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Junaid, Junaid
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Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Junaid, J. (2015). Network-Based Monitoring of Quality of Experience. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Network-Based Monitoring of Quality of Experience
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The recent years have observed a tremendous shift from the technology-centric assessment to the user-centric assessment of network services. Consequently, measurement and modelling of Quality of Experience (QoE) attracted many contributions from researchers and practitioners. Generally, QoE is assessed via active and passive measurements. While the former usually allows QoE assessment on the test traffic, the latter opens avenues for continuous QoE assessment on the real traffic generated by the users. This thesis contributes towards passive assessment of QoE.

This thesis document begins with a background on the fundamentals of network management and objective QoE assessment. It extends the discussion further to the QoE-centric monitoring and management of network, complimented by the details about QoE estimator agent developed within the Celtic project QuEEN (Quality of Experience Estimators in Network).

The discussion on findings starts with results from subjective tests to understand the relationship between waiting times and user subjective feedback over time. These results strengthen the understanding of timescales on which users react, as well as, the effect of user memory on QoE. The findings show that QoE drops significantly when the user faces recurring waiting times of 0.5 s to 4 s durations in case of video streaming and web browsing services. With recurring network disturbances within every 8 s – 16 s time intervals, the user tolerance to waiting times decreases constantly, showing the sign of user memory of recent disturbances.

Subsequently, this document introduces and evaluates a passive wavelet-based QoE monitoring method. The method detects timescales on which transient outages occur frequently. A study presents results from qualitative measurements, showing the ability of wavelet to differentiate on-fly between “Good” and “Bad” traffic streams. In sequel, a quantitative study systematically evaluates wavelet-based metrics. Subsequently, the subjective evaluation and wavelet analysis of 5 – 6 minutes long video streaming sessions on mobile networks show that wavelet-based metrics is indeed useful for passive monitoring of QoE issues.

Finally, this thesis investigates a method for passive monitoring of user reactions to degrading network performance. The method is based on the TCP termination flags. With a systematic evaluation in a test environment, the results characterise termination of data transfers in case of different user actions in the web browser.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2015. p. 193
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 11
Keywords
Quality of Experience, Network Performance, Network measurements
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10495 (URN)978-91-7295-309-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-09-21, J1650, Karlskrona, 15:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-18 Last updated: 2015-09-21Bibliographically approved
Islam, N., Elepe, V. J., Shaikh, J. & Fiedler, M. (2014). In Small Chunks or All at Once? User Preferences of Network Delays in Web Browsing Sessions. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), Sydney. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Small Chunks or All at Once? User Preferences of Network Delays in Web Browsing Sessions
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The time-critical tasks on the Internet are increasing. The delays in these tasks can have severe implications on the Quality of Experience (QoE) of a service. Therefore, networks require smart user-centric resource management mechanisms to reduce the impact of these delays on QoE. For this, a better understanding of the user preferences with regards to service performance is a prerequisite. In this paper, we present user responses to the three different distributions of delays, occurring during shopping sessions on the Web. By keeping the overall waiting time of the sessions same, we show how the users respond differently to the different set of delays. We analyzed the user responses and found that, the users prefer small frequently occurring delays as compared to the long rarely occurring delays within a task-based session.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2014
Keywords
Quality of Experience, Web browsing, Quality of Service, Network Delays, Resource Allocation
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6341 (URN)000346123100097 ()978-1-4799-4640-2 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC), Sydney
Available from: 2015-05-26 Created: 2014-04-13 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Shaikh, J., Fiedler, M., Paul, P., Egger, S. & Guyard, F. (2013). Back to Normal? Impact of Temporally Increasing Network Disturbances on QoE. In: : . Paper presented at IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Atlanta (pp. 1186-1191). Atlanta: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Back to Normal? Impact of Temporally Increasing Network Disturbances on QoE
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2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Brief episodes of network faults and performance issues adversely affect the user Quality of Experience (QoE). Besides damaging the current opinions of users, these events may also shape user’s future perception of the service. Therefore, it is important to quantify the impact of such events on QoE over time. In this paper, we present our findings on the temporal aspects of user feedback to disturbances on networks. These findings are based on subjective user tests performed in the context of web browsing on an e-commerce website. The results of this study suggest that the QoE drops significantly every time the page load time grows. The after-effects of network disturbances on user QoE remain visible even when the network problems are over, i.e., users do not immediately return to the same level of opinion scores as compared to the corresponding pre-disturbance phase. They tend to remember their recent experiences. Our results also show that there are four segments of users that exist with regards to their feedback to page load times. Network operators may customize their services according to each segment of users to raise the overall QoE. Finally, we show that the exponential relationship provides best fits of QoE and page load times for all segments of users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Atlanta: IEEE, 2013
Series
IEEE Globecom Workshops, ISSN 2166-0069
Keywords
IP Network, Outages, OFF times, Temporal QoE, Quality of Experience, Quality of Service, Memory effect, Web browsing
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6771 (URN)000340874300203 ()978-1-4799-2851-4 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Atlanta
Note

The paper is accepted and presented but not online yet.

Available from: 2014-02-18 Created: 2014-02-18 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Shaikh, J., Fiedler, M., Minhas, T. N., Arlos, P. & Collange, D. (2012). Inferring User-perceived Performance of Network by Monitoring TCP Interruptions. Network Protocols and Algorithms, 4(2), 49-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inferring User-perceived Performance of Network by Monitoring TCP Interruptions
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2012 (English)In: Network Protocols and Algorithms, ISSN 1943-3581, E-ISSN 1943-3581, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fluctuating performance of wireless and mobile networks has triggered the need for smart algorithms to assess the user perception, resulting from the quality of network services. While efforts have been done to model the user experience resulting from the network performance, there is still the need for practical methods to assess the user-perceived performance, in the real environment. In this work, we present a set of criteria to observe the user behavior on the Web, passively from the network-level. The criteria are based on the monitoring of TCP control flags and HTTP requests. Thus, information about user actions performed in the web browser can be inferred by monitoring the TCP termination flags and by keeping track of the HTTP requests. Along the way, we also present some anomalies observed in the TCP connection termination process, which may result in performance degradation of Web transfers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Macrothink Institute, 2012
Keywords
Quality of Experience, Quality of Service, Network Monitoring, Network Measurements, Traffic Analysis
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7266 (URN)10.5296/npa.v4i2.1357 (DOI)oai:bth.se:forskinfoAE43590D5DC90281C1257A5A0053D860 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfoAE43590D5DC90281C1257A5A0053D860 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoAE43590D5DC90281C1257A5A0053D860 (OAI)
External cooperation:
Note

Open access journal

Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Shaikh, J., Fiedler, M., Arlos, P. & Collange, D. (2012). Modeling and Analysis of Web Usage and Experience Based on Link-Level Measurements. In: : . Paper presented at 24th International Telectraffic Congress (ITC). Krakow: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Analysis of Web Usage and Experience Based on Link-Level Measurements
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Internet traffic monitoring and analysis have been playing a crucial role in understanding and characterizing user behavior on the web. In particular, ON-OFF models capture the essential phases of user communication with web servers. The OFF phases reflect both deliberate and accidental gaps in the traffic flow. In this paper, we present a passive monitoring and analysis method devised to assist in the identification of such traffic gaps that may result in the degradation of Quality of Experience (QoE). Our first contribution consists in a revised ON-OFF model to cater for OFF times reflecting accidental gaps which are induced by the network. Second, a wavelet-based criterion is proposed to differentiate between the network-induced traffic gaps and user think times. The proposed method is intended to be implemented in near-real-time as it does not require any deep packet inspection. Both web service providers and network operators may use this method to obtain objective evidence of the appearance of QoE problems from link-level measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Krakow: IEEE, 2012
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7040 (URN)000311859600004 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfo20E955BB6C5962E7C1257AED00425478 (Local ID)978-0-9836283-4-7 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo20E955BB6C5962E7C1257AED00425478 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo20E955BB6C5962E7C1257AED00425478 (OAI)
External cooperation:
Conference
24th International Telectraffic Congress (ITC)
Available from: 2013-01-08 Created: 2013-01-08 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Shaikh, J. (2012). Non-Intrusive Network-Based Estimation of Web Quality of Experience Indicators. (Licentiate dissertation). Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Intrusive Network-Based Estimation of Web Quality of Experience Indicators
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Quality of Experience (QoE) deals with the acceptance of a service quality by the users and has evolved significantly as an important concept over the past 10 years. Network operators and service providers have gained interest in QoE-aware management of networks, in order to better fulfill end-user demands and gain a competitive edge in the market. While this growth promises new business opportunities, it also presents several challenges to the networking researchers, which are mainly related to the assessment of user experience. Several QoE assessment models have been proposed to estimate the user satisfaction for a given service quality. Most of them are intrusive and require knowledge of the content reference. In contrast, the network operators require non-intrusive methods, which allow models to be implementable on the network-level without having much knowledge about that reference. The methods should be able to monitor QoE passively in real-time, based on the information readily available on network level. This thesis investigates indicators, which are intended to be used in the development of non-intrusive network-based methods for the real-time QoE assessment and monitoring. First, a bridge is made between the user and the network perspectives by correlating the user traffic characteristics measured on an operational network and user subjective experience tested on an experimental platform. It is shown that the user session volume appears to be an indicator of users’ interest in the service. Second, the TCP connection interruptions are investigated as an indicator to infer the user experience. It is found out that the request-level performance metrics show stronger correlations between the interruption rates and the network Quality of Service (QoS). Third, a wavelet-based criterion is devised to assist in the identification of those traffic gaps, which may result in the degradation of QoE. It can be implemented on the network-level in quasi-real-time to quickly identify the user-perceived performance issues.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2012
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 6
Keywords
Quality of experience
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-00529 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6EFB9A7475163F30C12579EC0042E612 (Local ID)978-91-7295-233-1 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6EFB9A7475163F30C12579EC0042E612 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6EFB9A7475163F30C12579EC0042E612 (OAI)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-04-26 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Collange, D., Mahdi, H., Shaikh, J., Fiedler, M. & Arlos, P. (2012). User Impatience and Network Performance. In: : . Paper presented at Euro-NGI Conference on Next Generation Internet (NGI). Karlskrona: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>User Impatience and Network Performance
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work, we analyze from passive measurements the correlations between the user-induced interruptions of TCP connections and different end-to-end performance metrics. The aim of this study is to assess the possibility for a network operator to take into account the customers' experience for network monitoring. We first observe that the usual connection-level performance metrics of the interrupted connections are not very different, and sometimes better than those of normal connections. However, the request-level performance metrics show stronger correlations between the interruption rates and the network quality-of-service. Furthermore, we show that the user impatience could also be used to characterize the relative sensitivity of data applications to various network performance metrics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: IEEE, 2012
Keywords
Network Monitoring, Quality of Experience, Quality of Service, Traffic Analysis
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7265 (URN)10.1109/NGI.2012.6252146 (DOI)oai:bth.se:forskinfoA62B4B23BAECA00DC1257A5A00564FB6 (Local ID)978-1-4673-1632-3 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfoA62B4B23BAECA00DC1257A5A00564FB6 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoA62B4B23BAECA00DC1257A5A00564FB6 (OAI)
External cooperation:
Conference
Euro-NGI Conference on Next Generation Internet (NGI)
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-08-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Shaikh, J., Fiedler, M., Arlos, P., Minhas, T. N. & Collange, D. (2011). Classification of TCP Connection Termination Behaviors for Mobile Web. In: : . Paper presented at Smart Communication Protocols and Algorithms (SCPA). Houston: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification of TCP Connection Termination Behaviors for Mobile Web
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2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Many emerging smart applications and services employ Web technology, and users nowadays surf the Web from any device via any kind of access network. Typically, high page latencies trigger users to abort ongoing transfers, resulting in the abrupt terminations of the TCP connections. This paper presents a systematic study of the termination process of the TCP connections and identifies the reasons behind the observed sequences of termination flags. Monitoring and classification of the termination behavior of the TCP connections can provide indications about the user-perceived performance of Web transfers. From the results, it is observed that the TCP termination behavior is heavily-dependent on the client-side application. Therefore, a set of criteria is required to identify the abortions made by the user.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Houston: IEEE, 2011
Keywords
TCP, Mobile, Web
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7320 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOMW.2011.6162351 (DOI)000304097200208 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfo01EF68B1BCE1F842C1257994005DD0EA (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo01EF68B1BCE1F842C1257994005DD0EA (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo01EF68B1BCE1F842C1257994005DD0EA (OAI)
External cooperation:
Conference
Smart Communication Protocols and Algorithms (SCPA)
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-01-29 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Minhas, T. N., Fiedler, M., Shaikh, J. & Arlos, P. (2011). Evaluation of throughput performance of traffic shapers. In: : . Paper presented at 7th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, IWCMC. Istanbul: IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of throughput performance of traffic shapers
2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Traffic shapers are used by researchers to emulate the behavior of networks and applications in test environments, typically with user-defined traffic shaping parameters such as throughput and loss. Also, traffic shapers are used for the enforcement of SLA, so they are of interest for Internet Service Providers. However, output given by traffic shapers may not be as accurate as desired. Therefore, it is important to assess the accuracy of the implementation of traffic shapers. In this paper, we evaluate two traffic shapers with regard to the performance of their throughput shaping. For this evaluation, traces were collected. The properties of the resulting throughput at the outlet of the shaper are compared to the properties of the throughput at the inlet in combination with the preset shaper parameters. In this sense, we also compare shapers installed on Advance Micro Devices (AMD) and Intel platforms, and we use different PDU sizes and load levels to test the influence of those parameters on the shaping. We are furthermore able to deduct internal shaper parameters such as packet rate and buffer size from our measurements, and we analyse the statistical properties of the packet departure process. The extensive measurement results in this paper allow for a detailed assessment of the question whether the shaper performance is up to mark for a desired timescale. In general, the performance of both shapers and hardware platforms can be considered satisfactory on the investigated time scales between 1 ms and 1 s, with a slight advantage for NetEm on AMD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Istanbul: IEEE, 2011
Keywords
Packet shaping, Throughput, Traffic Shaping
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7402 (URN)10.1109/IWCMC.2011.5982669 (DOI)000300570200262 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfo48E4D1FFB8E68881C125797400389E93 (Local ID)978-142449539-9 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo48E4D1FFB8E68881C125797400389E93 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo48E4D1FFB8E68881C125797400389E93 (OAI)
External cooperation:
Conference
7th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference, IWCMC
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2011-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Shaikh, J., Fiedler, M., Minhas, T. N., Arlos, P. & Collange, D. (2011). Passive Methods for the Assessment of User-perceived Quality of Delivery. In: : . Paper presented at 7th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW). Linköping: Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive Methods for the Assessment of User-perceived Quality of Delivery
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2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Passive monitoring of user-perceived performance degradation is an important tool for service providers to improve customer loyalty. In this paper, we discuss our on-going work on the development of two network-based methods to objectively assess the user-perceived network performance. One method is based on the observation of TCP connections interrupted by the users. This method allows us to detect user’s interest in the service in relation to the network performance. Another method is simple and based on the identification of traffic gaps in the user transfers that may hurt the user perception. This work, amongst others, provokes a discussion on the impact of the frequency and duration of such gaps.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop, 2011
Keywords
Quality of Experience, Quality of Service, User experience, TCP, ON-OFF Model, Network Outages
National Category
Telecommunications Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7300 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo68C60D808D4A9EFDC12579E9002A1D6F (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo68C60D808D4A9EFDC12579E9002A1D6F (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo68C60D808D4A9EFDC12579E9002A1D6F (OAI)
External cooperation:
Conference
7th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop (SNCNW)
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
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