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Gorschek, Tony
Publications (10 of 118) Show all publications
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Gorschek, T., Prikladniki, R., Tripathi, N. & Pompermaier, L. B. (2019). A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Context: Software start-ups are emerging as suppliers of innovation and software-intensive products. However, traditional software engineering practices are not evaluated in the context, nor adopted to goals and challenges of start-ups. As a result, there is insufficient support for software engineering in the start-up context. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Analytical models, Companies, Market opportunities, progression model, Requirements engineering, Software, Software engineering, software engineering practices, software start-up, Computer software, Industry
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17706 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2019.2900213 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061979918 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T., Wnuk, K. & Gorschek, T. (2019). An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements. Journal of Systems and Software, 149, 217-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements
2019 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2019
Keywords
Non-functional requirements, Product management, Quality requirements, Requirements engineering, Requirements scope decision, Hardware, Software engineering, Decision process, Empirical studies, External stakeholders, Long term planning, Decision making
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17455 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.12.002 (DOI)000457951800009 ()2-s2.0-85058167239 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Alahyari, H., Gorschek, T. & Berntsson Svensson, R. (2019). An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations. Information and Software Technology, 107, 78-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations
2019 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 107, p. 78-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: The principal focus of lean is the identification and elimination of waste from the process with respect to maximizing customer value. Similarly, the purpose of agile is to maximize customer value and minimize unnecessary work and time delays. In both cases the concept of waste is important. Through an empirical study, we explore how waste is approached in agile software development organizations. Objective: This paper explores the concept of waste in agile/lean software development organizations and how it is defined, used, prioritized, reduced, or eliminated in practice Method: The data were collected using semi-structured open-interviews. 23 practitioners from 14 embedded software development organizations were interviewed representing two core roles in each organization. Results: Various wastes, categorized in 10 different categories, were identified by the respondents. From the mentioned wastes, not all were necessarily waste per se but could be symptoms caused by wastes. From the seven wastes of lean, Task-switching was ranked as the most important, and Extra-features, as the least important wastes according to the respondents’ opinion. However, most companies do not have their own or use an established definition of waste, more importantly, very few actively identify or try to eliminate waste in their organizations beyond local initiatives on project level. Conclusion: In order to identify, recognize and eliminate waste, a common understanding, and a joint and holistic view of the concept is needed. It is also important to optimize the whole organization and the whole product, as waste on one level can be important on another, thus sub-optimization should be avoided. Furthermore, to achieve a sustainable and effective waste handling, both the short-term and the long-term perspectives need to be considered. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2019
Keywords
Agile software development, Lean software development, Non-value adding activities, Waste, Wastes, Empirical studies, Exploratory studies, Long-term perspective, Multiple-case study, Software development organizations, Value adding activities, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17085 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2018.08.006 (DOI)000452586900006 ()2-s2.0-85053629776 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Pernstal, J., Feldt, R., Gorschek, T. & Floren, D. (2019). FLEX-RCA: a lean-based method for root cause analysis in software process improvement. Software quality journal, 27(1), 389-428
Open this publication in new window or tab >>FLEX-RCA: a lean-based method for root cause analysis in software process improvement
2019 (English)In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 389-428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software process improvement (SPI) is an instrument to increase the productivity of, and the quality of work, in software organizations. However, a majority of SPI frameworks are too extensive or provide guidance and potential improvement areas at a high level, indicating only the symptoms, not the causes. Motivated by the industrial need of two Swedish automotive companies to systematically uncover the underlying root causes of high-level improvement issues identified in an SPI project-assessing inter-departmental interactions in large-scale software systems development-this paper advances a root cause analysis (RCA) method building on Lean Six Sigma, called Flex-RCA. Flex-RCA is used to delve deeper into challenges identified to find root causes as a part of the evaluation and subsequent improvement activities. We also demonstrate and evaluate Flex-RCA's industrial applicability in a case study. An overall conclusion is that the use of Flex-RCA was successful, showing that it had the desired effect of both producing a broad base of causes on a high level and, more importantly, enabling an exploration of the underlying root causes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
Keywords
Organizational management and coordination, Communication, Software engineering, Software-intensive systems, Automotive industry, Case study, Lean product development, Agile, Process improvement
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17827 (URN)10.1007/s11219-018-9408-8 (DOI)000462236000011 ()
Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Ouriques, R., Wnuk, K., Gorschek, T. & Berntsson Svensson, R. (2019). Knowledge Management Strategies and Processes in Agile Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review. International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, 29(3), 345-380
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge Management Strategies and Processes in Agile Software Development: A Systematic Literature Review
2019 (English)In: International journal of software engineering and knowledge engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 345-380Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge-intensive companies that adopt Agile Software Development (ASD) relay on efficient implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) strategies to promotes different Knowledge Processes (KPs) to gain competitive advantage. This study aims to explore how companies that adopt ASD implement KM strategies utilizing practices that promote the KPs in the different organizational layers. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed 32 primary studies, selected by automated search and snowballing in the extant literature. To analyze the data, we applied narrative synthesis. Most of the identified KM practices implement personalization strategies (81 %), supported by codification (19 %). Our review shows that the primary studies do not report KM practices in the strategic layer and two of them in the product portfolio layer; on the other hand, in the project layer, the studies report 33 practices that implement personalization strategy, and seven practices that implement codification. KM strategies in ASD promote mainly the knowledge transfer process with practices that stimulate social interaction to share tacit knowledge in the project layer. As a result of using informal communication, a significant amount of knowledge can be lost or not properly transferred to other individuals and, instead of propagating the knowledge, it remains inside a few individuals minds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Scientific, 2019
Keywords
knowledge management, agile software development
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17336 (URN)10.1142/S0218194019500153 (DOI)000462508200002 ()
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2019-04-18Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Software Engineering Anti-Patterns in Start-Ups. IEEE Software, 36(2), 118-126
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software Engineering Anti-Patterns in Start-Ups
2019 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software start-up failures are often explained with a poor business model, market issues, insufficient funding, or simply a bad product idea. However, inadequacies in software engineering are relatively unexplored and could be a significant contributing factor to the high start-up failure rate. In this paper we present the analysis of 88 start-up experience reports, revealing three anti-patterns associated with start-up progression phases. The anti-patterns address challenges of releasing the first version of the product, attracting customers, and expanding the product into new markets. The anti-patterns show that challenges and failure scenarios that appear to be business or market related are, at least partially, rooted in engineering inadequacies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2019
Keywords
Software Engineering, Software Start-ups, Software quality
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17450 (URN)000459536000018 ()
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-03-08Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Software engineering in start-up companies: An analysis of 88 experience reports. Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, 24(1), 68-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software engineering in start-up companies: An analysis of 88 experience reports
2019 (English)In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 68-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Start-up companies have become an important supplier of innovation and software-intensive products. The flexibility and reactiveness of start-ups enables fast development and launch of innovative products. However, a majority of software start-up companies fail before achieving any success. Among other factors, poor software engineering could be a significant contributor to the challenges experienced by start-ups. However, the state-of-practice of software engineering in start-ups, as well as the utilization of state-of-the-art is largely an unexplored area. Objective: In this study we investigate how software engineering is applied in start-up context with a focus to identify key knowledge areas and opportunities for further research. Method: We perform a multi-vocal exploratory study of 88 start-up experience reports. We develop a custom taxonomy to categorize the reported software engineering practices and their interrelation with business aspects, and apply qualitative data analysis to explore influences and dependencies between the knowledge areas. Results: We identify the most frequently reported software engineering (requirements engineering, software design and quality) and business aspect (vision and strategy development) knowledge areas, and illustrate their relationships. We also present a summary of how relevant software engineering knowledge areas are implemented in start-ups and identify potentially useful practices for adoption in start-ups. Conclusions: The results enable a more focused research on engineering practices in start-ups. We conclude that most engineering challenges in start-ups stem from inadequacies in requirements engineering. Many promising practices to address specific engineering challenges exists, however more research on adaptation of established practices, and validation of new start-up specific practices is needed. © 2018 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2019
Keywords
Experience reports, Software engineering practices, Software start-up, Requirements engineering, Engineering challenges, Engineering knowledge, Engineering practices, Experience report, Exploratory studies, Qualitative data analysis, Strategy development, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16246 (URN)10.1007/s10664-018-9620-y (DOI)000458634400003 ()2-s2.0-85047198507 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2019-03-07Bibliographically approved
Wilson, M., Wnuk, K., Silvander, J. & Gorschek, T. (2018). A Literature Review on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Business Modeling. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 12(1), 265-302
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Literature Review on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Business Modeling
2018 (English)In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 265-302Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Achieving and maintaining a strategic competitive advantage through business and technology innovation via continually improving effectiveness and efficiency of the operations are the critical survival factors for software-intensive product development companies. These companies invest in business modeling and tool support for integrating business models into their product development, but remain uncertain, if such investments generate desired results. Aim: This study explores the effects of business modeling on effectiveness and efficiency for companies developing software-intensive products. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review using the snowballing methodology, followed by thematic and narrative analysis. 57 papers were selected for analysis and synthesis, after screening 16 320 papers from multiple research fields. Results: We analyzed the literature based on purpose, benefit, challenge, effectiveness, and efficiency with software and software-intensive products as the unit of analysis. The alignment between strategy and execution is the primary challenge, and we found no evidence that business modeling increases effectiveness and efficiency for a company. Any outcome variations may simply be a result of fluctuating contextual or environmental factors rather than the application of a specific business modeling method. Therefore, we argue that governance is the fundamental challenge needed for business modeling, as it must efficiently support simultaneous experimentation with products and business models while turning experiences into knowledge. Conclusion: We propose a conceptual governance model for exploring the effectiveness and efficiency of business modeling to occupy the missing link between business strategy, processes and software tools. We also recommend managers to introduce a systematic approach for experimentation and organizational learning, collaboration, and value co-creation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WROCLAW UNIV TECHNOLOGY, 2018
Keywords
business modeling, business model operationalization, effectiveness, efficiency, context-dependent, governance, software-intensive product development, literature review
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17049 (URN)10.5277/e-Inf180111 (DOI)000445123800003 ()
Note

open access

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Tripathi, N., Klotins, E., Prikladnicki, R., Oivo, M., Pompermaier, L. B., Kudakacheril, A. S., . . . Gorschek, T. (2018). An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey. Journal of Systems and Software, 146, 130-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, p. 130-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software startups aim to develop innovative products, grow rapidly, and thus become important in the development of economy and jobs. Requirements engineering (RE) is a key process area in software development, but its effects on software startups are unclear. Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore how RE (elicitation, documentation, prioritization and validation) is used in software startups. Method: A multi-vocal literature review (MLR) was used to find scientific and gray literature. In addition, a case survey was employed to gather empirical data to reach this study's objective. Results: In the MLR, 36 primary articles were selected out of 28,643 articles. In the case survey, 80 respondents provided information about software startup cases across the globe. Data analysis revealed that during RE processes, internal sources (e.g., for source), analyses of similar products (e.g., elicitation), uses of informal notes (e.g., for documentation), values to customers, products and stakeholders (e.g., for prioritization) and internal reviews/prototypes (e.g., for validation) were the most used techniques. Conclusion: After an analysis of primary literature, it was concluded that research on this topic is still in early stages and more systematic research is needed. Furthermore, few topics were suggested for future research. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2018
Keywords
Case survey, Multi-vocal literature review, Requirements engineering, Software startups, Software design, Case surveys, Empirical data, Innovative product, Internal source, Key process areas, Literature reviews, Prioritization, Systematic research, Surveys
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17083 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.08.059 (DOI)000451488900010 ()2-s2.0-85053782208 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Vilela, J., Castro, J., Martins, L. E. & Gorschek, T. (2018). Assessment of safety processes in requirements engineering. In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018: . Paper presented at 26th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, 20 August 2018 through 24 August 2018 (pp. 358-363). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of safety processes in requirements engineering
2018 (English)In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, p. 358-363Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Context: Requirements issues tend to be mitigated in organizations with high process maturity levels since they do their business in a systematic, consistent and proactive approach. In a Safety-Critical System (SCS), requirements problems have been associated with accidents and safety incidents. Objective: This work investigates which safety practices/actions are suitable to be used in the Requirements Engineering (RE) process of SCS and how to design a safety maturity model for this area. Method: we adopted different empirical techniques to propose Uni-REPM SCS, which consists of a safety module to be included in the Unified Requirements Engineering Process Maturity Model (Uni-REPM). Results: The safety module has seven main processes, 14 sub-processes and 148 safety actions describing principles and practices that form the basis of safety processes maturity. Conclusions: Preliminary validation with two practitioners and nine academic experts indicates that the safety module can help organizations to evaluate their current safety practices with respect to their RE process. Moreover, it also offers a step-wise improvement strategy to raise their safety maturity level. © 2018 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2018
Keywords
Maturity models, Process assessment, Requirements engineering, Safety engineering, Safety-critical systems, Security systems, Empirical techniques, Improvement strategies, Maturity model, Principles and practices, Pro-active approach, Process assessments, Safety critical systems, Unified requirements
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17411 (URN)10.1109/RE.2018.00-25 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056887304 (Scopus ID)9781538674185 (ISBN)
Conference
26th IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2018, 20 August 2018 through 24 August 2018
Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
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