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Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
Publications (10 of 38) Show all publications
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Gorschek, T., Prikladniki, R., Tripathi, N. & Pompermaier, L. B. (2019). A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Context: Software start-ups are emerging as suppliers of innovation and software-intensive products. However, traditional software engineering practices are not evaluated in the context, nor adopted to goals and challenges of start-ups. As a result, there is insufficient support for software engineering in the start-up context. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Analytical models, Companies, Market opportunities, progression model, Requirements engineering, Software, Software engineering, software engineering practices, software start-up, Computer software, Industry
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17706 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2019.2900213 (DOI)2-s2.0-85061979918 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Yates, A. (2019). Expert-sourcing domain-specific knowledge: The case of synonym validation. In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings: . Paper presented at 2019 Joint of International Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality Workshops, Doctoral Symposium, Live Studies Track, and Poster Track, REFSQ-JP 2019, 18 March 2019. CEUR-WS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expert-sourcing domain-specific knowledge: The case of synonym validation
2019 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

One prerequisite for supervised machine learning is high quality labelled data. Acquiring such data is, particularly if expert knowledge is required, costly or even impossible if the task needs to be performed by a single expert. In this paper, we illustrate tool support that we adopted and extended to source domain-specific knowledge from experts. We provide insight in design decisions that aim at motivating experts to dedicate their time at performing the labelling task. We are currently using the approach to identify true synonyms from a list of candidate synonyms. The identification of synonyms is important in scenarios were stakeholders from different companies and background need to collaborate, for example when defining and negotiating requirements. We foresee that the approach of expert-sourcing is applicable to any data labelling task in software engineering. The discussed design decisions and implementation are an initial draft that can be extended, refined and validated with further application. Copyright © 2019 by the paper’s authors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CEUR-WS, 2019
Keywords
Computer software selection and evaluation, Design, Supervised learning, Data labelling, Design decisions, Domain-specific knowledge, Expert knowledge, High quality, Supervised machine learning, Task-needs, Tool support, Requirements engineering
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-18583 (URN)2-s2.0-85068039728 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2019 Joint of International Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality Workshops, Doctoral Symposium, Live Studies Track, and Poster Track, REFSQ-JP 2019, 18 March 2019
Available from: 2019-09-06 Created: 2019-09-06 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Badampudi, D., Britto, R. & Unterkalmsteiner, M. (2019). Modern code reviews: Preliminary results of a systematic mapping study. In: PROCEEDINGS OF EASE 2019 - EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING: . Paper presented at 23rd Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering Conference, EASE Copenhagen, 14 April 2019 through 17 April 2019 (pp. 340-345). Association for Computing Machinery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modern code reviews: Preliminary results of a systematic mapping study
2019 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF EASE 2019 - EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 340-345Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Reviewing source code is a common practice in a modern and collaborative coding environment. In the past few years, the research on modern code reviews has gained interest among practitioners and researchers. The objective of our investigation is to observe the evolution of research related to modern code reviews, identify research gaps and serve as a basis for future research. We use a systematic mapping approach to identify and classify 177 research papers. As preliminary result of our investigation, we present in this paper a classification scheme of the main contributions of modern code review research between 2005 and 2018. © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery, 2019
Keywords
Contemporary code review, Modern code reviews, Source code review, Mapping, Software engineering, Classification scheme, Code review, Collaborative coding, Research gaps, Research papers, Source-code reviews, Systematic mapping, Systematic mapping studies, Codes (symbols)
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17893 (URN)10.1145/3319008.3319354 (DOI)000493383400036 ()2-s2.0-85064735561 (Scopus ID)9781450371452 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering Conference, EASE Copenhagen, 14 April 2019 through 17 April 2019
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Silva, L., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Wnuk, K. (2019). Monitoring and maintenance of telecommunication systems: Challenges and research perspectives (830ed.). In: Kosiuczenko, P; Zielinski, Z (Ed.), ENGINEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEMS: RESEARCH AND PRAXIS. Paper presented at KKIO Software Engineering Conference, Pultusk, POLAND SEP 27-28, 2018 (pp. 166-172). Springer Verlag, 830
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring and maintenance of telecommunication systems: Challenges and research perspectives
2019 (English)In: ENGINEERING SOFTWARE SYSTEMS: RESEARCH AND PRAXIS / [ed] Kosiuczenko, P; Zielinski, Z, Springer Verlag , 2019, 830, Vol. 830, p. 166-172Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we present challenges associated with monitoring and maintaining a large telecom system at Ericsson that was developed with high degree of component reuse. The system constitutes of multiple services, composed of both legacy and modern systems that are constantly changing and need to be adapted to changing business needs. The paper is based on firsthand experience from architecting, developing and maintaining such a system, pointing out current challenges and potential avenues for future research that might contribute to addressing them. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2019 Edition: 830
Series
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, ISSN 2194-5357 ; 830
Keywords
Legacy system evolution, Telecommunication services, Virtualization, Legacy systems, Business needs, Component reuse, Ericsson, Multiple services, System evolution, Telecom systems
National Category
Software Engineering Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17184 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99617-2_11 (DOI)000461025600011 ()2-s2.0-85054716129 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-99617-2 (ISBN)
Conference
KKIO Software Engineering Conference, Pultusk, POLAND SEP 27-28, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Yates, A. & Unterkalmsteiner, M. (2019). Replicating relevance-ranked synonym discovery in a new language and domain. In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at 41st European Conference on Information Retrieval, ECIR; Cologne; Germany; 14 April 2019 through 18 April (pp. 429-442). Springer Verlag, 11437
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Replicating relevance-ranked synonym discovery in a new language and domain
2019 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2019, Vol. 11437, p. 429-442Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Domain-specific synonyms occur in many specialized search tasks, such as when searching medical documents, legal documents, and software engineering artifacts. We replicate prior work on ranking domain-specific synonyms in the consumer health domain by applying the approach to a new language and domain: identifying Swedish language synonyms in the building construction domain. We chose this setting because identifying synonyms in this domain is helpful for downstream systems, where different users may query for documents (e.g., engineering requirements) using different terminology. We consider two new features inspired by the change in language and methodological advances since the prior work’s publication. An evaluation using data from the building construction domain supports the finding from the prior work that synonym discovery is best approached as a learning to rank task in which a human editor views ranked synonym candidates in order to construct a domain-specific thesaurus. We additionally find that FastText embeddings alone provide a strong baseline, though they do not perform as well as the strongest learning to rank method. Finally, we analyze the performance of individual features and the differences in the domains. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2019
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743
Keywords
Domain-specific search, Generalization, Replication, Synonym discovery, Thesaurus construction, Construction, Information retrieval, Software engineering, Thesauri, Building construction, Domain specific searches, Individual features, Learning to rank, Medical documents, Semantics
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17895 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-15712-8_28 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064883724 (Scopus ID)9783030157111 (ISBN)
Conference
41st European Conference on Information Retrieval, ECIR; Cologne; Germany; 14 April 2019 through 18 April
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Chatzipetrou, P., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Requirements' Characteristics: How do they Impact on Project Budget in a Systems Engineering Context?. In: Proceedings - 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2019: . Paper presented at 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA, Kallithea, Chalkidiki; Greece, 28 August 2019 through 30 August 2019 (pp. 260-267). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Requirements' Characteristics: How do they Impact on Project Budget in a Systems Engineering Context?
2019 (English)In: Proceedings - 45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 260-267Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Requirements engineering is of a principal importance when starting a new project. However, the number of the requirements involved in a single project can reach up to thousands. Controlling and assuring the quality of natural language requirements (NLRs), in these quantities, is challenging. Aims: In a field study, we investigated with the Swedish Transportation Agency (STA) to what extent the characteristics of requirements had an influence on change requests and budget changes in the project. Method: We choose the following models to characterize system requirements formulated in natural language: Concern-based Model of Requirements (CMR), Requirements Abstractions Model (RAM) and Software-Hardware model (SHM). The classification of the NLRs was conducted by the three authors. The robust statistical measure Fleiss' Kappa was used to verify the reliability of the results. We used descriptive statistics, contingency tables, results from the Chi-Square test of association along with post hoc tests. Finally, a multivariate statistical technique, Correspondence analysis was used in order to provide a means of displaying a set of requirements in two-dimensional graphical form. Results: The results showed that software requirements are associated with less budget cost than hardware requirements. Moreover, software requirements tend to stay open for a longer period indicating that they are 'harder' to handle. Finally, the more discussion or interaction on a change request can lower the actual estimated change request cost. Conclusions: The results lead us to a need to further investigate the reasons why the software requirements are treated differently from the hardware requirements, interview the project managers, understand better the way those requirements are formulated and propose effective ways of Software management. © 2019 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Natural-Language-Requirements-(NLRs), Project-budget, Requirements-Engineering, Software-Management, Budget control, Multivariant analysis, Natural language processing systems, Quality control, Requirements engineering, Statistical tests, Correspondence analysis, Descriptive statistics, Multivariate statistical techniques, Natural language requirements, Project budget, Software management, Software requirements, Transportation agencies, Application programs
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-19051 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2019.00048 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076017569 (Scopus ID)9781728132853 (ISBN)
Conference
45th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA, Kallithea, Chalkidiki; Greece, 28 August 2019 through 30 August 2019
Available from: 2019-12-27 Created: 2019-12-27 Last updated: 2019-12-27Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Software Engineering Anti-Patterns in Start-Ups. IEEE Software, 36(2), 118-126
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software Engineering Anti-Patterns in Start-Ups
2019 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software start-up failures are often explained with a poor business model, market issues, insufficient funding, or simply a bad product idea. However, inadequacies in software engineering are relatively unexplored and could be a significant contributing factor to the high start-up failure rate. In this paper we present the analysis of 88 start-up experience reports, revealing three anti-patterns associated with start-up progression phases. The anti-patterns address challenges of releasing the first version of the product, attracting customers, and expanding the product into new markets. The anti-patterns show that challenges and failure scenarios that appear to be business or market related are, at least partially, rooted in engineering inadequacies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2019
Keywords
Software Engineering, Software Start-ups, Software quality
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17450 (URN)000459536000018 ()
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Gorschek, T. (2019). Software engineering in start-up companies: An analysis of 88 experience reports. Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, 24(1), 68-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software engineering in start-up companies: An analysis of 88 experience reports
2019 (English)In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 68-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Start-up companies have become an important supplier of innovation and software-intensive products. The flexibility and reactiveness of start-ups enables fast development and launch of innovative products. However, a majority of software start-up companies fail before achieving any success. Among other factors, poor software engineering could be a significant contributor to the challenges experienced by start-ups. However, the state-of-practice of software engineering in start-ups, as well as the utilization of state-of-the-art is largely an unexplored area. Objective: In this study we investigate how software engineering is applied in start-up context with a focus to identify key knowledge areas and opportunities for further research. Method: We perform a multi-vocal exploratory study of 88 start-up experience reports. We develop a custom taxonomy to categorize the reported software engineering practices and their interrelation with business aspects, and apply qualitative data analysis to explore influences and dependencies between the knowledge areas. Results: We identify the most frequently reported software engineering (requirements engineering, software design and quality) and business aspect (vision and strategy development) knowledge areas, and illustrate their relationships. We also present a summary of how relevant software engineering knowledge areas are implemented in start-ups and identify potentially useful practices for adoption in start-ups. Conclusions: The results enable a more focused research on engineering practices in start-ups. We conclude that most engineering challenges in start-ups stem from inadequacies in requirements engineering. Many promising practices to address specific engineering challenges exists, however more research on adaptation of established practices, and validation of new start-up specific practices is needed. © 2018 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2019
Keywords
Experience reports, Software engineering practices, Software start-up, Requirements engineering, Engineering challenges, Engineering knowledge, Engineering practices, Experience report, Exploratory studies, Qualitative data analysis, Strategy development, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16246 (URN)10.1007/s10664-018-9620-y (DOI)000458634400003 ()2-s2.0-85047198507 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-31 Created: 2018-05-31 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Tran, H. K., Ali, N. b., Börstler, J. & Unterkalmsteiner, M. (2019). Test-Case Quality: Understanding Practitioners’ Perspectives. In: Franch X.,Mannisto T.,Martinez-Fernandez S. (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): . Paper presented at 20th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, PROFES 2019; Barcelona; Spain; 27 November 2019 through 29 November (pp. 37-52). Springer, 11915
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Test-Case Quality: Understanding Practitioners’ Perspectives
2019 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Franch X.,Mannisto T.,Martinez-Fernandez S., Springer , 2019, Vol. 11915, p. 37-52Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Test-case quality has always been one of the major concerns in software testing. To improve test-case quality, it is important to better understand how practitioners perceive the quality of test-cases. Objective: Motivated by that need, we investigated how practitioners define test-case quality and which aspects of test-cases are important for quality assessment. Method: We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional developers, testers and test architects from a multinational software company in Sweden. Before the interviews, we asked participants for actual test cases (written in natural language) that they perceive as good, normal, and bad respectively together with rationales for their assessment. We also compared their opinions on shared test cases and contrasted their views with the relevant literature. Results: We present a quality model which consists of 11 test-case quality attributes. We also identify a misalignment in defining test-case quality among practitioners and between academia and industry, along with suggestions for improving test-case quality in industry. Conclusion: The results show that practitioners’ background, including roles and working experience, are critical dimensions of how test-case quality is defined and assessed. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Natural-language test case, Software testing, Test-case quality, Process engineering, Quality management, Testing, Critical dimension, Natural languages, Quality assessment, Quality attributes, Quality modeling, Semi structured interviews, Software company, Test case
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-19063 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-35333-9_3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85076540061 (Scopus ID)9783030353322 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, PROFES 2019; Barcelona; Spain; 27 November 2019 through 29 November
Available from: 2019-12-27 Created: 2019-12-27 Last updated: 2019-12-27Bibliographically approved
Tripathi, N., Klotins, E., Prikladnicki, R., Oivo, M., Pompermaier, L. B., Kudakacheril, A. S., . . . Gorschek, T. (2018). An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey. Journal of Systems and Software, 146, 130-151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, p. 130-151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software startups aim to develop innovative products, grow rapidly, and thus become important in the development of economy and jobs. Requirements engineering (RE) is a key process area in software development, but its effects on software startups are unclear. Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore how RE (elicitation, documentation, prioritization and validation) is used in software startups. Method: A multi-vocal literature review (MLR) was used to find scientific and gray literature. In addition, a case survey was employed to gather empirical data to reach this study's objective. Results: In the MLR, 36 primary articles were selected out of 28,643 articles. In the case survey, 80 respondents provided information about software startup cases across the globe. Data analysis revealed that during RE processes, internal sources (e.g., for source), analyses of similar products (e.g., elicitation), uses of informal notes (e.g., for documentation), values to customers, products and stakeholders (e.g., for prioritization) and internal reviews/prototypes (e.g., for validation) were the most used techniques. Conclusion: After an analysis of primary literature, it was concluded that research on this topic is still in early stages and more systematic research is needed. Furthermore, few topics were suggested for future research. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2018
Keywords
Case survey, Multi-vocal literature review, Requirements engineering, Software startups, Software design, Case surveys, Empirical data, Innovative product, Internal source, Key process areas, Literature reviews, Prioritization, Systematic research, Surveys
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17083 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2018.08.059 (DOI)000451488900010 ()2-s2.0-85053782208 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
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