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Gorschek, Tony
Publications (10 of 134) Show all publications
Peixoto, M., Ferreira, D., Cavalcanti, M., Silva, C. C., Vilela, J., Araújo, J. & Gorschek, T. (2020). On Understanding How Developers Perceive and Interpret Privacy Requirements Research Preview. In: Madhavji N.,Pasquale L. (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science: . Paper presented at 26th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, 2020; Pisa; Italy; 24 March 2020 through 27 March 2020 (pp. 116-123). Springer, 12045
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Understanding How Developers Perceive and Interpret Privacy Requirements Research Preview
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2020 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Madhavji N.,Pasquale L., Springer , 2020, Vol. 12045, p. 116-123Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

[Context and motivation] Ensuring privacy of users’ data has become a top concern in software development, either to satisfy users’ needs or to comply with privacy laws. The problem may increase by the time a new law is in the vacancy period, and companies are working to understand how to comply with it. In addition, research has shown that many developers do not have sufficient knowledge about how to develop privacy-sensitive software. [Question/problem] Motivated by this scenario, this research investigates the personal factors affecting the developers’ understanding of privacy requirements during the vacancy period of a data protection law. [Principal ideas/results] We conducted thirteen interviews in six different private companies. As a result, we found nine personal factors affecting how software developers perceive and interpret privacy requirements. [Contribution] The identification of the personal factors contributes to the elaboration of effective methods for promoting proper privacy-sensitive software development. © 2020, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Privacy requirements, Qualitative study, Software development, Computer software selection and evaluation, Requirements engineering, Software design, Privacy law, Private companies, Software developer, Data privacy
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-19440 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-44429-7_8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85083973389 (Scopus ID)9783030444280 (ISBN)
Conference
26th International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, 2020; Pisa; Italy; 24 March 2020 through 27 March 2020
Note

Open access

Available from: 2020-05-08 Created: 2020-05-08 Last updated: 2020-05-08Bibliographically approved
Martins, L. E. & Gorschek, T. (2020). Requirements Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems: An Interview Study with Industry Practitioners. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 46(4), 346-361
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements Engineering for Safety-Critical Systems: An Interview Study with Industry Practitioners
2020 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 346-361Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have conducted in-depth interviews with experienced practitioners in the Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) domain in order to investigate several aspects related to requirements specification and safety analysis for SCS. We interviewed 19 practitioners from eleven SCS companies in different domains with the intention of verifying which approaches they use day-today, and what their perceptions are in relation to the approaches used to elicit, analyze, specify and validate safety requirements. The aim of this study is to obtain an in-depth understanding of how requirements engineering is carried out in companies that develop SCS. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020
Keywords
Certification, Companies, Interviews, Requirements, Requirements engineering, Safety, Safety Critical Systems, SCS, Software, Software and System Safety, Software Engineering, Specification, Unified modeling language, Computer software, Industry, Scandium, Security systems, Specifications, Software and system safeties, Accident prevention
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16889 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2018.2854716 (DOI)000529529700001 ()2-s2.0-85049859538 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2020-05-15Bibliographically approved
Vilela, J. F., Castro, J. F., Martins, L. E. & Gorschek, T. (2020). Safety Practices in Requirements Engineering: The Uni-REPM Safety Module. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 46(3), 222-250
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety Practices in Requirements Engineering: The Uni-REPM Safety Module
2020 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 222-250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software is an important part in safety- critical system (SCS) development since it is becoming a major source of hazards. Requirements-related hazards have been as- sociated with many accidents and safety incidents. Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in companies with high processes maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. However, requirements en- gineers need systematic guidance to consider safety concerns early in the development process. Goal: the paper investigates which safety practices are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process for SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we followed the design science methodology to propose Uni-REPM SCS, a safety module for Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). We also conducted a static validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts to evaluate its coverage, correctness, usefulness and applicability. Results: The module has seven main processes, fourteen sub-processes and 148 practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Moreover, we describe its usage through a tool. Conclusions: The validation indicates a good coverage of practices and well receptivity by the experts. Finally, the module can help companies in evaluating their current practices. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2020
Keywords
Capability maturity model, Companies, Maturity Models, Requirements engineering, Safety, Safety Engineering, Safety-critical systems, Software, Standards, Systematics, Uni-REPM, Accident prevention, Computer software, Hazards, Industry, Security systems, Software engineering, Capability maturity models, Maturity model, Safety critical systems
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16642 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2018.2846576 (DOI)000522205900001 ()2-s2.0-85048550515 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140218
Available from: 2018-06-28 Created: 2018-06-28 Last updated: 2020-04-16Bibliographically approved
Yu, L., Alégroth, E., Chatzipetrou, P. & Gorschek, T. (2020). Utilising CI environment for efficient and effective testing of NFRs. Information and Software Technology, 117, Article ID 106199.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilising CI environment for efficient and effective testing of NFRs
2020 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 117, article id 106199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Continuous integration (CI) is a practice that aims to continuously verify quality aspects of a software intensive system both for functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). Functional requirements are the inputs of development and can be tested in isolation, utilising either manual or automated tests. In contrast, some NFRs are difficult to test without functionality, for NFRs are often aspects of functionality and express quality aspects. Lacking this testability attribute makes NFR testing complicated and, therefore, underrepresented in industrial practice. However, the emergence of CI has radically affected software development and created new avenues for software quality evaluation and quality information acquisition. Research has, consequently, been devoted to the utilisation of this additional information for more efficient and effective NFR verification. Objective: We aim to identify the state-of-the-art of utilising the CI environment for NFR testing, hereinafter referred to as CI-NFR testing. Method: Through rigorous selection, from an initial set of 747 papers, we identified 47 papers that describe how NFRs are tested in a CI environment. Evidence-based analysis, through coding, is performed on the identified papers in this SLR. Results: Firstly, ten CI approaches are described by the papers selected, each describing different tools and nine different NFRs where reported to be tested. Secondly, although possible, CI-NFR testing is associated with eight challenges that adversely affect its adoption. Thirdly, the identified CI-NFR testing processes are tool-driven, but there is a lack of NFR testing tools that can be used in the CI environment. Finally, we proposed a CI framework for NFRs testing. Conclusion: A synthesised CI framework is proposed for testing various NFRs, and associated CI tools are also mapped. This contribution is valuable as results of the study also show that CI-NFR testing can help improve the quality of NFR testing in practices. © 2019

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2020
Keywords
Agile, CI, Continuous integration, DevOps, NFR, Non-functional requirement, SAFe, Scaled agile framework, Computer software selection and evaluation, Integral equations, Paper, Software design, Continuous integrations, Non-functional requirements, Quality control
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18829 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2019.106199 (DOI)000496874400005 ()2-s2.0-85073572821 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Ouriques, R., Britto, R., Wnuk, K., Ouriques, J. F. & Gorschek, T. (2019). A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development. In: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019: . Paper presented at The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019 Porto de Galinhas, Brazil September 19th-20th, 2019. IEEE, Article ID 8870167.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development
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2019 (English)In: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019, IEEE, 2019, article id 8870167Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Organizations adopting Agile Software Development (ASD) use different Knowledge Management (KM) practices to retain and share knowledge. However, it is often the case that knowledge retention is carried out in an ad-hoc way.

Aims: In this study, we report our experience from proposing the Knowledge Critically Evaluation Method (KCEM) to evaluate knowledge items (KIT). Our main goal with KCEMs is to support companies to systematically retain knowledge in ASD contexts.

Method: We conducted an improvement case study to develop and evaluate KCEM. This research follows the guidelines for technology transfer between industry and academia. The case and unit of analysis is Ericsson, a Swedish company that develops telecommunication solutions.

Results: In this paper, we provide initial results of both lab and static validation, enriched by the lessons learned.

Conclusions: The preliminary results show that KCEM is easy to understand and use, provides a different perspective on the KIT by visualizing in the criticality chart, and reduces the level of abstraction associated to a knowledge subject area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Agile Software Development, Critical Knowledge, Knowledge Management
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18507 (URN)10.1109/ESEM.2019.8870167 (DOI)9781728129686 (ISBN)
Conference
The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019 Porto de Galinhas, Brazil September 19th-20th, 2019
Projects
S.E.R.T. Research Profile
Available from: 2019-08-01 Created: 2019-08-01 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Gorschek, T., Prikladniki, R., Tripathi, N. & Pompermaier, L. B. (2019). A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Context: Software start-ups are emerging as suppliers of innovation and software-intensive products. However, traditional software engineering practices are not evaluated in the context, nor adopted to goals and challenges of start-ups. As a result, there is insufficient support for software engineering in the start-up context. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Analytical models, Companies, Market opportunities, progression model, Requirements engineering, Software, Software engineering, software engineering practices, software start-up, Computer software, Industry
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17706 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2019.2900213 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061979918 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T., Wnuk, K. & Gorschek, T. (2019). An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements. Journal of Systems and Software, 149, 217-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements
2019 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2019
Keywords
Non-functional requirements, Product management, Quality requirements, Requirements engineering, Requirements scope decision, Hardware, Software engineering, Decision process, Empirical studies, External stakeholders, Long term planning, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17455 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.12.002 (DOI)000457951800009 ()2-s2.0-85058167239 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Wohlin, C. & Gorschek, T. (2019). An Evaluation of Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering. In: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement: . Paper presented at 13th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM, Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, 19 September through 20 September. IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evaluation of Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering
2019 (English)In: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, IEEE Computer Society , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Knowledge translation is defined, in health sciences, as 'the exchange, synthesis and ethically sound application of research results in practice'. The objective of this paper is to implement and conduct a feasibility evaluation of a knowledge translation framework in software engineering. We evaluated the outcome of the knowledge translation framework in an industrial setting, along with the effectiveness of the interventions undertaken as part of knowledge translation in a multi-case study. The results of the evaluation suggest that the practitioners perceive the knowledge translation framework to be valuable and useful. In conclusion, this paper contributes towards the reporting of a systematic implementation of knowledge translation and evaluating its use in software engineering. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2019
Keywords
Knowledge translation, systematic literature reviews, technology transfer, Software engineering, Evaluation of knowledge, Health science, Industrial settings, Research results, Systematic literature review, Knowledge management
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18923 (URN)10.1109/ESEM.2019.8870165 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074267675 (Scopus ID)9781728129686 (ISBN)
Conference
13th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM, Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, 19 September through 20 September
Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Alahyari, H., Gorschek, T. & Berntsson Svensson, R. (2019). An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations. Information and Software Technology, 107, 78-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations
2019 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 107, p. 78-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: The principal focus of lean is the identification and elimination of waste from the process with respect to maximizing customer value. Similarly, the purpose of agile is to maximize customer value and minimize unnecessary work and time delays. In both cases the concept of waste is important. Through an empirical study, we explore how waste is approached in agile software development organizations. Objective: This paper explores the concept of waste in agile/lean software development organizations and how it is defined, used, prioritized, reduced, or eliminated in practice Method: The data were collected using semi-structured open-interviews. 23 practitioners from 14 embedded software development organizations were interviewed representing two core roles in each organization. Results: Various wastes, categorized in 10 different categories, were identified by the respondents. From the mentioned wastes, not all were necessarily waste per se but could be symptoms caused by wastes. From the seven wastes of lean, Task-switching was ranked as the most important, and Extra-features, as the least important wastes according to the respondents’ opinion. However, most companies do not have their own or use an established definition of waste, more importantly, very few actively identify or try to eliminate waste in their organizations beyond local initiatives on project level. Conclusion: In order to identify, recognize and eliminate waste, a common understanding, and a joint and holistic view of the concept is needed. It is also important to optimize the whole organization and the whole product, as waste on one level can be important on another, thus sub-optimization should be avoided. Furthermore, to achieve a sustainable and effective waste handling, both the short-term and the long-term perspectives need to be considered. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Agile software development, Lean software development, Non-value adding activities, Waste, Wastes, Empirical studies, Exploratory studies, Long-term perspective, Multiple-case study, Software development organizations, Value adding activities, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17085 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2018.08.006 (DOI)000452586900006 ()2-s2.0-85053629776 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Berntsson Svensson, R., Gorschek, T., Bengtsson, P. & Widerberg, J. (2019). BAM: backlog assessment method. In: Kruchten, P; Fraser, S; Coallier, F (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING, XP 2019. Paper presented at 20th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2019; Montreal; Canada; 21 May 2019 through 25 May (pp. 53-68). Springer Verlag, 355
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BAM: backlog assessment method
2019 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING, XP 2019 / [ed] Kruchten, P; Fraser, S; Coallier, F, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 355, p. 53-68Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The necessity of software as stand-alone products, and as central parts of non-traditional software products have changed how software products are developed. It started with the introduction of the agile manifesto and has resulted in a change of how software process improvements (SPI) are conducted. Although there are agile SPI methods and several agile practices for evaluating and improving current processes and ways-of-working, no method or practices for evaluating the backlog exists. To address this gap, the Backlog Assessment Method (BAM) was developed and applied in collaboration with Telenor Sweden. BAM enables agile organizations to assess backlogs, and assure that the backlog items are good-enough for their needs and well aligned with the decision process. The results from the validation show that BAM is feasible and relevant in an industrial environment, and it indicates that BAM is useful as a tool to perform analysis of items in a specific backlog. © The Author(s) 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2019
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348
Keywords
Agile, Backlog assessment method, Case study, Software process assessment, Software process improvement, Process engineering, Agile organizations, Industrial environments, Software process improvements, Software products, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18010 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-19034-7_4 (DOI)000490717900004 ()2-s2.0-85065868875 (Scopus ID)9783030190330 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2019; Montreal; Canada; 21 May 2019 through 25 May
Note

open access

Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
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