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Frattini, J., Fischbach, J., Mendez, D., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Vogelsang, A. & Wnuk, K. (2023). Causality in requirements artifacts: prevalence, detection, and impact. Requirements Engineering, 28(1), 49-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Causality in requirements artifacts: prevalence, detection, and impact
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2023 (English)In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 49-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Causal relations in natural language (NL) requirements convey strong, semantic information. Automatically extracting such causal information enables multiple use cases, such as test case generation, but it also requires to reliably detect causal relations in the first place. Currently, this is still a cumbersome task as causality in NL requirements is still barely understood and, thus, barely detectable. In our empirically informed research, we aim at better understanding the notion of causality and supporting the automatic extraction of causal relations in NL requirements. In a first case study, we investigate 14.983 sentences from 53 requirements documents to understand the extent and form in which causality occurs. Second, we present and evaluate a tool-supported approach, called CiRA, for causality detection. We conclude with a second case study where we demonstrate the applicability of our tool and investigate the impact of causality on NL requirements. The first case study shows that causality constitutes around 28 % of all NL requirements sentences. We then demonstrate that our detection tool achieves a macro-F 1 score of 82 % on real-world data and that it outperforms related approaches with an average gain of 11.06 % in macro-Recall and 11.43 % in macro-Precision. Finally, our second case study corroborates the positive correlations of causality with features of NL requirements. The results strengthen our confidence in the eligibility of causal relations for downstream reuse, while our tool and publicly available data constitute a first step in the ongoing endeavors of utilizing causality in RE and beyond. © 2022, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023
Keywords
Causality, Multi-case study, Natural language processing, Requirements engineering, Semantics, Automatic extraction, Case-studies, Causal relations, Multiple use-cases, Natural language requirements, Requirement engineering, Requirements document, Semantics Information, Test case generation, Natural language processing systems
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-22673 (URN)10.1007/s00766-022-00371-x (DOI)000753242500002 ()2-s2.0-85124567603 (Scopus ID)
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-02-25 Created: 2022-02-25 Last updated: 2023-06-19Bibliographically approved
Wang, X., Martini, A., Nguyen-Duc, A., Stray, V. & Wnuk, K. (2023). Special section on IST for ICSOB2021. Information and Software Technology, 160, Article ID 107243.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special section on IST for ICSOB2021
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2023 (English)In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 160, article id 107243Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24492 (URN)10.1016/j.infsof.2023.107243 (DOI)001033590300001 ()2-s2.0-85153801502 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
Ouriques, R., Wnuk, K., Gorschek, T. & Svensson, R. B. (2023). The role of knowledge-based resources in Agile Software Development contexts. Journal of Systems and Software, 197, Article ID 111572.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of knowledge-based resources in Agile Software Development contexts
2023 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 197, article id 111572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The software value chain is knowledge-based since it is highly dependant on people. Consequently, a lack of practice in managing knowledge as a resource may jeopardise its application in software development. Knowledge-Based Resources (KBRs) relate to employees’ intangible knowledge that is deemed to be valuable to a company's competitive advantage. In this study, we apply a grounded theory approach to examine the role of KBRs in Agile Software Development (ASD). To this aim, we collected data from 18 practitioners from five companies. We develop the Knowledge-Push theory, which explains how KBRs boost the need for change in ASD. Our results show that the practitioners who participated in the study utilise, as primary strategies, task planning, resource management, and social collaboration. These strategies are implemented through the team environment and settings and incorporate an ability to codify and transmit knowledge. However, this process of codification is non-systematic, which consequently introduces inefficiency in the domain of knowledge resource utilisation, resulting in potential knowledge waste. This inefficiency can generate negative implications for software development, including meaningless searches in databases, frustration because of recurrent problems, the unnecessary redesign of solutions, and a lack of awareness of knowledge sources. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Application programs, Competition, Knowledge based systems, Software design, Agile software development, Competitive advantage, Grounded theory, Grounded theory approach, ITS applications, Knowledge based, Knowledge-based resources, Resource management, Task planning, Value chains, Knowledge management, Software development
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24144 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2022.111572 (DOI)000903909200003 ()2-s2.0-85144082256 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180010
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-12-30 Created: 2022-12-30 Last updated: 2023-08-18Bibliographically approved
Silva, L., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Wnuk, K. (2023). Towards identifying and minimizing customer-facing documentation debt. In: Proceedings - 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2023: . Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2023, Melbourne, Australia, 14 May 2023 through 15 May 2023 (pp. 72-81). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards identifying and minimizing customer-facing documentation debt
2023 (English)In: Proceedings - 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023, p. 72-81Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Software documentation often struggles to catch up with the pace of software evolution. The lack of correct, complete, and up-to-date documentation results in an increasing number of documentation defects which could introduce delays in integrating software systems. In our previous study on a bug analysis tool called MultiDimEr, we provided evidence that documentation-related defects contribute to a significant number of bug reports.

Aims: First, we want to identify documentation defect types contributing to documentation defects and thereby identifying documentation debt. Secondly, we aim to find pragmatic solutions to minimize most common documentation defects to pay off the documentation debt in the long run.

Method: We investigated documentation defects related to an industrial software system. First, we looked at the types of different documentation and associated bug reports. We categorized the defects according to an existing documentation defect taxonomy.

Results: Based on a sample of 101 defects, we found that a majority of defects are caused by documentation defects falling into the Information Content (What) category (86). Within this category, the documentation defect types Erroneous code examples (23), Missing documentation (35), and Outdated content (19) contributed to most of the documentation defects. We propose to adapt two solutions to mitigate these types of documentation defects.

Conclusions: In practice, documentation debt can easily go undetected since a large share of resources and focus is dedicated to deliver high-quality software. This study provides evidence that documentation debt can contribute to increase in maintenance costs due to the number of documentation defects. We suggest to adapt two main solutions to tackle documentation debt by implementing (i) Dynamic Documentation Generation (DDG) and/or (ii) Automated Documentation Testing (ADT), which are both based on defining a single and robust information source for documentation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Keywords
Documentation Debt, Technical Debt, Automation
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24654 (URN)10.1109/TechDebt59074.2023.00015 (DOI)001051233000009 ()2-s2.0-85169420574 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2023, Melbourne, Australia, 14 May 2023 through 15 May 2023
Available from: 2023-05-30 Created: 2023-05-30 Last updated: 2023-09-15Bibliographically approved
Zabardast, E., Frattini, J., Gonzalez-Huerta, J., Mendez, D., Gorschek, T. & Wnuk, K. (2022). Assets in Software Engineering: What are they after all?. Journal of Systems and Software, 193, Article ID 111485.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assets in Software Engineering: What are they after all?
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 193, article id 111485Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the development and maintenance of software-intensive products or services, we depend on various artefacts. Some of those artefacts, we deem central to the feasibility of a project and the product's final quality. Typically, these central artefacts are referred to as assets. However, despite their central role in the software development process, little thought is yet invested into what eventually characterises as an asset, often resulting in many terms and underlying concepts being mixed and used inconsistently. A precise terminology of assets and related concepts, such as asset degradation, are crucial for setting up a new generation of cost-effective software engineering practices. In this position paper, we critically reflect upon the notion of assets in software engineering. As a starting point, we define the terminology and concepts of assets and extend the reasoning behind them. We explore assets’ characteristics and discuss what asset degradation is as well as its various types and the implications that asset degradation might bring for the planning, realisation, and evolution of software-intensive products and services over time. We aspire to contribute to a more standardised definition of assets in software engineering and foster research endeavours and their practical dissemination in a common, more unified direction. © 2022 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Asset degradation, Asset management, Assets, Software artefacts, Technical debt, Cost effectiveness, Cost engineering, Software design, Asset, Assets management, Cost effective, Position papers, Product and services, Software development process, Software engineering practices, Technical debts, Terminology
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-23601 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2022.111485 (DOI)000967989300022 ()2-s2.0-85136495111 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20170176Knowledge Foundation, 20180010
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-09-12 Created: 2022-09-12 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Silva, L., Unterkalmsteiner, M. & Wnuk, K. (2022). MultiDimEr: A Multi-Dimensional bug analyzEr. In: Proceedings - International Conference on Technical Debt 2022, TechDebt 2022: . Paper presented at 5th International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2022, Pittsburgh, 17 May 2022 through 18 May 2022 (pp. 66-70). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MultiDimEr: A Multi-Dimensional bug analyzEr
2022 (English)In: Proceedings - International Conference on Technical Debt 2022, TechDebt 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022, p. 66-70Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Bugs and bug management consumes a significant amount of time and effort from software development organizations. A reduction in bugs can significantly improve the capacity for new feature development. Aims: We categorize and visualize dimensions of bug reports to identify accruing technical debt. This evidence can serve practitioners and decision makers not only as an argumentative basis for steering improvement efforts, but also as a starting point for root cause analysis, reducing overall bug inflow. Method: We implemented a tool, MultiDimEr, that analyzes and visualizes bug reports. The tool was implemented and evaluated at Ericsson. Results: We present our preliminary findings using the MultiDimEr for bug analysis, where we successfully identified components generating most of the bugs and bug trends within certain components. Conclusions: By analyzing the dimensions provided by MultiDimEr, we show that classifying and visualizing bug reports in different dimensions can stimulate discussions around bug hot spots as well as validating the accuracy of manually entered bug report attributes used in technical debt measurements such as fault slip through. © 2022 ACM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022
Keywords
Decision making, Fault slips, Program debugging, % reductions, Bug analyse, Bug managements, Bug reports, Bug visualization, Multi dimensional, Soft-ware maintenance, Software development organizations, Technical debts, Tool support, Software design, bug analysis, bug management, technical debt
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-23552 (URN)10.1145/3524843.3528099 (DOI)000852810000009 ()2-s2.0-85134351712 (Scopus ID)9781450393041 (ISBN)
Conference
5th International Conference on Technical Debt, TechDebt 2022, Pittsburgh, 17 May 2022 through 18 May 2022
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-08-15 Created: 2022-08-15 Last updated: 2023-06-02Bibliographically approved
Dorner, M., Šmite, D., Mendez, D., Wnuk, K. & Czerwonka, J. (2022). Only Time Will Tell: Modelling Information Diffusion in Code Review with Time-Varying Hypergraphs. In: Madeiral F., Lassenius C., Lassenius C., Conte T., Mannisto T. (Ed.), ESEM '22: Proceedings of the 16th ACM / IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement. Paper presented at 16th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM 2022, Helsinki, 18 September through 23 September 2022 (pp. 195-204). Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Only Time Will Tell: Modelling Information Diffusion in Code Review with Time-Varying Hypergraphs
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2022 (English)In: ESEM '22: Proceedings of the 16th ACM / IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement / [ed] Madeiral F., Lassenius C., Lassenius C., Conte T., Mannisto T., Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, p. 195-204Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Modern code review is expected to facilitate knowledge sharing: All relevant information, the collective expertise, and meta-information around the code change and its context become evident, transparent, and explicit in the corresponding code review discussion. The discussion participants can leverage this information in the following code reviews; the information diffuses through the communication network that emerges from code review. Traditional time-aggregated graphs fall short in rendering information diffusion as those models ignore the temporal order of the information exchange: Information can only be passed on if it is available in the first place.

Aim: This manuscript presents a novel model based on time-varying hypergraphs for rendering information diffusion that overcomes the inherent limitations of traditional, time-aggregated graph-based models. 

Method: In an in-silico experiment, we simulate an information diffusion within the internal code review at Microsoft and show the empirical impact of time on a key characteristic of information diffusion: the number of reachable participants. 

Results: Time-aggregation significantly overestimates the paths of information diffusion available in communication networks and, thus, is neither precise nor accurate for modelling and measuring the spread of information within communication networks that emerge from code review. 

Conclusion: Our model overcomes the inherent limitations of traditional, static or time-aggregated, graph-based communication models and sheds the first light on information diffusion through code review. We believe that our model can serve as a foundation for understanding, measuring, managing, and improving knowledge sharing in code review in particular and information diffusion in software engineering in general.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022
Series
International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ISSN 1949-3770, E-ISSN 1949-3789
Keywords
code review, collaboration, communication, communication network, developer networks, in-silico experiment, information diffusion, knowledge sharing, measurement, simulation, time-varying hypergraph, topology
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-23480 (URN)10.1145/3544902.3546254 (DOI)2-s2.0-85139871479 (Scopus ID)9781450394277 (ISBN)
Conference
16th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ESEM 2022, Helsinki, 18 September through 23 September 2022
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180010
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-08-05 Created: 2022-08-05 Last updated: 2022-10-28Bibliographically approved
Sundelin, A., Gonzalez-Huerta, J., Wnuk, K. & Gorschek, T. (2022). Towards an Anatomy of Software Craftsmanship. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, 31(1), Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards an Anatomy of Software Craftsmanship
2022 (English)In: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392, Vol. 31, no 1, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context:   The concept of software craftsmanship has early roots in computing, and in 2009, the Manifesto for Software Craftsmanship was formulated as a reaction to how the Agile methods were practiced and taught. But software craftsmanship has seldom been studied from a software engineering perspective.  

Objective:  The objective of this article is to systematize an anatomy of software craftsmanship through literature studies and a longitudinal case study.     

Method:  We performed a snowballing literature review based on an initial set of nine papers, resulting in~18 papers and 11 books.  We also performed a case study following seven years of software development of a product for the financial market, eliciting qualitative and quantitative results.  We used thematic coding to synthesize the results into categories.

Results:  The resulting anatomy is centered around four themes, containing 17 principles and 47 hierarchical practices connected to the principles.  We present the identified practices based on the experiences gathered from the case study, triangulating with the literature results.

Conclusion: We provide our systematically derived anatomy of software craftsmanship with the goal of inspiring more research into the principles and practices of software craftsmanship and how these relate to other principles within software engineering in general.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022
Keywords
software craftsmanship, principles of software development, deliberate practice
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-22037 (URN)10.1145/3468504 (DOI)000870650700006 ()
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20170213Knowledge Foundation, 20170176Knowledge Foundation, 20180010
Available from: 2021-08-20 Created: 2021-08-20 Last updated: 2023-02-06Bibliographically approved
Olsson, T., Wnuk, K. & Jansen, S. (2021). A validated model for the scoping process of quality requirements: a multi-case study. Empirical Software Engineering, 26(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A validated model for the scoping process of quality requirements: a multi-case study
2021 (English)In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 26, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quality requirements are vital to developing successful software products. However, there exist evidence that quality requirements are managed mostly in an “ad hoc” manner and down-prioritized. This may result in insecure, unstable, slow products, and unhappy customers. We have developed a conceptual model for the scoping process of quality requirements – QREME – and an assessment model – Q-REPM – for companies to benchmark when evaluating and improving their quality requirements practices. Our model balances an upfront forward-loop with a data-driven feedback-loop. Furthermore, it addresses both strategic and operational decisions. We have evaluated the model in a multi-case study at two companies in Sweden and three companies in The Netherlands. We assessed the scoping process practices for quality requirements and provided improvement recommendations for which practices to improve. The study confirms the existence of the constructs underlying QREME. The companies perform, in the median, 24% of the suggested actions in Q-REPM. None of the companies work data-driven with their quality requirements, even though four out of five companies could technically do so. Furthermore, on the strategic level, quality requirements practices are not systematically performed by any of the companies. The conceptual model and assessment model capture a relevant view of the quality requirements practices and offer relevant improvement proposals. However, we believe there is a need for coupling quality requirements practices to internal and external success factors to motive companies to change their ways of working. We also see improvement potential in the area of business intelligence for QREME in selecting data sources and relevant stakeholders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2021
Keywords
Quality requirements
National Category
Software Engineering
Research subject
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-21206 (URN)10.1007/s10664-020-09896-7 (DOI)000625372100003 ()2-s2.0-85102086319 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-03-08 Created: 2021-03-08 Last updated: 2023-02-16Bibliographically approved
Petersen, K., Carlson, J., Papatheocharous, E. & Wnuk, K. (2021). Context checklist for industrial software engineering research and practice. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 78, Article ID 103541.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Context checklist for industrial software engineering research and practice
2021 (English)In: Computer Standards & Interfaces, ISSN 0920-5489, E-ISSN 1872-7018, Vol. 78, article id 103541Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The relevance of context is particularly stressed in case studies, where it is said that “case study is an empirical method aimed at investigating contemporary phenomena in their context”. In this research, we classify context information and provide a context checklist for industrial software engineering. The checklist serves the purpose of (a) supporting researchers and practitioners in characterizing the context in which they are working; (b) supporting researchers with a checklist to identify relevant contextual information to elicit and report during primary and secondary studies. We utilized a systematic approach for constructing the classification of context information and provided a detailed definition for each item. We collected feedback from researchers as well as practitioners. The usefulness of the checklist was perceived more positively by researchers than practitioners, though they highlighted benefits (raising awareness of the importance of context and usefulness for management). The understandability was perceived positively by both practitioners and researchers. The checklist may serve as a “meta-model”, forming the basis for specific adaptations for different research areas, and as input for researchers deciding which context information to extract in systematic reviews. The checklist may also help researchers in reporting context in research papers. © 2021

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V., 2021
Keywords
Checklist, Context, Empirical, Evidence-based software engineering, Software engineering, Industrial research, Context information, Contextual information, Empirical method, Industrial software, Research papers, Specific adaptations, Systematic Review, Understandability, Classification (of information)
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-21603 (URN)10.1016/j.csi.2021.103541 (DOI)000670669600010 ()2-s2.0-85106924681 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-11 Created: 2021-06-11 Last updated: 2021-09-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3567-9300

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