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Gorschek, Tony
Publications (10 of 116) Show all publications
Olsson, T., Wnuk, K. & Gorschek, T. (2019). An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements. Journal of Systems and Software, 149, 217-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements
2019 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2019
Keywords
Non-functional requirements, Product management, Quality requirements, Requirements engineering, Requirements scope decision, Hardware, Software engineering, Decision process, Empirical studies, External stakeholders, Long term planning, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17455 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.12.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85058167239 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Alahyari, H., Gorschek, T. & Berntsson Svensson, R. (2019). An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations. Information and Software Technology, 107, 78-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations
2019 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 107, p. 78-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: The principal focus of lean is the identification and elimination of waste from the process with respect to maximizing customer value. Similarly, the purpose of agile is to maximize customer value and minimize unnecessary work and time delays. In both cases the concept of waste is important. Through an empirical study, we explore how waste is approached in agile software development organizations. Objective: This paper explores the concept of waste in agile/lean software development organizations and how it is defined, used, prioritized, reduced, or eliminated in practice Method: The data were collected using semi-structured open-interviews. 23 practitioners from 14 embedded software development organizations were interviewed representing two core roles in each organization. Results: Various wastes, categorized in 10 different categories, were identified by the respondents. From the mentioned wastes, not all were necessarily waste per se but could be symptoms caused by wastes. From the seven wastes of lean, Task-switching was ranked as the most important, and Extra-features, as the least important wastes according to the respondents’ opinion. However, most companies do not have their own or use an established definition of waste, more importantly, very few actively identify or try to eliminate waste in their organizations beyond local initiatives on project level. Conclusion: In order to identify, recognize and eliminate waste, a common understanding, and a joint and holistic view of the concept is needed. It is also important to optimize the whole organization and the whole product, as waste on one level can be important on another, thus sub-optimization should be avoided. Furthermore, to achieve a sustainable and effective waste handling, both the short-term and the long-term perspectives need to be considered. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Agile software development, Lean software development, Non-value adding activities, Waste, Wastes, Empirical studies, Exploratory studies, Long-term perspective, Multiple-case study, Software development organizations, Value adding activities, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17085 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2018.08.006 (DOI)000452586900006 ()2-s2.0-85053629776 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Software Engineering Anti-Patterns in Start-Ups. IEEE Software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software Engineering Anti-Patterns in Start-Ups
2019 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Software start-up failures are often explained with a poor business model, market issues, insufficient funding, or simply a bad product idea. However, inadequacies in software engineering are relatively unexplored and could be a significant contributing factor to the high start-up failure rate. In this paper we present the analysis of 88 start-up experience reports, revealing three anti-patterns associated with start-up progression phases. The anti-patterns address challenges of releasing the first version of the product, attracting customers, and expanding the product into new markets. The anti-patterns show that challenges and failure scenarios that appear to be business or market related are, at least partially, rooted in engineering inadequacies.

Keywords
Software Engineering, Software Start-ups, Software quality
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17450 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Wilson, M., Wnuk, K., Silvander, J. & Gorschek, T. (2018). A Literature Review on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Business Modeling. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 12(1), 265-302
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Literature Review on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Business Modeling
2018 (English)In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 265-302Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Achieving and maintaining a strategic competitive advantage through business and technology innovation via continually improving effectiveness and efficiency of the operations are the critical survival factors for software-intensive product development companies. These companies invest in business modeling and tool support for integrating business models into their product development, but remain uncertain, if such investments generate desired results. Aim: This study explores the effects of business modeling on effectiveness and efficiency for companies developing software-intensive products. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review using the snowballing methodology, followed by thematic and narrative analysis. 57 papers were selected for analysis and synthesis, after screening 16 320 papers from multiple research fields. Results: We analyzed the literature based on purpose, benefit, challenge, effectiveness, and efficiency with software and software-intensive products as the unit of analysis. The alignment between strategy and execution is the primary challenge, and we found no evidence that business modeling increases effectiveness and efficiency for a company. Any outcome variations may simply be a result of fluctuating contextual or environmental factors rather than the application of a specific business modeling method. Therefore, we argue that governance is the fundamental challenge needed for business modeling, as it must efficiently support simultaneous experimentation with products and business models while turning experiences into knowledge. Conclusion: We propose a conceptual governance model for exploring the effectiveness and efficiency of business modeling to occupy the missing link between business strategy, processes and software tools. We also recommend managers to introduce a systematic approach for experimentation and organizational learning, collaboration, and value co-creation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WROCLAW UNIV TECHNOLOGY, 2018
Keywords
business modeling, business model operationalization, effectiveness, efficiency, context-dependent, governance, software-intensive product development, literature review
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17049 (URN)10.5277/e-Inf180111 (DOI)000445123800003 ()
Note

open access

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-10-05Bibliographically approved
Tripathi, N., Klotins, E., Prikladnicki, R., Oivo, M., Pompermaier, L. B., Kudakacheril, A. S., . . . Gorschek, T. (2018). An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey. Journal of Systems and Software, 146, 130-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, p. 130-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software startups aim to develop innovative products, grow rapidly, and thus become important in the development of economy and jobs. Requirements engineering (RE) is a key process area in software development, but its effects on software startups are unclear. Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore how RE (elicitation, documentation, prioritization and validation) is used in software startups. Method: A multi-vocal literature review (MLR) was used to find scientific and gray literature. In addition, a case survey was employed to gather empirical data to reach this study's objective. Results: In the MLR, 36 primary articles were selected out of 28,643 articles. In the case survey, 80 respondents provided information about software startup cases across the globe. Data analysis revealed that during RE processes, internal sources (e.g., for source), analyses of similar products (e.g., elicitation), uses of informal notes (e.g., for documentation), values to customers, products and stakeholders (e.g., for prioritization) and internal reviews/prototypes (e.g., for validation) were the most used techniques. Conclusion: After an analysis of primary literature, it was concluded that research on this topic is still in early stages and more systematic research is needed. Furthermore, few topics were suggested for future research. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2018
Keywords
Case survey, Multi-vocal literature review, Requirements engineering, Software startups, Software design, Case surveys, Empirical data, Innovative product, Internal source, Key process areas, Literature reviews, Prioritization, Systematic research, Surveys
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17083 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.08.059 (DOI)000451488900010 ()2-s2.0-85053782208 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Vilela, J., Castro, J., Martins, L. E. & Gorschek, T. (2018). Assessment of safety processes in requirements engineering. In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018: . Paper presented at 26th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, 20 August 2018 through 24 August 2018 (pp. 358-363). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of safety processes in requirements engineering
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 358-363Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context: Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in organizations with high process maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. In a Safety-Critical System (SCS), requirements problems have been associated with accidents and safety incidents. Objective: This work investigates which safety practices/actions are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process of SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we adopted different empirical techniques to propose Uni-REPM SCS, which consists of a safety module to be included in the Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). Results: The safety module has seven main processes, 14 sub-processes and 148 safety actions describing principles and practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Conclusions: Preliminary validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts indicates that the safety module can help organizations to evaluate their current safety practices with respect to their RE process. Moreover, it also offers a step-wise improvement strategy to raise their safety maturity level. © 2018 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Keywords
Maturity models, Process assessment, Requirements engineering, Safety engineering, Safety-critical systems, Security systems, Empirical techniques, Improvement strategies, Maturity model, Principles and practices, Pro-active approach, Process assessments, Safety critical systems, Unified requirements
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17411 (URN)10.1109/RE.2018.00-25 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056887304 (Scopus ID)9781538674185 (ISBN)
Conference
26th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, 20 August 2018 through 24 August 2018
Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Petersen, K., Badampudi, D., Ali Shah, S. M., Wnuk, K., Gorschek, T., Papatheocharous, E., . . . Cicchetti, A. (2018). Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing?: A Case Survey. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 39(12), 237-261
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing?: A Case Survey
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 237-261Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Keywords
Decision making; in-house; COTS; OSS; outsourcing
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15909 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2017.2677909 (DOI)000427678400002 ()
Projects
ORION - Decision Support for Component-Based Software Engineering of Cyber-Physical Systems
Available from: 2017-11-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Chatzipetrou, P., Alégroth, E., Papatheocharous, E., Borg, M., Gorschek, T. & Wnuk, K. (2018). Component selection in Software Engineering: Which attributes are the most important in the decision process?. In: EUROMICRO Conference Proceedings: . Paper presented at 44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), Prague (pp. 198-205). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Component selection in Software Engineering: Which attributes are the most important in the decision process?
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2018 (English)In: EUROMICRO Conference Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2018, p. 198-205Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract— Component-based software engineering is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems where different component sourcing options are available: 1)Software developed internally (in-house), 2)Software developed outsourced, 3)Commercial of the shelf software, and 4) Open Source Software. However, there is little available research on what attributes of a component are the most important ones when selecting new components. The object of the present study is to investigate what matters the most to industry practitioners during component selection. We conducted a cross-domain anonymous survey with industry practitioners involved in component selection. First, the practitioners selected the most important attributes from a list. Next, they prioritized their selection using the Hundred-Dollar ($100) test. We analyzed the results using Compositional Data Analysis. The descriptive results showed that Cost was clearly considered the most important attribute during the component selection. Other important attributes for the practitioners were: Support of the component, Longevity prediction, and Level of off-the-shelf fit to product. Next an exploratory analysis was conducted based on the practitioners’ inherent characteristics. Nonparametric tests and biplots were used. It seems that smaller organizations and more immature products focus on different attributes than bigger organizations and mature products which focus more on Cost

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2018
Series
EUROMICRO Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1089-6503
Keywords
Component - based software engineering; Decision making; Compositional Data Analysis; Cumulative voti
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17057 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2018.00039 (DOI)000450238900030 ()978-1-5386-7383-6 (ISBN)
Conference
44th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), Prague
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140218
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Gorschek, T. (2018). Evolution toward soft(er) products. Communications of the ACM, 61(3), 78-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution toward soft(er) products
2018 (English)In: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 78-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

SOFTWARE IS A cornerstone of the economy, historically led by companies like Apple, Google, and Microsoft. However, the past decade has seen software become increasingly pervasive, while traditionally hardware-intensive products are increasingly dependent on software, meaning that major global companies like ABB, Ericsson, Scania, and Volvo are likewise becoming soft(er).(10) Where software was bundled with hardware it is now increasingly the main product differentiator.(10) This shift has radical implications, as software delivers notable advantages, including a faster pace of release and improved cost effectiveness in terms of development, ease of update, customization, and distribution. These characteristics of software open a range of possibilities, though software's inherent properties also pose several significant challenges in relation to a company's ability to create value.(10) To investigate them, we conducted in-depth interviews from 2012 to 2016 with 13 senior product managers in 12 global companies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2018
Keywords
Computer Science, Hardware & Architecture; Computer Science, Software Engineering; Computer Science, Theory & Methods
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16023 (URN)10.1145/3180664 (DOI)000426875300029 ()2-s2.0-85042935078 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Gorschek, T., Prikladnicki, R., Tripathi, N. & Pompermaier, L. B. (2018). Exploration of technical debt in start-ups. In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering: . Paper presented at 40th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice, ICSE-SEIP 2018; Gothenburg (pp. 75-84). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploration of technical debt in start-ups
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society , 2018, p. 75-84Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context: Software start-ups are young companies aiming to build and market software-intensive products fast with little resources. Aiming to accelerate time-to-market, start-ups often opt for ad-hoc engineering practices, make shortcuts in product engineering, and accumulate technical debt. Objective: In this paper we explore to what extent precedents, dimensions and outcomes associated with technical debt are prevalent in start-ups. Method: We apply a case survey method to identify aspects of technical debt and contextual information characterizing the engineering context in start-ups. Results: By analyzing responses from 86 start-up cases we found that start-ups accumulate most technical debt in the testing dimension, despite attempts to automate testing. Furthermore, we found that start-up team size and experience is a leading precedent for accumulating technical debt: larger teams face more challenges in keeping the debt under control. Conclusions: This study highlights the necessity to monitor levels of technical debt and to preemptively introduce practices to keep the debt under control. Adding more people to an already difficult to maintain product could amplify other precedents, such as resource shortages, communication issues and negatively affect decisions pertaining to the use of good engineering practices. © 2018 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Series
Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, ISSN 0270-5257
Keywords
Software start-ups, Technical debt, Commerce, Case surveys, Contextual information, Engineering practices, Good engineering practices, Product engineering, Resource shortage, Technical debts, Time to market, Software engineering
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16893 (URN)10.1145/3183519.3183539 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049673180 (Scopus ID)9781450356596 (ISBN)
Conference
40th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice, ICSE-SEIP 2018; Gothenburg
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
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