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Wüest, D., Fotrousi, F. & Fricker, S. (2019). Combining Monitoring and AutonomousFeedback Requests to Elicit Actionable Knowledge of System Use. In: E. Knauss and M. Goedicke (Ed.), Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality: . Paper presented at 25 Intl. Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ 2019) (pp. 209-225). , 11412
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combining Monitoring and AutonomousFeedback Requests to Elicit Actionable Knowledge of System Use
2019 (English)In: Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality / [ed] E. Knauss and M. Goedicke, 2019, Vol. 11412, p. 209-225Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

[Context and motivation] To validate developers’ ideas of what users might want and to understand user needs, it has been proposed to collect and combine system monitoring with user feedback. [Question/problem] So far, the monitoring data and feedback have been collected passively, hoping for the users to get active when problems emerge. This approach leaves unexplored opportunities for system improvement when users are also passive or do not know that they are invited to offer feedback. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, we show how we have used goal monitors to identify interesting situations of system use and let a system autonomously elicit user feedback in these situations. We have used a monitor to detect interesting situations in the use of a system and issued automated requests for user feedback to interpret the monitoring observations from the users’ perspectives. [Contribution] The paper describes the implementation of our approach in a Smart City system and reports our results and experiences. It shows that combining system monitoring with proactive, autonomous feedback collection was useful and surfaced knowledge of system use that was relevant for system maintenance and evolution. The results were helpful for the city to adapt and improve the Smart City application and to maintain their internet-of-things deployment of sensors.

Series
Programming and Software Engineering - Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 11412
Keywords
Requirements monitoring, User feedback, Requirements elicitation, Smart city
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17738 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-15538-4_16 (DOI)978-3-030-15538-4 (ISBN)
Conference
25 Intl. Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality (REFSQ 2019)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved
Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J., Fricker, S., Petersen, K. & Chatzipetrou, P. (2019). Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners’ experience. Journal of Systems and Software, 156, 1-20
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners’ experience
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) suggest that agile practices are introduced in a certain order. However, whether the order of agile practice introduction as suggested in the AMMs is relevant in industry has not been evaluated in an empirical study. Objectives: In this study, we want to investigate: (1) order of agile practice introduction mentioned in AMMs, (2) order of introducing agile practices in industry, and (3) similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We then compared the AMMs’ suggestions to the strategies used by practitioners, which we elicited from a survey and a series of interviews from an earlier study. Results: The literature survey revealed 12 AMMs which provide explicit mappings of agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement on when practices should be introduced. Comparison of the AMMs’ suggestions and the empirical study revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned with industry practice. Conclusion: Currently, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for agile adoption that works better than others. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2019
Keywords
Agile maturity model, Agile practice, Introduction strategies, Mapping, Agile adoptions, Agile practices, Empirical studies, Industry practices, Introduction strategy, Literature survey, Maturity levels, Maturity model, Surveys
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18038 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2019.05.035 (DOI)2-s2.0-85066489426 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved
Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J., Fricker, S. & Petersen, K. (2019). Usage, Retention, and Abandonment of Agile Practices. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 13(1), 7-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Usage, Retention, and Abandonment of Agile Practices
2019 (English)In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 7-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A number of Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to guide software organizations in their adoption of Agile practices. Typically the AMMs suggest that higher maturity levels are reached by gradually adding more practices. However, recent research indicates that certain Agile practices, like test-driven development and continuous integration are being abandoned. Little is known on the rationales for abandoning Agile practices. Aim: We aim to identify which Agile practices are abandoned in industry, as well as the reasons for abandoning them. Method: We conducted a web survey with 51 respondents and interviews with 11 industry practitioners with experience in Agile adoption to investigate why Agile practices are abandoned. Results: Of the 17 Agile practices that were included in the survey, all have been abandoned at some point. Nevertheless, respondents who retained all practices as well as those who abandoned one or more practices, perceived their overall adoption of Agile practices as successful. Conclusion: Going against the suggestions of the AMMs, i.e. abandoning Agile one or more practices, could still lead to successful outcomes. This indicates that introducing Agile practices gradually in a certain sequence, as the AMMs suggest, may not always be suitable in different contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Software Engineering Section of the Committee on Informatics of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Wrocław University of Science and Technology., 2019
Keywords
Agile maturity models (AMMs), Agile practices
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16236 (URN)10.5277/e-Inf190101 (DOI)000453279600001 ()
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2019-02-21Bibliographically approved
Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J., Fricker, S. & Petersen, K. (2018). A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction. In: IEEE-ACM International Workshop on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry CESI: . Paper presented at 2018 IEEE/ACM 6TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CONDUCTING EMPIRICAL STUDIES IN INDUSTRY (CESI), Gothenburg (pp. 25-28). IEEE Computer Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction
2018 (English)In: IEEE-ACM International Workshop on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry CESI, IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 25-28Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To assess the benefits of introducing Agile practices, it is important to get a clear understanding of the baseline situation, i.e. the situation before their introduction. Without a clear baseline, we cannot properly assess the extent of impacts, both positive and negative, of introducing Agile practices. This paper provides a preliminary guideline to help researchers in capturing and reporting baseline situations. The guideline has been developed through the study of literature and interviews with industry practitioners, and validated by experts in academia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2018
Series
Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, ISSN 0270-5257
Keywords
Agile practices, checklist, baseline situation
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16114 (URN)10.1145/3193965.3193969 (DOI)000468343800005 ()9781450357364 (ISBN)
Conference
2018 IEEE/ACM 6TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON CONDUCTING EMPIRICAL STUDIES IN INDUSTRY (CESI), Gothenburg
Available from: 2018-04-24 Created: 2018-04-24 Last updated: 2019-06-14Bibliographically approved
Maksimov, Y. V., Fricker, S. & Tutschku, K. (2018). Artifact Compatibility for Enabling Collaboration in the Artificial Intelligence Ecosystem. In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing: . Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Software Business, ICSOB 2018; Tallinn; Estonia; 11 June 2018 through 12 June 2018 (pp. 56-71). Springer, 336
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artifact Compatibility for Enabling Collaboration in the Artificial Intelligence Ecosystem
2018 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, 2018, Vol. 336, p. 56-71Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Different types of software components and data have to be combined to solve an artificial intelligence challenge. An emerging marketplace for these components will allow for their exchange and distribution. To facilitate and boost the collaboration on the marketplace a solution for finding compatible artifacts is needed. We propose a concept to define compatibility on such a marketplace and suggest appropriate scenarios on how users can interact with it to support the different types of required compatibility. We also propose an initial architecture that derives from and implements the compatibility principles and makes the scenarios feasible. We matured our concept in focus group workshops and interviews with potential marketplace users from industry and academia. The results demonstrate the applicability of the concept in a real-world scenario.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 18651348
Keywords
compatibility, licensing, marketplace, artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16465 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-04840-2_5 (DOI)9783030048396 (ISBN)
Conference
9th International Conference on Software Business, ICSOB 2018; Tallinn; Estonia; 11 June 2018 through 12 June 2018
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Shojaifar, A., Fricker, S. & Gwerder, M. (2018). Elicitation of SME requirements for cybersecurity solutions by studying adherence to recommendations. In: Dalpiaz F.,Franch X.,Kirikova M.,Ralyte J.,Spoletini P.,Chisik Y.,Ferrari A.,Madhavji N.,Palomares C.,Sabetzadeh M.,van der Linden D.,Schmid K.,Charrada E.B.,Sawyer P.,Forbrig P.,Zamansky A. (Ed.), CEUR Workshop Proceedings: . Paper presented at 24th Joint International Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality Workshops, Doctoral Symposium, REFSQ-JP,Utrecht. CEUR-WS, 2075
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elicitation of SME requirements for cybersecurity solutions by studying adherence to recommendations
2018 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Dalpiaz F.,Franch X.,Kirikova M.,Ralyte J.,Spoletini P.,Chisik Y.,Ferrari A.,Madhavji N.,Palomares C.,Sabetzadeh M.,van der Linden D.,Schmid K.,Charrada E.B.,Sawyer P.,Forbrig P.,Zamansky A., CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2075Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

[Context and motivation] Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) have become the weak spot of our economy for cyber attacks. These companies are large in number and often do not have the controls in place to prevent successful attacks, respectively are not prepared to systematically manage their cybersecurity capabilities. [Question/problem] One of the reasons for why many SME do not adopt cybersecurity is that developers of cybersecurity solutions understand little the SME context and the requirements for successful use of these solutions. [Principal ideas/results] We elicit requirements by studying how cybersecurity experts provide advice to SME. The experts' recommendations offer insights into what important capabilities of the solution are and how these capabilities ought to be used for mitigating cybersecurity threats. The adoption of a recommendation hints at a correct match of the solution, hence successful consideration of requirements. Abandoned recommendations point to a misalignment that can be used as a source to inquire missed requirements. Re-occurrence of adoption or abandonment decisions corroborate the presence of requirements. [Contributions] This poster describes the challenges of SME regarding cybersecurity and introduces our proposed approach to elicit requirements for cybersecurity solutions. The poster describes CYSEC, our tool used to capture cybersecurity advice and help to scale cybersecurity requirements elicitation to a large number of participating SME. We conclude by outlining the planned research to develop and validate CYSEC1 Copyright 2018 for this paper by its authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CEUR-WS, 2018
Series
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073 ; 2075
Keywords
Cybersecurity, Requirements elicitation, Small medium-sized enterprises, Computer software selection and evaluation, Network security, Cyber security, Cyber-attacks, Medium sized enterprise, Small- and medium-sized enterprise, Requirements engineering
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16136 (URN)2-s2.0-85045466480 (Scopus ID)
Conference
24th Joint International Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality Workshops, Doctoral Symposium, REFSQ-JP,Utrecht
Available from: 2018-04-26 Created: 2018-04-26 Last updated: 2018-04-26Bibliographically approved
Nurdiani, I., Börstler, J. & Fricker, S. (2018). Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 30(9), Article ID e1937.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization
2018 (English)In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 9, article id e1937Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software developing organizations strive to achieve flexibility to maintain a competitive advantage. There is no common understanding of what characterize flexibility for a software organization beyond the scope of the software product. Without a common understanding, it is difficult to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of software development approaches. The aim of this literature review is to collect attributes that characterize flexibility. The collected attributes are consolidated into a flexibility framework with 3 main attributes: properties of change, flexibility perspectives, and flexibility enablers. The resulting flexibility framework is then used to evaluate Agile and Lean practices. The evaluation shows that Agile and Lean practices address many flexibility attributes. However, some attributes are not addressed, such as infrastructure flexibility and strategic flexibility. On the basis of our evaluation, the classifications of flexibility attributes that we present in this paper could be used to aid software organization flexibility evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Agile; flexibility; Lean; literature review; software development
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15963 (URN)10.1002/smr.1937 (DOI)000444678900001 ()
Available from: 2018-03-20 Created: 2018-03-20 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Fotrousi, F., Fricker, S. & Fiedler, M. (2018). The effect of requests for user feedback on Quality of Experience. Software quality journal, 26(2), 385-415
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of requests for user feedback on Quality of Experience
2018 (English)In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 385-415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Companies are interested in knowing how users experience and perceive their products. Quality of Experience (QoE) is a measurement that is used to assess the degree of delight or annoyance in experiencing a software product. To assess QoE, we have used a feedback tool integrated into a software product to ask users about their QoE ratings and to obtain information about their rationales for good or bad QoEs. It is known that requests for feedback may disturb users; however, little is known about the subjective reasoning behind this disturbance or about whether this disturbance negatively affects the QoE of the software product for which the feedback is sought. In this paper, we present a mixed qualitative-quantitative study with 35 subjects that explore the relationship between feedback requests and QoE. The subjects experienced a requirement-modeling mobile product, which was integrated with a feedback tool. During and at the end of the experience, we collected the users' perceptions of the product and the feedback requests. Based on the users' rational for being disturbed by the feedback requests, such as "early feedback," "interruptive requests," "frequent requests," and "apparently inappropriate content," we modeled feedback requests. The model defines feedback requests using a set of five-tuple variables: "task," "timing" of the task for issuing the feedback requests, user's "expertise-phase" with the product, the "frequency" of feedback requests about the task, and the "content" of the feedback request. Configuration of these parameters might drive the participants' perceived disturbances. We also found that the disturbances generated by triggering user feedback requests have negligible impacts on the QoE of software products. These results imply that software product vendors may trust users' feedback even when the feedback requests disturb the users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2018
Keywords
Quality of experience, QoE, User feedback, User perception, Human factors
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16526 (URN)10.1007/s11219-017-9373-7 (DOI)000433521200007 ()
Available from: 2018-06-18 Created: 2018-06-18 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
Maglyas, A., Nikula, U., Smolander, K. & Fricker, S. (2017). Core software product management activities. Journal of Advances in Management Research, 14(1), 23-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Core software product management activities
2017 (English)In: Journal of Advances in Management Research, ISSN 0972-7981, E-ISSN 2049-3207, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - Software product management (SPM) unites disciplines related to product strategy, planning, development, and release. There are many organizational activities addressing technical, social, and market issues when releasing a software product. Owing to the high number of activities involved, SPM remains a complex discipline to adopt. The purpose of this paper is to understand what are the core and supporting SPM activities. Design/methodology/approach - The authors adopted the research method of meta-ethnography to present a set of techniques for synthesizing individual qualitative studies to increase the degree of conceptualization. The results obtained from three empirical studies were synthesized using the meta-ethnography approach to enhance, rethink, and create a higher level abstraction of the findings. Findings - The results show that the study has both theoretical and practical contribution. As the meta-ethnography synthesis has not been widely applied in software engineering, the authors illustrate how to use this research method in the practice of software engineering research. The practical contribution of the study is in the identification of five core and six supporting SPM activities. Originality/value - The practical value of this paper is in the identification of core SPM activities that should be present in any company practicing SPM. The list of supporting SPM consists of activities that are not reported to product manager but affect the product success.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
Keywords
Software engineering, Product management
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-14088 (URN)10.1108/JAMR-03-2016-0022 (DOI)000396631800003 ()
Available from: 2017-04-07 Created: 2017-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Fricker, S. & Maksimov, Y. (2017). Pricing of data products in data marketplaces. In: Werder K.,Ojala A.,Holmstrom Olsson H. (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing: . Paper presented at 18th International Conference on Software Business, (ICSOB), Essen (pp. 49-66). Springer Verlag, 304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pricing of data products in data marketplaces
2017 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Werder K.,Ojala A.,Holmstrom Olsson H., Springer Verlag , 2017, Vol. 304, p. 49-66Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Mobile computing and the Internet of Things promises massive amounts of data for big data analytic and machine learning. A data sharing economy is needed to make that data available for companies that wish to develop smart systems and services. While digital markets for trading data are emerging, there is no consolidated understanding of how to price data products and thus offer data vendors incentives for sharing data. This paper uses a combined keyword search and snowballing approach to systematically review the literature on the pricing of data products that are to be offered on marketplaces. The results give insights into the maturity and character of data pricing. They enable practitioners to select a pricing approach suitable for their situation and researchers to extend and mature data pricing as a topic. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2017
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348 ; 304
Keywords
Data marketplace, Data pricing, Systematic literature review, Big data, Commerce, Costs, Economics, Learning systems, Data marketplaces, Data products, Data Sharing, Digital markets, Keyword search, Smart System, Search engines
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15615 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-69191-6_4 (DOI)000437038300004 ()2-s2.0-85034259506 (Scopus ID)9783319691909 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Software Business, (ICSOB), Essen
Available from: 2017-12-07 Created: 2017-12-07 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-7368-4448

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