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Publications (10 of 24) Show all publications
Klotins, E., Gorschek, T. & Wilson, M. (2023). Continuous Software Engineering: Introducing an Industry Readiness Model. IEEE Software, 40(4), 77-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous Software Engineering: Introducing an Industry Readiness Model
2023 (English)In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Software is becoming essential for most products, manufacturing processes, and back-office functions. The speed of delivering new features and refining the product is critical to remaining competitive. Software organizations may adopt continuous engineering practices to become more efficient. However, retrofitting an organization with a pipeline is challenging. Importantly, the most significant challenges and opportunities, are related to, but stem from outside the engineering realm and require rethinking customer relationships and business models. This paper presents a hierarchy of continuous engineering benefits and challenges. It is aimed to guide the adoption of continuous practices in an organization to determine the current and target level of adoption, given organizational context, ambitions, and domain constraints. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2023
Keywords
Automation, Companies, Investment, Pipelines, Software, Software engineering, Testing, Public relations, Software testing, Back office, Continuous software engineerings, Customer relationships, Engineering practices, Manufacturing process, Product manufacturing, Readiness models, Relationship model, Software organization
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24486 (URN)10.1109/MS.2023.3263190 (DOI)001032645500012 ()2-s2.0-85153369631 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-05 Created: 2023-05-05 Last updated: 2023-08-11Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Moe, N. B., Klotins, E. & Gonzalez-Huerta, J. (2023). From forced Working-From-Home to voluntary working-from-anywhere: Two revolutions in telework. Journal of Systems and Software, 195, Article ID 111509.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From forced Working-From-Home to voluntary working-from-anywhere: Two revolutions in telework
2023 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 195, article id 111509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The COVID-19 outbreak has admittedly caused interruptions to production, transportation, and mobility, therefore, having a significant impact on the global supply and demand chain's well-functioning. But what happened to companies developing digital services, such as software? How has the enforced Working-From-Home (WFH) mode impacted their ability to deliver software, if at all? This article shares our findings from monitoring the WFH during 2020 in an international software company with engineers located in Sweden, the USA, and the UK. We analyzed different aspects of productivity, such as developer job satisfaction and well-being, activity, communication and collaboration, efficiency and flow based on the archives of commit data, calendar invites, Slack communication, the internal reports of WFH experiences, and 30 interviews carried out in April/May and September 2020. We add more objective evidence to the existing COVID-19 studies the vast majority of which are based on self-reported productivity from the early months of the pandemic. We find that engineers continue committing code and carrying out their daily duties, as their routines adjust to “the new norm”. Our key message is that software engineers can work from home and quickly adjust their tactical approaches to the changes of unprecedented scale. Further, WFH has its benefits, including better work-life balance, improved flow, and improved quality of distributed meetings and events. Yet, WFH is not challenge free: not everybody feels equally productive working from home, work hours for many increased, while physical activity, socialization, pairing and opportunities to connect to unfamiliar colleagues decreased. Information sharing and meeting patterns also changed. Finally, experiences gained during the pandemic will have a lasting impact on the future of the workplace. The results of an internal company-wide survey suggest that only 9% of engineers will return to work in the office full time. Our article concludes with the InterSoft's strategy for work from anywhere (WFX), and a list of useful adjustments for a better WFH. © 2022 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Engineers, Job satisfaction, Productivity, Software engineering, Case-studies, Digital services, Empirical studies, Global supply chain, Production transportation, Software company, Supply and demand chains, Telework, Working from home, Working-from-home, COVID-19, Case study, Empirical study, WFH
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-23761 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2022.111509 (DOI)000875668800002 ()2-s2.0-85139327922 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190087Knowledge Foundation, 20170176Knowledge Foundation, 20180010The Research Council of Norway, 309344The Research Council of Norway, 267704
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-10-21 Created: 2022-10-21 Last updated: 2022-12-13Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E. & Talbert-Goldstein, E. (2023). Organizational Conflicts in the Adoption of Continuous Software Engineering. In: Stettina C.J., Garbajosa J., Kruchten P (Ed.), Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: . Paper presented at 24th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2023, Amsterdam, 13 June through 16 June 2023 (pp. 149-164). Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 475
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizational Conflicts in the Adoption of Continuous Software Engineering
2023 (English)In: Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming / [ed] Stettina C.J., Garbajosa J., Kruchten P, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023, Vol. 475, p. 149-164Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software is a critical component of nearly every product or service. Improvements in software can lead to substantial competitive advantages. At the same time, software and surrounding engineering teams have become increasingly complex. The adoption of continuous integration and delivery is a recent trend to radically improve software release speed. However, its adoption is far from straightforward. Specifically, rethinking processes, organizational culture, ways of working, and business models require buy-in from diverse stakeholders that may have conflicting objectives. Such situations are explored by organizational conflict research. This paper reports on early lessons from an ongoing research project in continuous software engineering, specifically investigating adoption challenges from an organizational conflict perspective. We identify catalysts, symptoms, and outcomes of organizational conflicts hindering the adoption process. We conclude that predictable conflicts emerge when adopting continuous engineering. Engineers, managers, and other teams can proactively prepare for and allocate resources to resolve them. Proper analysis and management can help avoid wasted time, impeding processes, and frustration. © 2023, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348, E-ISSN 1865-1356 ; 475
Keywords
Change management, Continuous Software Engineering, Organizational conflicts, Human resource management, Software engineering, Competitive advantage, Continuous integrations, Continuous software engineerings, Critical component, Engineering teams, Organizational conflict, Organizational cultures, Recent trends, Software release, Competition
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24976 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-33976-9_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85161165888 (Scopus ID)9783031339752 (ISBN)
Conference
24th International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2023, Amsterdam, 13 June through 16 June 2023
Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Tkalich, A., Moe, N. B., Papatheocharous, E., Klotins, E. & Pettersen Buvik, M. (2022). Changes in perceived productivity of software engineers during COVID-19 pandemic: The voice of evidence. Journal of Systems and Software, 186, Article ID 111197.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in perceived productivity of software engineers during COVID-19 pandemic: The voice of evidence
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 186, article id 111197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a natural experiment of an unprecedented scale as companies closed their offices and sent employees to work from home. Many managers were concerned that their engineers would not be able to work effectively from home, or lack the motivation to do so, and that they would lose control and not even notice when things go wrong. As many companies announced their post-COVID permanent remote-work or hybrid home/office policies, the question of what can be expected from software engineers who work from home becomes more and more relevant. Aims: To understand the nature of home telework we analyze the evidence of perceived changes in productivity comparing office work before the pandemic with the work from home during the pandemic from thirteen empirical surveys of practitioners. Method: We analyzed data from six corporate surveys conducted in four Scandinavian companies combined with the results of seven published surveys studying the perceived changes in productivity in industrial settings. In addition, we sought explanations for the variation in perceived productivity among the engineers from the studied companies through the qualitative analysis of open-ended questions and interviews. Results: Combined results of 7686 data points suggest that though on average perceived productivity has not changed significantly, there are developers who report being more productive, and developers being less productive when working from home. Positively affected individuals in some surveys form large groups of respondents (up to 50%) and mention benefiting from a better organization of work, increased flexibility and focus. Yet, there are equally large groups of negatively affected respondents (up to 51%) who complain about the challenges related to remote teamwork and collaboration, as well as emotional issues, distractions and poor home office environment and equipment. Finally, positive trends are found in longitudinal surveys, i.e., developers’ productivity in the later months of the pandemic show better results than those in the earlier months. Conclusions: We conclude that behind the average “no change” lays a large variation of experiences, which means that the work from home might not be for everyone. Yet, a longitudinal analysis of the surveys is encouraging, as it shows that the more pessimistic results might be influenced by the initial experiences of an unprecedented crisis. At the end, we put forward the lessons learned during the pandemic that can inspire the new post-pandemic work policies. © 2021 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Inc., 2022
Keywords
COVID-19, Empirical study, Perceived productivity, Performance, Surveys, WFH, Work-from-home, Engineers, Software engineering, Empirical studies, Home office, Large groups, Natural experiment, Telework, Productivity
National Category
Software Engineering Occupational Health and Environmental Health Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-22595 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2021.111197 (DOI)000750027000014 ()2-s2.0-85123218412 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180010Knowledge Foundation, 20190087The Research Council of Norway, 267704, 309344
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-02-07 Created: 2022-02-07 Last updated: 2022-03-07Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E. & Gorschek, T. (2022). Continuous Software Engineering in the Wild. In: Mendez D., Wimmer M., Winkler D., Biffl S., Bergsmann J. (Ed.), Software Quality: The Next Big Thing in Software Engineering and Quality. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Software Quality, SWQD 2022, Vienna, 17 May 2022 through 19 May 2022 (pp. 3-12). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous Software Engineering in the Wild
2022 (English)In: Software Quality: The Next Big Thing in Software Engineering and Quality / [ed] Mendez D., Wimmer M., Winkler D., Biffl S., Bergsmann J., Springer, 2022, p. 3-12Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software is becoming a critical component of most products and organizational functions. The ability to continuously improve software determines how well the organization can respond to market opportunities. Continuous software engineering promises numerous advantages over sprint-based or plan-driven development. However, implementing a continuous software engineering pipeline in an existing organization is challenging. In this invited position paper, we discuss the adoption challenges and argue for a more systematic methodology to drive the adoption of continuous engineering. Our discussion is based on ongoing work with several industrial partners as well as experience reported in both state-of-practice and state-of-the-art. We conclude that the adoption of continuous software engineering primarily requires analysis of the organization, its goals, and constraints. One size does not fit all purposes, meaning that many of the principles behind continuous engineering are relevant for most organizations, but the level of realization and the benefits may still vary. The main hindrances to continuous flow of software arise from sub-optimal organizational structures and the lack of alignment. Once those are removed, the organization can implement automation to further improve the software delivery. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2022
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 18651348, E-ISSN 18651356 ; 439
Keywords
Continuous integration and delivery, Continuous software engineering, Process improvement
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-22909 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-04115-0_1 (DOI)000873371100001 ()2-s2.0-85128901727 (Scopus ID)9783031041143 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Software Quality, SWQD 2022, Vienna, 17 May 2022 through 19 May 2022
Available from: 2022-05-13 Created: 2022-05-13 Last updated: 2022-11-10Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E. & Peretz-Andersson, E. (2022). The unified perspective of digital transformation and continuous software engineering. In: 5TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SOFTWARE-INTENSIVE BUSINESS: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE SOFTWARE BUSINESS (IWSIB 2022). Paper presented at 5th International Workshop on Software-Intensive Business - Towards Sustainable Software Business (IWSiB), MAY 18, 2022, Pittsburgh, PA (pp. 75-82). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The unified perspective of digital transformation and continuous software engineering
2022 (English)In: 5TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SOFTWARE-INTENSIVE BUSINESS: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE SOFTWARE BUSINESS (IWSIB 2022), IEEE , 2022, p. 75-82Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Software is a key component of most products, services, industrial processes, and back-office functions. Thus, companies may gain an advantage by establishing fast feedback cycles to improve their software. Continuous software engineering (CI/CD) is being primarily studied as an engineering topic. However, the rest of the organization needs to align and be prepared to utilize the benefits of CI/CD. In this paper, we explore the overlap between CI/CD and digital transformation (DT). We study literature in both areas to develop a map of conditions, mechanisms, and outcomes. As a result, we present a unified perspective of CI/CD and DT. We found that CI/CD can be seen as an implementation of DT in a software organization. DT perspective can help to guide the adoption of CI/CD from an organizational perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-23686 (URN)10.1145/3524614.3528626 (DOI)000852880900011 ()
Conference
5th International Workshop on Software-Intensive Business - Towards Sustainable Software Business (IWSiB), MAY 18, 2022, Pittsburgh, PA
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180010
Available from: 2022-09-23 Created: 2022-09-23 Last updated: 2022-09-23Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Gorschek, T., Sundelin, K. & Falk, E. (2022). Towards cost-benefit evaluation for continuous software engineering activities. Empirical Software Engineering, 27(6), Article ID 157.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards cost-benefit evaluation for continuous software engineering activities
2022 (English)In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 27, no 6, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software companies must become better at delivering software to remain relevant in the market. Continuous integration and delivery practices promise to streamline software deliveries to end-users by implementing an automated software development and delivery pipeline. However, implementing or retrofitting an organization with such a pipeline is a substantial investment, while the reporting on benefits and their relevance in specific contexts/domains are vague. Aim: In this study, we explore continuous software engineering practices from an investment-benefit perspective. We identify what benefits can be attained by adopting continuous practices, what the associated investments and risks are, and analyze what parameters determine their relevance. Method: We perform a multiple case study to understand state-of-practice, organizational aims, and challenges in adopting continuous software engineering practices. We compare state-of-practice with state-of-the-art to validate the best practices and identify relevant gaps for further investigation. Results: We found that companies start the CI/CD adoption by automating and streamlining the internal development process with clear and immediate benefits. However, upgrading customers to continuous deliveries is a major obstacle due to existing agreements and customer push-back. Renegotiating existing agreements comes with a risk of losing customers and disrupting the whole organization. Conclusions: We conclude that the benefits of CI/CD are overstated in literature without considering the contextual and domain complexities rendering some benefits infeasible. We identify the need to understand the customer and organizational perspectives further and understand the contextual requirements towards the CI/CD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2022
Keywords
Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, Continuous Software Engineering, Cost-benefit analysis
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-23574 (URN)10.1007/s10664-022-10191-w (DOI)000841240000001 ()2-s2.0-85136070854 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180010
Note

open access

Available from: 2022-08-30 Created: 2022-08-30 Last updated: 2022-09-15Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Gorschek, T., Prikladniki, R., Tripathi, N. & Pompermaier, L. B. (2021). A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 47(3), 498-521
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A progression model of software engineering goals, challenges, and practices in start-ups
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2021 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 498-521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Software start-ups are emerging as suppliers of innovation and software-intensive products. However, traditional software engineering practices are not evaluated in the context, nor adopted to goals and challenges of start-ups. As a result, there is insufficient support for software engineering in the start-up context. IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021
Keywords
Analytical models, Companies, Market opportunities, progression model, Requirements engineering, Software, Software engineering, software engineering practices, software start-up, Computer software, Industry
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17706 (URN)10.1109/TSE.2019.2900213 (DOI)000631200300004 ()2-s2.0-85061979918 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-07 Created: 2019-03-07 Last updated: 2021-05-24Bibliographically approved
Šmite, D., Mikalsen, M., Moe, N. B., Stray, V. & Klotins, E. (2021). From Collaboration to Solitude and Back: Remote Pair Programming During COVID-19. In: Gregory P., Lassenius C., Wang X., Kruchten P. (Ed.), AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING (XP 2021): . Paper presented at 22nd International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2021, Virtual, Online, 14 June 2021 - 18 June 2021 (pp. 3-18). Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From Collaboration to Solitude and Back: Remote Pair Programming During COVID-19
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2021 (English)In: AGILE PROCESSES IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND EXTREME PROGRAMMING (XP 2021) / [ed] Gregory P., Lassenius C., Wang X., Kruchten P., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, p. 3-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Along with the increasing popularity of agile software development, software work has become much more social than ever. Contemporary software teams rely on a variety of collaborative practices, such as pair programming, the topic of our study. Many agilists advocated the importance of collocation, face-to-face interaction, and physical artefacts incorporated in the shared workspace, which the COVID-19 pandemic made unavailable; most software companies around the world were forced to send their engineers to work from home. As software projects and teams overnight turned into distributed collaborations, we question what happened to the pair programming practice in the work-from-home mode. This paper reports on a longitudinal study of remote pair programming in two companies. We conducted 38 interviews with 30 engineers from Norway, Sweden, and the USA, and used the results of a survey in one of the case companies. Our study is unique as we collected the data longitudinally in April/May 2020, Sep/Oct 2020, and Jan/Feb 2021. We found that pair programming has decreased and some interviewees report not pairing at all for almost a full year. The experiences of those who paired vary from actively co-editing the code by using special tools to more passively co-reading and discussing the code and solutions by sharing the screen. Finally, we found that the interest in and the use of PP over time, since the first months of the forced work from home to early 2021, has admittedly increased, also as a social practice. © 2021, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2021
Series
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, ISSN 1865-1348, E-ISSN 1865-1356 ; 419
Keywords
Agile, COVID-19, Distributed, Pair programming, Remote, WFH, Data processing, Agile software development, Collaborative practices, Distributed collaboration, Face-to-face interaction, Longitudinal study, Shared-workspace, Social practices, Software project, Software design
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-22011 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-78098-2_1 (DOI)000724675400001 ()2-s2.0-85111360759 (Scopus ID)9783030780975 (ISBN)
Conference
22nd International Conference on Agile Software Development, XP 2021, Virtual, Online, 14 June 2021 - 18 June 2021
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190087The Research Council of Norway, 309344
Note

open access

Available from: 2021-08-13 Created: 2021-08-13 Last updated: 2022-09-06Bibliographically approved
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., Chatzipetrou, P., Gorschek, T., Prikladnicki, R., Tripathi, N. & Pompermaier, L. B. (2021). Use of agile practices in start-up companies. e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, 15(1), 47-64
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of agile practices in start-up companies
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2021 (English)In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 47-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context Software start-ups have shown their ability to develop and launch innovative software products and services. Small, motivated teams and uncertain project scope makes start-ups good candidates for adopting Agile practices. Objective We explore how start-ups use Agile practices and what effects can be associated with the use of those practices. Method We use a case survey to analyze 84 start-up cases and 56 Agile practices. We apply statistical methods to test for statistically significant associations between the use of Agile practices, team, and product factors. Results Our results suggest that development of the backlog, use of version control, code refactoring, and development of user stories are the most frequently reported practices. We identify 22 associations between the use of Agile practices, team, and product factors. The use of Agile practices is associated with effects on source code and overall product quality. A teams’ positive or negative attitude towards best engineering practices is a significant indicator for either adoption or rejection of certain Agile practices. To explore the relationships in our findings, we set forth a number of propositions that can be investigated in future research. Conclusions We conclude that start-ups use Agile practices, however without following any specific methodology. We identify the opportunity for more fine-grained studies into the adoption and effects of individual Agile practices. Start-up practitioners could benefit from Agile practices in terms of better overall quality, tighter control over team performance, and resource utilization. © 2021 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, 2021
Keywords
Agile practices, Start-up companies, Computer science, Construction, Engineering, Software engineering, Code re-factoring, Engineering practices, Innovative software products, Resource utilizations, Team performance, Version control, Quality control
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-21419 (URN)10.37190/e-Inf210103 (DOI)000657427800001 ()2-s2.0-85105243886 (Scopus ID)
Note

open access

Available from: 2021-05-21 Created: 2021-05-21 Last updated: 2021-06-28Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1987-2234

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