. Firstly, to overcome the insufficient accuracy of visual data when a robot turns, a novel multimodel integrated scheme has been investigated for the mobile robots with Mecanum wheels which can make fixed point angled turns. Secondly, a multifrequency Kalman filter has been used to fuse the position information from both the inertial navigation system and the visual navigation system, which overcomes the problem that the filtering period of the integrated navigation system is too long. The proposed multimodel multifrequency Kalman filter gives the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0184 m in the direction of east and 0.0977 m in north, respectively. The RMSE of visual navigation system is 0.8925 m in the direction of east and 0.9539 m in north, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed method is effective. © 2021 Yuan Xu et al.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Limited, 2021
Keywords
Air navigation, Indoor positioning systems, Inertial navigation systems, Information filtering, Mean square error, Mobile robots, Integrated navigation systems, Mecanum wheels, Mobile Robot Navigation, Multi frequency, Position information, Positioning accuracy, Root mean square errors, Visual navigation systems, Kalman filters
National Category
Control Engineering Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-21016 (URN)10.1155/2021/6694084 (DOI)000613688800004 ()2-s2.0-85099887284 (Scopus ID)
Note

open access

Available from: 2021-02-05 Created: 2021-02-05 Last updated: 2021-03-05Bibliographically approved
Nawaz, O., Fiedler, M. & Khatibi, S. (2020). Impact of Human and Content Factors on Quality of Experience of Online Video Streaming. In: Callegari, C Ng, SX Sarigiannidis, P Battiato, S DeLeon, ASS Ksentini, A Lorenz, P Obaidat, M BenOthman, J (Ed.), PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON E-BUSINESS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS - DCNET, OPTICS, SIGMAP AND WINSYS (ICETE), VOL 2: . Paper presented at 17th International Joint Conference on E-Business and Telecommunications (SECRYPT), Lieusant, Paris on 8-10 July (pp. 59-66). SCITEPRESS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Human and Content Factors on Quality of Experience of Online Video Streaming
2020 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON E-BUSINESS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS - DCNET, OPTICS, SIGMAP AND WINSYS (ICETE), VOL 2 / [ed] Callegari, C Ng, SX Sarigiannidis, P Battiato, S DeLeon, ASS Ksentini, A Lorenz, P Obaidat, M BenOthman, J, SCITEPRESS , 2020, p. 59-66Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although expensive, but the most reliable measure of user perception is by direct human interaction by taking input from the user about a stimulus quality. In our previous studies, we have identified some subjects getting bored and losing focus by rating lots of video clips of small duration during subjective quality assessments. Moreover, the psychological effects, i.e. user delight, frequency of watching online videos (experience), mood, etc. must not influence the user Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for determining the quality of the shown stimuli. In this paper, we have investigated the impact of user delight, frequency of watching online video content (experience) and different mood levels on MOS for streamed video stimuli in various network conditions by subjective quality assessments. We have observed a slight tendency of better scores when the user likes the stimulus. However, our results show that if the subjective assessments are conducted by carefully following the guidelines, the users impartially rate the video stimuli solely based on the quality artifacts irrespective of their delight towards the shown content. Although, we have observed an effect of user mood on MOS ratings; for almost all the stimuli, but the results suggest the need of more detailed study; i.e. with a large and diverse set of subjects, to obtain significant statistical relevance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SCITEPRESS, 2020
Keywords
Quality of Experience, Mean Opinion Score, User Perception, Multimedia Communication
National Category
Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-21156 (URN)10.5220/0009831400590066 (DOI)000615962300005 ()2-s2.0-85108460067 (Scopus ID)9789897584459 (ISBN)
Conference
17th International Joint Conference on E-Business and Telecommunications (SECRYPT), Lieusant, Paris on 8-10 July
Note

open access

Available from: 2021-03-04 Created: 2021-03-04 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Nawaz, O., Fiedler, M., De Moor, K. & Khatibi, S. (2020). Influence of Gender and Viewing Frequency on Quality of Experience. In: 12th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience, QoMEX 2020: . Paper presented at 12th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience, QoMEX 2020, Athlone, Ireland, 26 May 2020 through 28 May 2020. IEEE, Article ID 9123106.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Gender and Viewing Frequency on Quality of Experience
2020 (English)In: 12th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience, QoMEX 2020, IEEE, 2020, article id 9123106Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Some of the most important aspects for content creators and service providers are the content appeal and the time consumed by the end users on a particular application or service. Gender and age can influence the Quality of Experience (QoE) ratings of multimedia based on the nature of the shown content, yet few studies have quantized this notion. In this paper, we zoom in on the influence of gender on user ratings in a video QoE study (N=89) with packet loss as the main system influence factor. We have analyzed the impact of gender on QoE subjective ratings both as a standalone influence factor and in coherence of temporal traits like the frequency of watching online content. We have observed significant trends to highlight the importance of systematically checking and reporting on the impact of basic human factors, such as gender in relation to quality perception with respect to different types of content. © 2020 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2020
Series
International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), ISSN 2372-7179, E-ISSN 2472-7814
Keywords
Human Factors, Machine Learning, QoE, User Diversity, Multimedia systems, Content creators, End users, On-line contents, Quality of experience (QoE), Quality perceptions, Service provider, Subjective rating, User rating, Quality of service
National Category
Computer Sciences Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-20275 (URN)10.1109/QoMEX48832.2020.9123106 (DOI)000619223500033 ()2-s2.0-85087721388 (Scopus ID)9781728159652 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience, QoMEX 2020, Athlone, Ireland, 26 May 2020 through 28 May 2020
Available from: 2020-08-11 Created: 2020-08-11 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Zhou, Y. & Khatibi, S. (2020). Mapping and Generating Adaptive Ontology of Decision Experiences. In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series: . Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Information Science and System, ICISS 2020, Virtual, Online, United Kingdom, 19 March 2020 through 22 March 2020 (pp. 138-143). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping and Generating Adaptive Ontology of Decision Experiences
2020 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery , 2020, p. 138-143Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Decision-making is shared by many disciplines. In computer science decision-making systems aim to substitute or support people for making decisions. The systems generally need to acquire as many as possible data to provide possible options for any decision-making. The possible options are usually obtained by modeling situations data. However, situation data is becoming tremendous along with daily life changes and it is becoming more and more difficult to model and restore those situation data. However as human, when the situation data is lacking, we still can make appropriate decisions based on our "decision experiences". To learn how decisions are made adaptively by humans, this paper propose a method to characterize a decision-making process for a finite number of people only based on individual's actions without modeling any situation data. Then the characterization problem is formulated as a one-dimensional decision-making process and experimented as a number guessing game. The experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method in mapping and generation of an adaptive ontology structure of decision experiences for experimental participants. © 2020 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2020
Keywords
Decision, Decision-making, Ontology, Representation of uncertainty, Behavioral research, Mapping, One dimensional, Daily lives, Decision making process, Decision-making systems, Finite number, Making decision, Decision making
National Category
Computer Sciences Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-20558 (URN)10.1145/3388176.3388200 (DOI)2-s2.0-85092161672 (Scopus ID)9781450377256 (ISBN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Information Science and System, ICISS 2020, Virtual, Online, United Kingdom, 19 March 2020 through 22 March 2020
Available from: 2020-10-16 Created: 2020-10-16 Last updated: 2020-10-16Bibliographically approved
Wen, W., Khatibi, S., Kajínek, O. & Chadzitaskos, G. (2019). A Common Assessment Space for Different Sensor Structures. Sensors, 19(3), Article ID 568.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Common Assessment Space for Different Sensor Structures
2019 (English)In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 3, article id 568Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study of the evolution process of our visual system indicates the existence of variational spatial arrangement; from densely hexagonal in the fovea to a sparse circular structure in the peripheral retina. Today’s sensor spatial arrangement is inspired by our visual system. However, we have not come further than rigid rectangular and, on a minor scale, hexagonal sensor arrangements. Even in this situation, there is a need for directly assessing differences between the rectangular and hexagonal sensor arrangements, i.e., without the conversion of one arrangement to another. In this paper, we propose a method to create a common space for addressing any spatial arrangements and assessing the differences among them, e.g., between the rectangular and hexagonal. Such a space is created by implementing a continuous extension of discrete Weyl Group orbit function transform which extends a discrete arrangement to a continuous one. The implementation of the space is demonstrated by comparing two types of generated hexagonal images from each rectangular image with two different methods of the half-pixel shifting method and virtual hexagonal method. In the experiment, a group of ten texture images were generated with variational curviness content using ten different Perlin noise patterns, adding to an initial 2D Gaussian distribution pattern image. Then, the common space was obtained from each of the discrete images to assess the differences between the original rectangular image and its corresponding hexagonal image. The results show that the space facilitates a usage friendly tool to address an arrangement and assess the changes between different spatial arrangements by which, in the experiment, the hexagonal images show richer intensity variation, nonlinear behavior, and larger dynamic range in comparison to the rectangular images.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
software-based; common space; hexagonal image; pixel arrangement; pixel form; continuous extension; resampling
National Category
Signal Processing Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17544 (URN)10.3390/s19030568 (DOI)000459941200131 ()
Note

open access

Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2022-02-10Bibliographically approved
Minhas, T. N., Nawaz, O., Fiedler, M. & Khatibi, S. (2019). The Effects of Additional Factors on Subjective Quality Assessments. In: 2nd International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences, ICACS 2019: . Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences, ICACS, Lahore, 18 February 2019 through 20 February 2019 (pp. 120-124). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., Article ID 8689138.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effects of Additional Factors on Subjective Quality Assessments
2019 (English)In: 2nd International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences, ICACS 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 120-124, article id 8689138Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Quality of Experience, the users' degrees of delight or annoyance are quantized by direct human interaction via subjective quality assessments. There are many factors that may influence the users' responses, and standards have been laid down to strictly control the monitoring conditions. In this paper, we analyze limitations of Mean Opinion Score (MOS) assessment to portray the influence of additional factors on user behavior while assessing multimedia content. We show that the frequency of watching online video content as well as the user delight with the content play a significant role in her final feedback. Our study emphasizes the need to use additional metrics along with MOS for content ratings to obtain a more accurate measure of the user experience. © 2019 The University of Lahore.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Multimedia communication, Quality of Experience, User Perception, Multimedia systems, Quality of service, Content ratings, Human interactions, Mean opinion scores, Multi-media communications, Multimedia contents, Quality of experience (QoE), Subjective quality assessments, User perceptions, Behavioral research
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17906 (URN)10.23919/ICACS.2019.8689138 (DOI)000470736000018 ()2-s2.0-85065105387 (Scopus ID)9789699721014 (ISBN)
Conference
2nd International Conference on Advancements in Computational Sciences, ICACS, Lahore, 18 February 2019 through 20 February 2019
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
Khatibi, S., Zepernick, H.-J. & Iqbal, M. I. (2018). Device and method for processing a stream of video data. us US-9948959-B2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Device and method for processing a stream of video data
2018 (English)Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

A device for processing a stream of video data which comprises a sequence of frames comprises an interface configured to receive the stream of video data. A processing device is configured to create a three-dimensional environment from a frame of the sequence of frames when a freeze condition is detected. The processing device is configured to generate a series of frames from the three-dimensional environment. The series of frames represents the three-dimensional environment from a plurality of points of view. The processing device is configured to insert the generated series of frames into the sequence of frames to generate a modified sequence of frames to conceal a freeze.

National Category
Media Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-25852 (URN)
Patent
US US-9948959-B2 (2018-04-17)
Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-01-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4327-117x

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