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Gorschek, Tony
Publications (10 of 131) Show all publications
Yu, L., Alégroth, E., Chatzipetrou, P. & Gorschek, T. (2020). Utilising CI environment for efficient and effective testing of NFRs. Information and Software Technology, 117, Article ID 106199.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilising CI environment for efficient and effective testing of NFRs
2020 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 117, article id 106199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Continuous integration (CI) is a practice that aims to continuously verify quality aspects of a software intensive system both for functional and non-functional requirements (NFRs). Functional requirements are the inputs of development and can be tested in isolation, utilising either manual or automated tests. In contrast, some NFRs are difficult to test without functionality, for NFRs are often aspects of functionality and express quality aspects. Lacking this testability attribute makes NFR testing complicated and, therefore, underrepresented in industrial practice. However, the emergence of CI has radically affected software development and created new avenues for software quality evaluation and quality information acquisition. Research has, consequently, been devoted to the utilisation of this additional information for more efficient and effective NFR verification. Objective: We aim to identify the state-of-the-art of utilising the CI environment for NFR testing, hereinafter referred to as CI-NFR testing. Method: Through rigorous selection, from an initial set of 747 papers, we identified 47 papers that describe how NFRs are tested in a CI environment. Evidence-based analysis, through coding, is performed on the identified papers in this SLR. Results: Firstly, ten CI approaches are described by the papers selected, each describing different tools and nine different NFRs where reported to be tested. Secondly, although possible, CI-NFR testing is associated with eight challenges that adversely affect its adoption. Thirdly, the identified CI-NFR testing processes are tool-driven, but there is a lack of NFR testing tools that can be used in the CI environment. Finally, we proposed a CI framework for NFRs testing. Conclusion: A synthesised CI framework is proposed for testing various NFRs, and associated CI tools are also mapped. This contribution is valuable as results of the study also show that CI-NFR testing can help improve the quality of NFR testing in practices. © 2019

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2020
Keywords
Agile, CI, Continuous integration, DevOps, NFR, Non-functional requirement, SAFe, Scaled agile framework, Computer software selection and evaluation, Integral equations, Paper, Software design, Continuous integrations, Non-functional requirements, Quality control
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18829 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2019.106199 (DOI)000496874400005 ()2-s2.0-85073572821 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Ouriques, R., Britto, R., Wnuk, K., Ouriques, J. F. & Gorschek, T. (2019). A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development. In: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019: . Paper presented at The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019 Porto de Galinhas, Brazil September 19th-20th, 2019. IEEE, Article ID 8870167.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development
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2019 (English)In: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019, IEEE, 2019, article id 8870167Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Organizations adopting Agile Software Development (ASD) use different Knowledge Management (KM) practices to retain and share knowledge. However, it is often the case that knowledge retention is carried out in an ad-hoc way.

Aims: In this study, we report our experience from proposing the Knowledge Critically Evaluation Method (KCEM) to evaluate knowledge items (KIT). Our main goal with KCEMs is to support companies to systematically retain knowledge in ASD contexts.

Method: We conducted an improvement case study to develop and evaluate KCEM. This research follows the guidelines for technology transfer between industry and academia. The case and unit of analysis is Ericsson, a Swedish company that develops telecommunication solutions.

Results: In this paper, we provide initial results of both lab and static validation, enriched by the lessons learned.

Conclusions: The preliminary results show that KCEM is easy to understand and use, provides a different perspective on the KIT by visualizing in the criticality chart, and reduces the level of abstraction associated to a knowledge subject area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Keywords
Agile Software Development, Critical Knowledge, Knowledge Management
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18507 (URN)10.1109/ESEM.2019.8870167 (DOI)9781728129686 (ISBN)
Conference
The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019 Porto de Galinhas, Brazil September 19th-20th, 2019
Projects
S.E.R.T. Research Profile
Available from: 2019-08-01 Created: 2019-08-01 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Gorschek, T., Prikladniki, R., Tripathi, N. & Pompermaier, L. B. (2019). A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Context: Software start-ups are emerging as suppliers of innovation and software-intensive products. However, traditional software engineering practices are not evaluated in the context, nor adopted to goals and challenges of start-ups. As a result, there is insufficient support for software engineering in the start-up context. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Analytical models, Companies, Market opportunities, progression model, Requirements engineering, Software, Software engineering, software engineering practices, software start-up, Computer software, Industry
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17706 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2019.2900213 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061979918 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T., Wnuk, K. & Gorschek, T. (2019). An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements. Journal of Systems and Software, 149, 217-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements
2019 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2019
Keywords
Non-functional requirements, Product management, Quality requirements, Requirements engineering, Requirements scope decision, Hardware, Software engineering, Decision process, Empirical studies, External stakeholders, Long term planning, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17455 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.12.002 (DOI)000457951800009 ()2-s2.0-85058167239 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Wohlin, C. & Gorschek, T. (2019). An Evaluation of Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering. In: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement: . Paper presented at 13th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM, Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, 19 September through 20 September. IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evaluation of Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering
2019 (English)In: International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, IEEE Computer Society , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Knowledge translation is defined, in health sciences, as 'the exchange, synthesis and ethically sound application of research results in practice'. The objective of this paper is to implement and conduct a feasibility evaluation of a knowledge translation framework in software engineering. We evaluated the outcome of the knowledge translation framework in an industrial setting, along with the effectiveness of the interventions undertaken as part of knowledge translation in a multi-case study. The results of the evaluation suggest that the practitioners perceive the knowledge translation framework to be valuable and useful. In conclusion, this paper contributes towards the reporting of a systematic implementation of knowledge translation and evaluating its use in software engineering. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2019
Keywords
Knowledge translation, systematic literature reviews, technology transfer, Software engineering, Evaluation of knowledge, Health science, Industrial settings, Research results, Systematic literature review, Knowledge management
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18923 (URN)10.1109/ESEM.2019.8870165 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074267675 (Scopus ID)9781728129686 (ISBN)
Conference
13th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM, Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco, Brazil, 19 September through 20 September
Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Alahyari, H., Gorschek, T. & Berntsson Svensson, R. (2019). An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations. Information and Software Technology, 107, 78-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations
2019 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 107, p. 78-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: The principal focus of lean is the identification and elimination of waste from the process with respect to maximizing customer value. Similarly, the purpose of agile is to maximize customer value and minimize unnecessary work and time delays. In both cases the concept of waste is important. Through an empirical study, we explore how waste is approached in agile software development organizations. Objective: This paper explores the concept of waste in agile/lean software development organizations and how it is defined, used, prioritized, reduced, or eliminated in practice Method: The data were collected using semi-structured open-interviews. 23 practitioners from 14 embedded software development organizations were interviewed representing two core roles in each organization. Results: Various wastes, categorized in 10 different categories, were identified by the respondents. From the mentioned wastes, not all were necessarily waste per se but could be symptoms caused by wastes. From the seven wastes of lean, Task-switching was ranked as the most important, and Extra-features, as the least important wastes according to the respondents’ opinion. However, most companies do not have their own or use an established definition of waste, more importantly, very few actively identify or try to eliminate waste in their organizations beyond local initiatives on project level. Conclusion: In order to identify, recognize and eliminate waste, a common understanding, and a joint and holistic view of the concept is needed. It is also important to optimize the whole organization and the whole product, as waste on one level can be important on another, thus sub-optimization should be avoided. Furthermore, to achieve a sustainable and effective waste handling, both the short-term and the long-term perspectives need to be considered. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Agile software development, Lean software development, Non-value adding activities, Waste, Wastes, Empirical studies, Exploratory studies, Long-term perspective, Multiple-case study, Software development organizations, Value adding activities, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17085 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2018.08.006 (DOI)000452586900006 ()2-s2.0-85053629776 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Berntsson Svensson, R., Gorschek, T., Bengtsson, P. & Widerberg, J. (2019). BAM: backlog assessment method. In: Kruchten, P; Fraser, S; Coallier, F (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING, XP 2019. Paper presented at 20th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2019; Montreal; Canada; 21 May 2019 through 25 May (pp. 53-68). Springer Verlag, 355
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BAM: backlog assessment method
2019 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING, XP 2019 / [ed] Kruchten, P; Fraser, S; Coallier, F, Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 355, p. 53-68Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The necessity of software as stand-alone products, and as central parts of non-traditional software products have changed how software products are developed. It started with the introduction of the agile manifesto and has resulted in a change of how software process improvements (SPI) are conducted. Although there are agile SPI methods and several agile practices for evaluating and improving current processes and ways-of-working, no method or practices for evaluating the backlog exists. To address this gap, the Backlog Assessment Method (BAM) was developed and applied in collaboration with Telenor Sweden. BAM enables agile organizations to assess backlogs, and assure that the backlog items are good-enough for their needs and well aligned with the decision process. The results from the validation show that BAM is feasible and relevant in an industrial environment, and it indicates that BAM is useful as a tool to perform analysis of items in a specific backlog. © The Author(s) 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2019
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348
Keywords
Agile, Backlog assessment method, Case study, Software process assessment, Software process improvement, Process engineering, Agile organizations, Industrial environments, Software process improvements, Software products, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18010 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-19034-7_4 (DOI)000490717900004 ()2-s2.0-85065868875 (Scopus ID)9783030190330 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2019; Montreal; Canada; 21 May 2019 through 25 May
Note

open access

Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Alégroth, E., Gorschek, T., Petersen, K. & Mattsson, M. (2019). Characteristics that affect Preference of Decision Models for Asset Selection: An Industrial Questionnaire Survey. Software quality journal
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics that affect Preference of Decision Models for Asset Selection: An Industrial Questionnaire Survey
2019 (English)In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Modern software development relies on a combination of development and re-use of technical asset, e.g. software components, libraries and APIs.In the past, re-use was mostly conducted with internal assets but today external; open source, customer off-the-shelf (COTS) and assets developed through outsourcing are also common.This access to more asset alternatives presents new challenges regarding what assets to optimally chose and how to make this decision.To support decision-makers, decision-theory has been used to develop decision models for asset selection.However, very little industrial data has been presented in literature about the usefulness, or even perceived usefulness, of these models.Additionally, only limited information has been presented about what model characteristics that determine practitioner preference towards one model over another.

Objective: The objective of this work is to evaluate what characteristics of decision models for asset selection that determine industrial practitioner preference of a model when given the choice of a decision-model of high precision or a model with high speed.

Method: An industrial questionnaire survey is performed where a total of 33 practitioners, of varying roles, from 18 companies are tasked to compare two decision models for asset selection.Textual analysis and formal and descriptive statistics are then applied on the survey responses to answer the study's research questions.

Results: The study shows that the practitioners had clear preference towards the decision model that emphasised speed over the one that emphasised decision precision.This conclusion was determined to be because one of the models was perceived faster, had lower complexity, had, was more flexible in use for different decisions, was more agile how it could be used in operation, its emphasis on people, its emphasis on ``good enough'' precision and ability to fail fast if a decision was a failure.Hence, seven characteristics that the practitioners considered important for their acceptance of the model.

Conclusion: Industrial practitioner preference, which relates to acceptance, of decision models for asset selection is dependent on multiple characteristics that must be considered when developing a model for different types of decisions such as operational day-to-day decisions as well as more critical tactical or strategic decisions.The main contribution of this work are seven identified characteristics that can serve as industrial requirements for future research on decision models for asset selection.

Keywords
Decision-models, Characteristics, Industrial study, Survey, Model comparison
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18687 (URN)
Projects
ORION
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
Alégroth, E., Gorschek, T., Petersen, K. & Mattsson, M. (2019). Characteristics that affect Preference of Decision Models for Asset Selection: An Industrial Questionnaire Survey - Appendix A: Questionnaire Introduction. Decision-making in Practice / Appendix B: Survey results.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics that affect Preference of Decision Models for Asset Selection: An Industrial Questionnaire Survey - Appendix A: Questionnaire Introduction. Decision-making in Practice / Appendix B: Survey results
2019 (English)Data set, Aggregated data
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18692 (URN)
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2019-11-18
Pernstål, J., Feldt, R., Gorschek, T. & Florén, D. (2019). Communication Problems in Software Development: A Model and Its Industrial Application. International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, 29(10), 1497-1538
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communication Problems in Software Development: A Model and Its Industrial Application
2019 (English)In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 29, no 10, p. 1497-1538Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Attaining effective communication within and across organizational units is among the most critical challenges for success in software development organizations. This paper presents a novel model, supporting analysis of problems in inter-departmental communication events. The model was developed and designed based on industrial needs emphasizing flexibility, applicability and scalability. The model covers central communication aspects in order to provide a useful approximation of communication problems rather than in-depth modeling on message-by message basis. Other event-specific information, such as costs, can then be attached to enrich analysis and understanding. To exemplify and evaluate the model and collect feedback from industry, it was applied to 16 events at a Swedish automotive manufacturer where communication between two departments had broken down during development of software-intensive systems. The evaluation showed that the model helped structure and conduct systematic data collection and analysis of dysfunctional communication patterns. We found that insufficient understanding of the matters being communicated was prevalent, but also more specifically, requirements were insufficiently balanced, detailed and specified over the full system development cycle. Besides, the long-term cost for the company was analyzed in depth for each event, yielding a total estimated cost for the analyzed communication events of 11.2MUS$. © 2019 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd, 2019
Keywords
automotive industry, communication, manufacturing engineering, Organizational management and coordination, software engineering, software-intensive systems, Application programs, Cost benefit analysis, Manufacture, Automotive manufacturers, Communication problems, Effective communication, Organizational management and coordinations, Software development organizations, Software intensive systems, System development cycle, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18919 (URN)10.1142/S0218194019500475 (DOI)2-s2.0-85074447470 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-18 Created: 2019-11-18 Last updated: 2019-11-18Bibliographically approved
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