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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Borén, S. (2019). Electric buses' sustainability effects, noise, energy use, and costs. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric buses' sustainability effects, noise, energy use, and costs
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Electric buses are growing in numbers in Sweden, which contributes to the development of a fossil fuel free society and a reduction of emissions. Earlier studies of bus systems have identified a need to further investigate societal costs, total cost of ownership, energy use on a yearly basis to account for seasonal variations, and noise during acceleration. Addressing those needs was the purpose of this study. 

Investigations were made in five cities in Sweden that have recently implemented different electric buses in their respective public transport system. Based on results from these investigations and earlier studies, updated and new calculations were made for electric buses on route 1 in Karlskrona, as a representative example. It was found that there were significant savings in societal costs and total cost of ownership when compared to diesel and biogas powered buses, mainly due to decreased noise, no emissions in the use phase, and decreased energy use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Electric bus, total cost of ownership, societal cost, sustainability, noise, life cycle
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16968 (URN)10.1080/15568318.2019.1666324 (DOI)000486808900001 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 41411-1
Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Ny, H., Nikulina, V., Giles, T. & Borén, S. (2019). Scenarier för Blekinge 2050: En rapport inom projektet Strukturbild Blekinge 2.0. Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scenarier för Blekinge 2050: En rapport inom projektet Strukturbild Blekinge 2.0
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Medan Sverige är en global föregångare inom hållbar utveckling betonar Klimatpolitiska rådet 2019 att hållbarhetsåtgärderna är för långsamma för att uppfylla de aktuella målen, särskilt när det gäller transport och stadsmiljö. Regional utveckling och kommunal fysisk planering spelar avgörande roller i förändringsprocessen eftersom planerare och strateger behöver ta itu med internationella avtal såsom Parisavtalet, Agenda 2030 och Den nya urbana agendan, samt svara på nationella mål och lokala prioriteringar. Det finns indikationer på att otillräcklig samordning mellan de nationella, regionala och lokala planeringsinsatserna är en nyckelfaktor bakom misslyckandet med att hålla sig på rätt spår. För att hjälpa till att hantera denna brist engagerade planerare från Region Blekinge i sydöstra Sverige SustainTrans-gruppen från Institutionen för Strategisk hållbar utveckling vid Blekinge Tekniska Högskola för att bana väg för en scenarioplaneringsstrategi över en 30-årig horisont (till 2050). Tanken var att ta fram åtminstone tre scenarier och att få med regionala, lokala och några relevanta nationella intressenter i genomförandet. Som ett minimum skulle de fyra identifierade nyckelområdena från projektet Strukturbild Blekinge 2.0 täckas in i studien:

Blekinges övergripande utveckling (exempelvis befolkningsutveckling)Arbetsmarknad, näringsliv och turismAttraktiva stads- och livsmiljöerInfrastruktur och transport

Rapportförfattarna från SustainTrans-gruppen arbetade iterativt med befintliga kunskaper, statistiska data och resultat från en intressent-workshop. Ett startläge identifierades och fyra utforskande scenarier togs fram och strukturerades efter de sannolika effekterna av höga och låga regionala hållbarhetsinsatser respektive hög och låg befolkningstillväxt: 

’Tveksamma Blekinge’ (oförändrad befolkning/ ej hållbart)’Blind tillväxt’ (ökad befolkning / ej hållbart)’Hållbarare Blekinge’ (oförändrad befolkning/ hållbart)’Nystart Blekinge’ (ökad befolkning/ hållbart)

Scenarioprocessen inkluderade alla nyckelområdena från Strukturbild Blekinge 2.0 som viktiga utvecklingsområden och resulterade i bredare samtal mellan offentliga intressenter. Detta kommer också förhoppningsvis lägga en grund för ökad samordning och integration mellan dessa organisationer.

Baserat på intressenternas synpunkter på scenarierna från workshopen, blev rapportförfattarnas bedömning att scenarierna ’Tveksamma Blekinge’ och ’Blind tillväxt’ skulle få för många negativa konsekvenser. Detta kunde ju också förväntas med tanke på scenariernas namn men mer specifikt handlade det om att det förstnämnda scenariot ge en gradvis nedgång medan det senare på sikt ge verkligt destruktiva resultat för livskvaliteten, naturen och samhällsekonomin. ’Hållbarare Blekinge’ och ’Nystart Blekinge’ bedömdes å andra sidan vara bättre eftersom de troligen skulle säkerställa en god livskvalitet. Med det senare scenariot kan den högre folkmängden sannolikt också ge extra fördelar som högre skatteinkomster och en mer välmående region. Det finns dock en risk att befolkningsökningen kan hämma hållbarhetsprestanda om den skulle drivas för långt.

En åtgärd som identifierades som avgörande för att slå in på spåret till något av de föredragna scenarierna var att stärka planeringsfokus för nya bostäder till täta blandade samhällen inom det befintliga urbana fotavtrycket. Det finns samtidigt regionala gränser för tillväxt som är svåra att uppskatta med den begränsade typen av kvalitativa bedömningar som denna studie skulle täcka. Därför rekommenderas att fler studier görs som bygger vidare på scenarierna, går in i mer detaljerad kvantitativ modellering och bygger färdplaner för ett attraktivt och hållbart Blekinge 2050.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2019
Series
Blekinge Tekniska Högskola Forskningsrapport, ISSN 1103-1581 ; 01
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-19162 (URN)BTH-RES-01/19-SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2020-01-28 Created: 2020-01-28 Last updated: 2020-01-28Bibliographically approved
Borén, S. & Grauers, A. (2019). Stakeholder collaboration models for public transport procurement of electric bus systems. Paper presented at On Sustainability, Cairns, Australia, January 2018. The International Journal of Sustainability Policy and Practice, 15(1), 19-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stakeholder collaboration models for public transport procurement of electric bus systems
2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Sustainability Policy and Practice, ISSN 2325-1166, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Earlier studies have mainly focused on technology, economy and advantages of electric buses, and they have largely shown that electric buses could be one of the solutions for sustainable public transport. Despite this, the present procurement process for public transport in Sweden is not suitable for including support systems for electric buses. This study was aimed to find a stakeholder collaboration model that would allow electric bus systems to be more effectively included in the procurement process for public transport. The results were achieved by several multi-stakeholder collaboration seminars and meetings that included representatives from regional public transport authorities, bus operators, bus manufacturers, energy companies, municipalities, and experts involved in bus transport. The study primarily developed two stakeholder collaboration models, suggesting that charging infrastructure should be designed separately from the common procurement process. In these models, energy companies, electric grid owners, charging infrastructure operators, regional public transport authorities, and municipalities need to collaborate. The first model is designed for a system that includes chargers at certain locations along a route and/or stakeholders with a low level of experience of electric bus systems, while the second is designed for a system that includes bus charging at the depot and/or stakeholders with a high level of experience of electric bus systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Common Ground Research Networks, 2019
Keywords
Electric bus, Stakeholder, Collaboration, Bus procurement, Strategic sustainable development, Charging
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16969 (URN)10.18848/2325-1166/CGP/v15i01/19-29 (DOI)
Conference
On Sustainability, Cairns, Australia, January 2018
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 41411-1
Note

open access

Available from: 2018-09-05 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Borén, S. (2018). Improvements of students learning through changes in feedback and examinations in introduction to strategic sustainable development 7,5 credits. In: Claes Dahlqvist (Ed.), Lärarlärdom 2018: . Paper presented at Lärarlärdom 2018 (pp. 26-38). Kristianstad
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvements of students learning through changes in feedback and examinations in introduction to strategic sustainable development 7,5 credits
2018 (English)In: Lärarlärdom 2018 / [ed] Claes Dahlqvist, Kristianstad, 2018, p. 26-38Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Each year at the Blekinge Institute of Technology, in total 15-30 international master students from the Structural Dynamics and the Erasmus program take a 7.5 credit course in strategic sustainable development. In 2016, the course had rather good scoresfrom the students’ course evaluation, but the students also identified a need for improvements regarding feedback from teachers during the course and also regarding the examination of the course. A study was therefore initiated, aimed at finding out if changes in feedback and examinations can increase students’ learning towards the learning outcomes in the course, and if so, how the teaching and examination in the course could be developed in such direction. The study found through literature review, interviews among colleagues, and surveys among students that instead of a final exam, several knowledge tests and reflective questions during the course could increase the students’ learning. The course design was developed and then implemented in 2017. According to the students’ course evaluation the same year, this lead to even better perceived learning. Except from providing further evidence that students’ learning increases with individual feedback, the study showed how that can be implemented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kristianstad: , 2018
Series
Skrifter utgivna vid Högskolan Kristianstad, ISSN 1404-9066
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18949 (URN)
Conference
Lärarlärdom 2018
Available from: 2019-11-22 Created: 2019-11-22 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Borén, S. (2018). Towards sustainable personal mobility with electric cars and buses. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards sustainable personal mobility with electric cars and buses
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to explore if, and then how, electric cars and buses can contribute to sustainable personal mobility. Electric vehicles have increasingly been seen as a potential sustainable solution for the transport sector due to their high energy efficiency, close to zero emissions in the use phase, and the possibility to be powered by electricity from renewable resources. However, there are concerns about future scarcity of resources (e.g. lithium and cobalt for batteries), vehicle range, costs, high energy use in the production of batteries, as well as insufficient scientific support for how electric vehicles could be a part of a transition towards sustainability regarding personal mobility.  

The challenges for a fast transition towards sustainability are large and many. The transport sector is not contributing to such development, mainly due to emissions, use of fossil energy, and use of materials mined and recycled under unacceptable conditions. Furthermore, existing societal goals (e.g. fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030 in Sweden, UN Agenda 2030, and the Paris agreement) are insufficient for sustainability and are not complemented by concrete plans or an approach for how to engage stakeholders and achieve coordinated actions for sustainability. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development includes a principled definition of sustainability that is necessary and sufficient for sustainability and procedural support for collaborative innovation for a strategic transition to fulfillment of that definition, which is why it has been used as an overarching methodology in this thesis. 

The research verified through several studies conditions for how electric vehicles can play a vital role in a strategic transition of personal mobility towards sustainability. Through stakeholder collaboration (e.g. interviews and workshops), a vision for sustainable transport with a focus on electric vehicles and an initial development plan towards that vision were designed. Several life cycle focused studies investigated (through calculations and data collection from literature, life cycle databases, interviews and workshops) about environmental and social impacts and costs for electric cars and buses. The stakeholder collaboration, combined with conceptual modelling, also resulted in models for generic support for multi-stakeholder collaboration and planning for strategic sustainable development of transport systems and communities, and for how to include electric buses in the procurement model of public transport.

The strategic sustainable development perspective of this thesis broadens the analysis beyond the more common focus on climate change issues and should be able to reduce the risk of sub-optimizations in community and transport system development when applied in that context. The generic support for multi-stakeholder collaboration could potentially also promote a more participatory democratic approach to community development, grounded in a scientific foundation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 177
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 2018:08
Keywords
Strategic Sustainable Development, Transport Planning, Electric Vehicles, Testing, LCA, Mobility
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16965 (URN)978-91-7295-356-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-18, J1650, Blekinge Institute of technology, Karlskrona, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Contact the author to receive a pdf of the full thesis (papers included): sven.boren@bth.se or telephone +46455385723.

Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-05 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Robèrt, K.-H., Borén, S., Ny, H. & Broman, G. (2017). A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development - Part 1: attempting a generic community planning process model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140(Part 1), 53-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development - Part 1: attempting a generic community planning process model
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. It is the following combination of objectives that puts demand on a new process model adapted for cross-sector and cross-disciplinary cooperation: (i) a fossil-free transport system in Sweden by 2030 and, to avoid sub-optimizations in the transport sector, (ii) assuring that solutions that support (i) also serve other aspects of sustainability in the transport sector and, to avoid that sustainable solutions in the transport sector block sustainable solutions in other sectors, (iii) assuring cohesive creativity across sectors and groups of experts and stakeholders. The new process model was applied in an action-research mode for the exploration of electric vehicles within a fully sustainable transport system to test the functionality of the model in support of its development. To deliver on the above combination of objectives, a framework was needed with principles for sustainability that are universal for any sector as boundary conditions for redesign, and with guidelines for how any organization or sector can create economically feasible step- by-step transition plans. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) is designed to serve such purposes and therefore is embedded into the new process model. The exploration of this new model also helped to identify four interdependent planning perspectives (‘Resource base’, ‘Spatial’, ‘Technical’ and ‘Governance’) that should be represented by the respective experts and stakeholders using the model. In general, the new process model proved helpful by giving diverse stakeholders with various competences and representing various planning perspectives a common, robust, and easy-to- understand goal and a way of working that was adequate for each of their contexts. Furthermore, the evolving process model likely is relevant and useful not only for transport planning and electric vehicles, but for any other societal sector as well and thus for sustainable community planning in general. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Sustainability, Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, FSSD, Traffic, Transport, Strategic planning
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11713 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.054 (DOI)000388775100006 ()
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Borén, S., Nurhadi, L., Ny, H., Robèrt, K.-H., Broman, G. & Trygg, L. (2017). A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development - Part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in Southeast Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140(Part 1), 62-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development - Part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in Southeast Sweden
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. In the first paper of this tandem publication, the authors propose a new generic process model embedding the Framework of Strategic Sustainable Development. The purpose of applying it in an action-research mode as described in this paper was twofold: (i) to develop a vision for sustainable regional transport and a coarse roadmap towards that vision, and, while doing so, (ii) get additional empirical experiences to inform the development of the new generic process model. Experts from many sectors and organizations involved in the GreenCharge project provided vital information and reviewed all planning perspectives presented in Paper 1 in two sequential multi-stakeholder seminars. The results include a sustainable vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden within a sustainable regional transport system within a sustainable global society, as well as an initial development plan towards such a vision for the transport sector. The vision is framed by the universal sustainability principles, and the development plan is informed by the strategic guidelines, of the above-mentioned framework. Among other things, the vision and plan imply a shift to renewable energy and a more optimized use of areas and thus a new type of spatial planning. For example, the vision and plan implies a lower built-in demand for transport, more integrated traffic modes, and more multi-functional use of areas for energy and transport infrastructures, for example. Some inherent benefits of electric vehicles are highlighted in the vision and plan, including near-zero local emissions and flexibility as regards primary energy sources. The vision and plan also imply improved governance for more effective cross-sector collaboration to ensure coor- dinated development within the transport sector and between the transportation sector and other relevant sectors. Meanwhile, the new generic process model was refined and is ready to be applied and further tested in the GreenCharge project and in other projects within the transport sector as well as other sectors. The study confirmed that the new generic process model suggested in support of sus- tainable transport system and community development is helpful for giving diverse stakeholders, with various specialties and perspectives, a way of working that is goal-oriented and builds on effective, iterative learning loops and co-creation. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Sustainability, Cross-sector, Traffic, Electric vehicles, Strategic planning, Vision
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11714 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.055 (DOI)000388775100007 ()
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Nurhadi, L., Borén, S., Ny, H. & Larsson, T. (2017). Competitiveness and Sustainability Effects of Cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140(Part 1), 333-348
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competitiveness and Sustainability Effects of Cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, no Part 1, p. 333-348Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to develop and test a new approach for comparing sustainability effects (mainly approximated through CO2 emissions) and the total cost of ownership of various business models (Regular Purchasing, Car Pooling, Car Leasing, and Taxiing) applied to private cars with different energy carriers (Biogas, Ethanol, Gasoline, Plug-in Hybrid, and Electric). The results indicate that, out of all of the vehicles, electric vehicles are the most competitive—from both an ecological and economic perspective. Moreover, of all of the business models, Car Pooling is the most competitive when driving short to medium distances, reducing CO2 emissions by 20-40% compared with Regular Purchasing. Meanwhile, Car Leasing emits the same amount of CO2 emissions as Regular Purchasing if both are driven the same number of kilometers per year. The results also indicate that, from a cost effectiveness perspective, people who travel less than 2000 km per year should primarily consider using Taxis or similar services, while Car Pooling is most cost effective for those who travel from 2000 to 8500 km. For those who travel between 8500 and 13500 km per year, Car Leasing is the most cost effective, and Regular Purchasing is the best option above 13500 km per year. If most car owners were to accept and adapt to this identified need for a market move towards Car Pooling with Electric Vehicles, necessary transportation could be ensured while significantly reducing the number of cars on the road, whether from Regular Purchasing or Car Leasing, as well as those that run on fossil fuel. This, in turn, would result in less fossil fuel use, fewer emissions, and decreased negative effects on human health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Business modeling; Sustainable transport, Total Cost of Ownership, Electric car, Fossil-fueled car, Life cycle costing
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11835 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.045 (DOI)000388775100031 ()
Available from: 2016-04-24 Created: 2016-04-24 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Borén, S. & Ny, H. (2016). A Strategic Sustainability and Life Cycle Analysis of Electric Vehicles in EU today and by 2050. In: Proceedings of ICSUTE 2016: . Paper presented at The 18th International Conference on Sustainable Urban Transport and Environment (ICSUTE), Madrid, Spain, March 24-25, 2016 (pp. 229-237). , 10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Strategic Sustainability and Life Cycle Analysis of Electric Vehicles in EU today and by 2050
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of ICSUTE 2016, 2016, Vol. 10, p. 229-237Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ambitions within the EU for moving towards sustainable transport include major emission reductions for fossil fuel road vehicles, especially for buses, trucks, and cars. The electric driveline seems to be an attractive solution for such development. This study first applied the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development to compare sustainability effects of today’s fossil fuel vehicles with electric vehicles that have batteries or hydrogen fuel cells. The study then addressed a scenario were electric vehicles might be in majority in Europe by 2050. The methodology called Strategic Lifecycle Assessment was first used, were each life cycle phase was assessed for violations against sustainability principles. This indicates where further analysis could be done in order to quantify the magnitude of each violation, and later to create alternative strategies and actions that lead towards sustainability. A Life Cycle Assessment of combustion engine cars, plug-in hybrid cars, battery electric cars and hydrogen fuel cell cars was then conducted to compare and quantify environmental impacts. The authors found major violations of sustainability principles like use of fossil fuels, which contribute to the increase of emission related impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, ozone depletion, and particulate matters. Other violations were found, such as use of scarce materials for batteries and fuel cells, and also for most life cycle phases for all vehicles when using fossil fuel vehicles for mining, production and transport. Still, the studied current battery and hydrogen fuel cell cars have less severe violations than fossil fuel cars. The life cycle assessment revealed that fossil fuel cars have overall considerably higher environmental impacts compared to electric cars as long as the latter are powered by renewable electricity. By 2050, there will likely be even more sustainable alternatives than the studied electric vehicles when the EU electricity mix mainly should stem from renewable sources, batteries should be recycled, fuel cells should be a mature technology for use in vehicles (containing no scarce materials), and electric drivelines should have replaced combustion engines in other sectors. An uncertainty for fuel cells in 2050 is whether the production of hydrogen will have had time to switch to renewable resources. If so, that would contribute even more to a sustainable development. Except for being adopted in the GreenCharge roadmap, the authors suggest that the results can contribute to planning in the upcoming decades for a sustainable increase of EVs in Europe, and potentially serve as an inspiration for other smaller or larger regions. Further studies could map the environmental effects in LCA further, and include other road vehicles to get a more precise perception of how much they could affect sustainable development.

Series
International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, ISSN 2010-3778 ; 3
Keywords
Strategic, electric vehicles, fuel cell, LCA, sustainability
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11711 (URN)
Conference
The 18th International Conference on Sustainable Urban Transport and Environment (ICSUTE), Madrid, Spain, March 24-25, 2016
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2018-09-05Bibliographically approved
Borén, S., Nurhadi, L. & Ny, H. (2016). Preference of Electric Buses in Public Transport: Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities. In: Proceedings of ICSUTE 2016: . Paper presented at The 18th International Conference on Sustainable Urban Transport and Environment, Madrid (pp. 255-264). , 10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preference of Electric Buses in Public Transport: Conclusions from Real Life Testing in Eight Swedish Municipalities
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of ICSUTE 2016, 2016, Vol. 10, p. 255-264Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

From a theoretical perspective, Electric buses can be more sustainable and can be cheaper than fossil fuelled buses in city traffic. The authors have not found other studies based on actual urban public transport in Swedish winter climate. Further on, noise measurements from buses for the European market where found old. The aims of this follow-up study was therefore to test and possibly verify in a real-life environment how energy efficient and silent electric buses are, and then conclude on if electric buses are preferable to use in public transport. The Ebusco 2.0 electric bus, fitted with a 311 kWh battery pack, was used and the tests carried out during November 2014 to April 2015 in eight municipalities in the south of Sweden. Six tests took place in urban traffic and two took place in more of a rural traffic setting. The energy use for propulsion was measured via logging of the internal system in the bus and via an external charging meter. The average energy use turned out to be 8 % less (0,96 kWh/km) than assumed in the earlier theoretical study. This rate allows for a 320 km range in public urban traffic. The interior of the bus was kept warm by a diesel heater (biodiesel will probably be used in a future operational traffic situation), which used 0,67 kWh/km in January. This verified that electric buses can be up to 25% cheaper when used in public transport in cities for about eight years. The noise was found to be lower, primarily during acceleration, than for buses with combustion engines in urban bus traffic. According to our surveys, most passengers and drivers appreciated the silent and comfortable ride and preferred electric buses rather than combustion engine buses. Bus operators and passenger transport executives were also positive to start using electric buses for public transport. The operators did however point out that procurement processes need to account for eventual risks regarding this new technology, along with personnel education. The study revealed that it is possible to establish a charging infrastructure for almost all studied bus lines. However, design of a charging infrastructure for each municipality requires further investigations, including electric grid capacity analysis, smart location of charging points, and tailored schedules to allow fast charging. In conclusion, electric buses proved to be a preferable alternative for all stakeholders involved in public bus transport in the studied municipalities. However, in order to electric buses to be a prominent support for sustainable development, they need to be charged either by stand-alone units or via an expansion of the electric grid, and the electricity should be made from new renewable sources.

Series
International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering, ISSN 2010-3778 ; 3
Keywords
Sustainability, Electric Bus, Noise, GreenCharge
National Category
Other Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11712 (URN)
Conference
The 18th International Conference on Sustainable Urban Transport and Environment, Madrid
Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2020-03-31Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8314-7504