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Sällberg, Henrik
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Numminen, E. & Sällberg, H. (2017). The impact of online ratings on downloads of free mobile apps. In: Dameri R.D.,Spinelli R. (Ed.), PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT (ECISM 2017): . Paper presented at 11th European Conference on Information Systems Management, ECISM, Genoa, SEP 14-15, 2017 (pp. 225-232).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of online ratings on downloads of free mobile apps
2017 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT (ECISM 2017) / [ed] Dameri R.D.,Spinelli R., 2017, p. 225-232Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Consumers tend to rely more on peer information than seller information for their online product choices. Online rating systems have therefore become popular whereby consumers evaluate a product’s quality on a numerical scale. Previous studies have mainly investigated sales effects of online ratings, reporting mixed findings. How online ratings impact free app downloads is important to better understand for multiple and related reasons. Specifically, the vast majority of apps are free to download, price cannot be used by potential consumers to infer app quality, and providers may offer free apps as a means to gain market share. In this paper we analyse how average rating score, volume of ratings, and dispersion of ratings impact free app downloads. Signaling theory is used to derive hypotheses on how online rating variables impact in this regard. Data on online ratings and downloads of apps was collected for 720 apps available on Apple App Store and Google Play. Apps from the productivity and game categories were sampled to capture utilitarian and hedonic apps respectively. This choice was made to enable analysing the impact of online ratings across app type. For free app downloads, regression analyses revealed: (1) volume of ratings to have positive significant effect; (2) average rating score to have positive but insignificant effect; and (3) dispersion of ratings to have positive significant effect contingent on app type. Findings are partially consistent with signaling theory and suggest that app rating providers should attempt to attract large volume of ratings. Providing incentives for rating apps, or using a pledge in the app asking consumers to rate it, could be such means. Future research is needed on whether average rating scores are too similar for competing app alternatives to guide app choice. Further research is also needed on why dispersion of ratings positively impacts free app downloads.

Keywords
Downloads, Mobile Apps, Online Ratings Regression Analysis, Signaling Theory
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15322 (URN)000463651200025 ()9781911218524 (ISBN)
Conference
11th European Conference on Information Systems Management, ECISM, Genoa, SEP 14-15, 2017
Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Sällberg, H. & Bengtsson, L. (2016). Computer and smartphone continuance intention: A motivational model. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 56(4), 321-330
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer and smartphone continuance intention: A motivational model
2016 (English)In: Journal of Computer Information Systems, ISSN 0887-4417, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 321-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper develops and tests a motivational model to explain the overall continuance intention to use computers and smartphones. Based on survey data from 192 undergraduate students, structural equation modeling analysis is used to report: (1) independent effect of intrinsic motivation on the continuance intention to use computers and smartphones; (2) independent effect of extrinsic motivation on the continuance intention to use computers but not smartphones; (3) intrinsic motivation mediating the effect of extrinsic motivation on the continuance intention to use computers; (4) Independent effect of technology cognizance on the continuance intention to use computers but not smartphones; (5) intrinsic motivation positively influencing extrinsic motivation and technology cognizance, with respect to both devices. This research contributes to an improved understanding of the independent and interrelated effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to use technological devices. The findings have important implications for theory and practice regarding the overall use of technology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2016
Keywords
intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, continuance intention, computer, smartphone, technology cognizance
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10692 (URN)10.1080/08874417.2016.1164007 (DOI)000381076400007 ()
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Sällberg, H. & Bengtsson, L. (2014). Antecedents and consequences of consumers lead userness: The case of mobile applications. In: : . Paper presented at 12th International Open and User Innovation Workshop July 28th – July 30th 2014, Harvard Business School.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antecedents and consequences of consumers lead userness: The case of mobile applications
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lead userness (LU) captures to what extent a user, in a given product domain, is ahead of an important market trend and expects high benefits from innovating. A comprehensive understanding of antecedents and consequences of LU are important to both theory and practice. To lead-user theory, a more comprehensive understanding of antecedents such as intrinsic motivation may contribute to improved knowledge of the underlying motivational mechanisms that explain why some users display LU. Similarly an improved understanding of consequences may help explain why these users provide advice to other consumers or often come up with attractive innovations. To practice, such knowledge may provide insights on how to identify these users at lower cost as well as how to get use of them for developing or promoting new products.

Previous studies have investigated different antecedents and consequences in different product domains. Therefore, there is a need to further investigate the previously studied antecedents and consequences in more domains. This way a more comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of different antecedents and consequences within and across product domains can be gained.  Some antecedent may thus be more domain-specific than other ones.

In the current study we therefore set out to investigate three previously studied antecedents of LU: consumer knowledge, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. In addition we study a fourth antecedent, technology cognizance, which may be of particular importance in the information technology intense domain we study. Further, two previously studied consequences of LU, opinion leadership and opinion seeking, are researched in the present study of the mobile application domain.

Based on a survey study of 156 undergraduate students we report in a series of regression analyses: (1) consumer knowledge to be the only antecedent of LU; (2) opinion leadership and opinion seeking to be consequences of LU, the former being a relatively more important one, and; (3) Our findings to overall correspond highly to findings in researches of other domains ranging from extreme sports such as kite-surfing and sailplaning to the mass market of home kitchen appliances. Implications for research and practice are provided. 

Keywords
lead userness, opinion seeking, opinion leadership, knowledge, technology cognizance
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10693 (URN)
Conference
12th International Open and User Innovation Workshop July 28th – July 30th 2014, Harvard Business School
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
Sällberg, H., Wrenne, A. & Blomqvist, J. (2014). The zero-price effect extended: An empirical study of multi-component online mobile services. In: : . Paper presented at 47th Academy of Marketing Conference, Bournemouth.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The zero-price effect extended: An empirical study of multi-component online mobile services
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The zero‐price effect implies that people forgo a favourable option for a free one, not only because the free one brings no cost but also because it creates a higher positive feeling which people use in making decisions. We extend previous studies by testing this effect for three‐component online mobile services in a business‐to‐business context. Two survey experiments are conducted using a sample (N=113) of Swedish hauler managers. In none of the experiments we find any zero‐price effect. Free promotions may therefore be less effective in the business‐to‐business context than in the business‐to‐consumer context.

Keywords
pricing, zero-price effect, mobile services, multi-component products
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10695 (URN)
Conference
47th Academy of Marketing Conference, Bournemouth
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
Sällberg, H. & Bengtsson, L. (2013). Lead user roles and their functions: A framework. In: : . Paper presented at The 2013 Annual International Open and User Innovation Workshop, 15-17 July 2013 in Brighton, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lead user roles and their functions: A framework
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we develop a framework of lead user roles and their functions. Two of the roles, innovating and diffusing are explicit in the lead user literature. The third role, the preventing role, captures how lead users act not to let inferior innovations be developed or spread. This role is much more implicit in lead user research and has until now thus received relatively less attention. Following that a high percentage of new products fail, it seems important to consider how lead users could contribute to lower such failure rates by preventing inferior innovations.

For each role we specify functions. For instance, in their preventing role lead users may fulfil functions such as opinion seeking and use making. They may opinion seek their own innovation ideas in order to avoid developing inferior innovations and they may engage in use making (refers to persistently using an innovation with the purpose of convincing others of its superiority) in order to prevent diffusion of currently commercially available products. In specifying functions of each role we particularly pay attention to how functions within a single role, as well as between roles, are conceptually distinct from each other.

We argue that is important to elaborate on different roles played by lead users, for instance, due to that  even in situations when lead users develop inferior innovations themselves, they may play important roles by preventing other inferior innovations from reaching the market or by recommending an innovation they perceive to be superior. Based on our developed framework we provide directions for future research. 

Keywords
Lead userness, adoption, diffusion, innovation, opinion leadership, opinion seeking, prevention, use making
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10694 (URN)
Conference
The 2013 Annual International Open and User Innovation Workshop, 15-17 July 2013 in Brighton, UK
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
Sällberg, H. & Svensson, M. (2013). The preference between reward choice and reward specificity in repeated purchase incentives. International Journal of Economic Sciences, 2(2), 56-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The preference between reward choice and reward specificity in repeated purchase incentives
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Economic Sciences, ISSN 1804-9796, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 56-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper seeks to examine individuals’ preference between reward choice and reward specificity under different requirements (number of purchases) for rewards. The main goal is thus to contribute to the understanding of how to design effective incentives. More generally our study also adds to the growing body of studies on situations when individuals prefer less choice over more choice. Methodology: We conducted an empirical field study in a fictive setting whereby students (N=99) rated their preference for three kinds of rewards that differ in terms of specificity and choice; cash, rebate coupon and product in-kind. One-tailed t-tests were performed to test two hypothesis formulated on how number of purchases required for rewards matters for preference of kind of reward. More specifically, we hypothesized that in general customers prefer more choice over less choice but that a certain threshold level in terms of number of purchases required for a reward, specificity becomes more highly valued than choice. Findings: We found reward choice to be preferred over reward specificity irrespective of the size of the spending requirement. In other words, individuals’ rated a preference for cash over rebate coupon over product in-kind as reward irrespective of number of purchases required for rewards. Surprisingly though, we found that the preference for cash over rebate coupon decreased in magnitude while the preference for cash over rebate coupon increased in magnitude as the spending requirement was changed from low to high. Potential explanations to our findings are discussed. Originality: Individuals preference between reward choice and reward specificity is an aspect of incentive design that has received sparse attention in previous studies. In this regard we draw on goal-setting theory, which previously has been used mainly within a principal-agent context.

Keywords
Reward Choice, Reward Specificity, Goal-Setting, Customer Rewards Programs, Repeated Purchase, Incentives.
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10697 (URN)
Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2015-09-21Bibliographically approved
Sällberg, H. (2012). Divisibility and a goal-gradient effect in higher education? The relationship between number of examination tasks and student performance.. In: : . Paper presented at International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences (IISSES) 3d International Academic Conference, September 9-12, 2012 in Lisboa.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Divisibility and a goal-gradient effect in higher education? The relationship between number of examination tasks and student performance.
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keywords
higher education, examination tasks, student performance, course design
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10698 (URN)
Conference
International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences (IISSES) 3d International Academic Conference, September 9-12, 2012 in Lisboa
Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
Sällberg, H. (2010). Customer Rewards Programs: Designing Incentives for Repeated Purchase. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customer Rewards Programs: Designing Incentives for Repeated Purchase
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Firms have since long given their regular customers special treatment. With the help of IT, many firms have established formal ways to do this. An example is a so-called customer rewards program (CRP), by which the firm rewards the customer for repeated purchase. Firms allocate large resources in these programs with millions of customers enrolled. Hence, it seems important that the CRP works effectively. By effective we mean that it increases sales. Whether it is effective or not is a matter of how it is designed. A CRP typically comes with membership levels. We study how many membership levels the firm should offer in an effective program. We also study if customers prefer individual or group rewards and whether a CRP can break and create habitual purchasing behavior. In the study, we also analyze under what conditions the customer prefers a CRP over a sales promotion. In general, the study adds to the understanding of Customer Rewards Programs as an incentive structure. There are many different ways to design these incentives and especially the continuing development of IT is expected to influence the future design and role of these types of programs. This study is part of the Swedish Research School of Management and Information Technology (MIT) which is one of 16 national research schools supported by the Swedish Government. MIT is jointly operated by the following institutions: Blekinge Institute of Technology, Gotland University College, Jönköping International Business School, Karlstad University, Linköping University, Lund University, Mälardalen University College, Stockholm University, Växjö University, Örebro University, IT University of Göteborg, and Uppsala University, host to the research school. At the Swedish Research School of Management and Information Technology (MIT), research is conducted, and doctoral education provided, in three fields: management information systems, business administration, and informatics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2010
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 1
Keywords
Customer rewards program, incentives, repeated purchase, delayed reward, membership levels, group reward, consumption habit, non-linearity
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-00456 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo001923A41956E35BC12576A1004B3F4E (Local ID)978-91-7295-174-7 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo001923A41956E35BC12576A1004B3F4E (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo001923A41956E35BC12576A1004B3F4E (OAI)
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2010-01-04 Last updated: 2015-06-30Bibliographically approved
Sällberg, H. & Hederstierna, A. (2009). Bronze, silver, and gold: Effective membership design in customer rewards programs. Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, 12(1), 59-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bronze, silver, and gold: Effective membership design in customer rewards programs
2009 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, ISSN 1566-6379, E-ISSN 1566-6379, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many companies use rewards programs to create so called “loyal” customers. Information Technology (IT) has made it possible to design such incentive programs in principle with endless variations at a low cost. It means that the company can, with the use of IT, offer non-linear incentives that create “loyal” customers more effectively than linear ones. Internet has also reduced the cost for the customer to search and compare products and services like air flights, hotels etc. In such a competitive context, the company can use the programs to gain an advantage with a differentiated offer to the customer and to create lock-in effects still at a low IT cost. Field observations show surprisingly that programs look very much alike and do not present as much variation as could be expected. Of special interest in this paper is the fact that companies typically offer three, or less, membership levels to increase the incentive for the customer to spend money at the company. These three levels come in different versions like, for example, “Bronze”, “Silver” and “Gold” or with similar labels. The reward to the customer is generally associated and accelerated with membership level. In this paper, we analyze the consequences of using membership levels as a way to create both competitive differentiation and effective customer incentives. We suggest a model for understanding how the consumer decides on spending at a company that offers a reward program with different membership levels. The decision setting for the customer is described as a risky contract with a risky time-state-contingent claim. The contract is risky since the terms and conditions for membership can be altered by the company, without any legal penalties. The claim is risky since it is uncertain to the customer whether the state required for the membership will be achieved. We show with the help of this model that the present use of a small number of membership levels could be questioned as the most effective incentive mechanism.

Keywords
customer rewards program, customer loyalty, membership levels, incentives, differentiation, time-statecontingent claims
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10696 (URN)
Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hederstierna, A. & Sällberg, H. (2008). Bronze, Silver and Gold: Effective Membership Design in Customer Rewards Programs. Paper presented at 2nd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation. Paper presented at 2nd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation. London: ACADEMIC CONFERENCES LTD
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bronze, Silver and Gold: Effective Membership Design in Customer Rewards Programs
2008 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) Published
Alternative title[sv]
Brons, Silver och Guld : Effektiv design av medlemskapsnivåer i kundbelöningsprogram
Abstract [en]

Many companies use rewards programs to create so called “loyal” customers. Information Technology (IT) has made it possible to design such incentive programs with in principle endless variations at a low cost. It means that the company can, with the use of IT, offer non-linear incentives that create “loyal” customers more effectively than linear ones. Internet has also reduced the cost for the customer to search and compare products and services like air flights, hotels etc. In such a competitive context, the company can use the programs to gain an advantage with a differentiated offer to the customer and to create lock-in effects still at a low IT cost. Field observations show surprisingly that programs look very much alike and do not present as much variation as could be expected. Of special interest in this paper is the fact that companies typically offer three, or less, membership levels to increase the incentive for the customer to spend money at the company. These three levels come in different versions like, for example, “Bronze”, “Silver” and “Gold” or with similar labels. The reward to the customer is generally associated and accelerated with membership level. In this paper, we analyze the consequences of using membership levels as a way to create both competitive differentiation and effective customer incentives. We suggest a model for understanding how the consumer decides on spending at a company that offers a reward program with different membership levels. The decision setting for the customer is described as a risky contract with a risky time-state-contingent claim. The contract is risky since the terms and conditions for membership can be altered by the company, without any legal penalties. The claim is risky since it is uncertain to the customer whether the state required for the membership will be achieved. We show with the help of this model that the present use of a small number of membership levels could be questioned as the most effective incentive mechanism.

Abstract [sv]

Innehåller en analys av varför flygbolag och hotellkedjor använder typiskt tre medlemsnivåer i sina kundbelöningsprogram (lojalitetsprogram). En modell av vilka incitament för kunden att spendera mot dessa nivåer presenteras. Modellen visar att företagen, med hjälp av IT, bör använda fler nivåer än tre för att skapa maximala incitament för kunder. Nyckelord: kundbelöningsprogram, lojalitetsprogram, medlemsnivåer, incitament, differentiering, time-state-contingent-claims

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: ACADEMIC CONFERENCES LTD, 2008
Keywords
customer rewards program, customer loyalty, membership levels, incentives, differentiation, time-state-contingent claims.
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-8551 (URN)000261579800023 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfo5BD629F9DDC7F0CFC125748D0044EAC9 (Local ID)978-1-906638-12-2 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo5BD629F9DDC7F0CFC125748D0044EAC9 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo5BD629F9DDC7F0CFC125748D0044EAC9 (OAI)
Conference
2nd European Conference on Information Management and Evaluation
Note
Published in The Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation. http://www.ejise.com/Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2008-07-21 Last updated: 2015-06-30Bibliographically approved
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