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Johansson, Christian
Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Johansson, C. (2014). On Intelligent District Heating. (Doctoral dissertation). Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Intelligent District Heating
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Intelligent district heating is the combination of traditional district heating engineering and modern information and communication technology. A district heating systemis a highly complex environment consisting of a large number of distributed entities, and this complexity and geographically dispersed layout suggest that they are suitable for distributed optimization and management. However, this would in practice imply a transition from the classical production-centric perspective normally found within district heating management to a more consumer-centric perspective. This thesis describes a multiagent-based system which combines production, consumption and distribution aspects into a single coherent operational management framework. The flexibility and robustness of the solution in industrial settings is thoroughly examined and its performance is shown to lead to significant operational, financial and environmental benefits compared to current management schemes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2014
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 7
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-00587 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfoF6E7362DF92DBE93C1257CAE0033BF34 (Local ID)978-91-7295-280-5 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfoF6E7362DF92DBE93C1257CAE0033BF34 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoF6E7362DF92DBE93C1257CAE0033BF34 (OAI)
Available from: 2014-06-17 Created: 2014-04-02 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C., Wernstedt, F. & Davidsson, P. (2012). Combined heat & power generation using smart heat grid. In: : . Paper presented at International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE). Suzhou, China
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined heat & power generation using smart heat grid
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Combined heat and power (CHP) generation is often used when building new district heating production. CHP makes it possible to simultaneously produce electricity and heat, thus maximizing the energy efficiency of the primary fuel. The heat is used in the connected district heating system while the electricity is sold on the local power market. In a CHP plant it is not possible to separate the physical process of producing heat and electricity, which may cause suboptimal behaviour when high spot prices for power do not coincide with high heat load demand. This paper presents the design and implementation of a system which makes it possible to control the heat load demand in a district heating network in order to optimize the CHP production. By using artificial intelligence technology in order to automate the run‐time coordination of the thermal inertia in a large amount of buildings, it is possible to achieve the same operational benefits as using a large storage tank, albeit at a substantially less investment and operational cost. The system continuously considers the climate in each participating building in order to dynamically ensure that only the best suited buildings at any given time are actively participating in load control. Based on the dynamic indoor climate in each individual building the system automatically controls and coordinates the charging and discharging of the buildings thermal buffer without affecting the quality of service. This paper describes the overall function of the system and presents an algorithm for coordinating the thermal buffer of a large amount of buildings in relation to heat load demand and spot price projections. Operational data from a small district heating system in Sweden is used in order to evaluate the financial and environmental impact of using this technology. The results show substantial benefits of performing such load control during times of high spot price volatility.

Abstract [sv]

Agentbaserad optimeringsmodell för kraftvärmeproduktion inom fjärrvärmesystem. Smart heat grid, kraftvärme, fjärrvärme, laststyrning

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Suzhou, China: , 2012
Keywords
mart heat grid, combined heat and power, district heating, optimization, load control
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7094 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfoD3A6ED8DA72BD92EC1257ACF005480F9 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfoD3A6ED8DA72BD92EC1257ACF005480F9 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoD3A6ED8DA72BD92EC1257ACF005480F9 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE)
Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C., Wernstedt, F. & Davidsson, P. (2012). Distributed Thermal Storage Using Multi-Agent Systems. In: : . Paper presented at International Conference on Agreement Technologies. Dubrovnik, Croatia: COST Action IC0801 on Agreement Technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed Thermal Storage Using Multi-Agent Systems
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Thermal storage is an essential concept within many energy systems. Such storage is generally used in order to smooth out the time lag between the acquisition and the use of energy, for example by using heat water tanks within heating systems. In this work we use a multi-agent system in order to maintain and operate distributed thermal storage among a large group of buildings in a district heating system. There are several financial and environmental benefits of using such a system, such as avoiding peak load production, optimizing combined heat and power strategies and achieving general energy efficiency within the network. Normally a district heating system is purely demand driven, resulting in poor operational characteristics on a system wide scale. However, by using the thermal inertia of buildings it is possible to manage and coordinate the heat load among a large group of buildings in order to implement supply driven operational strategies. This results in increased possibilities to optimize the production mix from financial and environmental aspects. In this paper we present a multi-agent system which combines the thermal storage capacities within buildings in relation to production optimization strategies. The agent system consist of producer agents responsible for valuing the necessary heat load management, consumer agents managing the quality of service in individual buildings while consenting to participate in heat load management and a market agent acting as a mediating layer between the producer and consumer agents. The market agent uses an auction-like process in order to coordinate the heat load management among the consumer agents, while the producer agents use load forecasting in order to evaluate the need for heat load management at any given point in time. A consumer agent uses continues feedback regarding indoor climate in order to uphold quality of service while par- ticipating in heat load management. Real-time data from a district heating system in Sweden is used in order to evaluate the agent system in relation to operational peak load management. The results show clear financial and environmental gains for the producer as well as participating consumers

Abstract [sv]

En generell metod för distribuerad värmelagring inom fjärrvärmesystem presenteras. Metoden baseras på agentteknik där fastigheter samverkar för att uppnå systemövergripande nytta. Koordinering, distribuerat beslutssystem, realtids överenskommelse

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dubrovnik, Croatia: COST Action IC0801 on Agreement Technologies, 2012
Keywords
coordination, distributed decision making, real-time agreements
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7092 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6D9487BE49DDC6E6C1257ACF005561FB (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6D9487BE49DDC6E6C1257ACF005561FB (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6D9487BE49DDC6E6C1257ACF005561FB (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Agreement Technologies
Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. & Wernstedt, F. (2012). Dynamisk fjärrvärmesimulator i praktiken. The Swedish District Heating Association
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamisk fjärrvärmesimulator i praktiken
2012 (Swedish)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

DHEMOS is a simulation system developed for district heating systems, in which models for consumption, distribution and production are interconnected. The focus of this report has been to continue developing the models related to production analysis, and the specific goal of the study has been to develop the system towards production analysis and to evaluate methods relating to its operational use. The system has been adapted to handle financial and environmental parameters related to operational production planning. Functionality to handle load forecasts have been evaluated and included into the system. The study has been performed in collaboration with Swedavia who owns and runs Landvetter Airport. The district heating system at Landvetter Airport has been the base for all simulation experiments within this study. The process to calibrate and adjust DHEMOS is described and a number of scenarios are evaluated in order to find optimal operational situations with the help of active load control. The results show that DHEMOS is a competent tool for operational production planning. By combining the ability to perform load forecasts with practical usability the system can be used as a support tool when finding optimal operational strategies in relation to financial, technical and environmental variables.

Abstract [en]

Utvärdering av fjärrvärmesimulator baserad på öppen källkod. Utförd i samverkan med Swedavia på Landvetter flygplats fjärrvärmenät. Fjärrvärme, simulator, öppen källkod

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Swedish District Heating Association, 2012
Series
Fjärrsyn
Keywords
District heating, simulation, open source
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7096 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfoD63F5257DB99B414C1257ACF0053A814 (Local ID)978-91-7381-082-1 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfoD63F5257DB99B414C1257ACF0053A814 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoD63F5257DB99B414C1257ACF0053A814 (OAI)
Note

Puslished through the Swedish District Heating Association

Available from: 2012-12-10 Created: 2012-12-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. & Wernstedt, F. (2012). N-dimensional fault detection and operational analysis with performance metrics. In: : . Paper presented at The 13th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling. Copenhagen, Denmark
Open this publication in new window or tab >>N-dimensional fault detection and operational analysis with performance metrics
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A district heating consumer substation is a complex entity, consisting of a range of interacting components such as valves, pumps, heat exchangers and control systems. The energy efficiency of a consumer sub- station is dependent on several things, e.g. settings of the control system, dimensions and operational behaviour of hardware and accumulation of sediments in the heat exchanger. Visualizing this operational functionality of consumer substations has been studied in several previous projects. This paper addresses certain shortcomings inherent in those previous works by presenting a novel visualization approach using parallel coordinates and scatter plot matrices. A comparison between these and previous visualization techniques is presented and discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents a scheme for statistical analysis based on n-dimensional relationships found in parallel coordinates and scatter plot matrices, thus providing key performance indicators appropriate for large-scale detection and analysis. It is shown that the presented visualization techniques are at least equal to previous attempts in regards to fault detection and operational analysis, while simultaneously addressing several of their shortcomings. Furthermore, it is shown that the subsequent statistical analysis provides a workable starting point for system-wide fault detection and analysis within any district heating system.

Abstract [sv]

Två metoder för förbättrad informationsspridning inom fjärrvärmesystem presenteras. En baserad på grafisk visualiseringsmetodik, och en baserad på statisktiska nyckeltal. Driftsäkerhet, Operativ visualisering, feldetektering, nyckeltal

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen, Denmark: , 2012
Keywords
Operating reliability, Operational visualization, Fault detection, Performance metrics, Contour mapping
National Category
Human Aspects of ICT Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7093 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo15607DBD55F95ADCC1257ACF0054F4D4 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo15607DBD55F95ADCC1257ACF0054F4D4 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo15607DBD55F95ADCC1257ACF0054F4D4 (OAI)
Conference
The 13th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling
Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C., Wernstedt, F. & Davidsson, P. (2012). Smart Heat Grid on an Intraday Power Market. In: : . Paper presented at Third workshop on Agent Technology in Energy Systems (ATES). Valencia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart Heat Grid on an Intraday Power Market
2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

District heating systems (DHS) is in many countries an important Agent-based industrial applications, Smart Heat Grid, Combined part of the heating infrastructure, especially in and around urban Heat and Power areas. Combined heat and power (CHP) production makes it possible to producer heat while simultaneously producing power. This combination help maximize the energy efficiency in production, often reaching an 80-90% utilization level of the primary fuel, compared to around 30-50% in a traditional power plant. The heat produced in the CHP plant is used to heat the adjacent DHS, while the power is transferred and sold on the power market. The work presented in this paper relates to the Nord Pool Spot power market, which is the leading power market in Europe and one of the largest in the world. On Nord Pool Spot power is bought and sold based on hourly spot prices, facilitated by the primary day-ahead market and the supplementary balancing intraday market. Since it isn’t possible to separate the physical process of producing heat and power in a CHP production facility, the energy company will want to synchronize high heat load production with high spot prices for power whenever possible. This can be done by using large storage tanks where heat is buffered during hours with high spot prices, while then distributedto the DHS as the heat load demand increases. However, such storage tanks are expensive to build and maintain, and they have limited operational dynamics. An alternative is to use the actual buildings connected to the DHS, in order to utilize their thermal inertia by the use of active load control. This paper presents a multi-agent system (MAS) designed to bridge the information gap between energy companies and building owners in order to enable the use of system-wide active load control in order to synchronization heat load and spot prices. The presented scheme provides a self-regulating market analogy in which agents act to allocate load control resources. Each participating building is assigned a consumer agent, while each production unit is represented by a production agent. These agents interact on the market analogy which is in turn supervised by a market agent. The work in this paper is focused on the intraday market although the underpinning synchronization scheme is suitable for the day-ahead market as well as the intraday market. The results show considerable gains for participating entities when applying the presented strategy to the often volatile intraday spot price market.

Abstract [sv]

Beskriver en marknadsbaserad samverkansmetod för optimering av kraftvärme inom fjärrvärmesystem. Fjärrvärme, agent-baserad applikation, kraftvärme

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Valencia: , 2012
Keywords
Agent-based industrial applications, Smart Heat Grid, Combined Heat and Power
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7095 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfoE7F7C780BEBE8115C1257ACF0054256F (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfoE7F7C780BEBE8115C1257ACF0054256F (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoE7F7C780BEBE8115C1257ACF0054256F (OAI)
Conference
Third workshop on Agent Technology in Energy Systems (ATES)
Note

The AAMAS conference

Available from: 2012-12-10 Created: 2012-12-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C., Wernstedt, F. & Davidsson, P. (2010). A Case Study on Availability of Sensor Data in Agent Cooperation. Computer Science and Information Systems, 7(3)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Case Study on Availability of Sensor Data in Agent Cooperation
2010 (English)In: Computer Science and Information Systems, ISSN 1820-0214, Vol. 7, no 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multi-agent cooperation can in several cases be used in order to mitigate problems relating to task sharing within physical processes. In this paper we apply agent based solutions to a class of problems defined by their property of being predictable from a macroscopic perspective while being highly stochastic when viewed at a microscopic level. These characteristic properties can be found in several industrial processes and applications, e.g. within the energy market where the production and distribution of electricity follow this pattern. Another defining problem characteristic is that the supply is usually limited as well as consisting of several layers of differentiating production costs. We evaluate and compare the performance of the agent system in three different scenarios, and for each such scenario it is shown to what degree the optimization system is dependent on the level of availability of sensor data.

Abstract [sv]

Samarbete mellan agenter kan i många fall underlätta att hitta lösningar på resursallokeringsproblem inom fysiska processer. Denna artikel utvärderar olika scenarios där sådana lösningar kan vara applicerbara.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ComSIS Consortium, 2010
Keywords
Agent co-operation, team work
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7239 (URN)10.2298/CSIS100118011J (DOI)000279345800010 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfo1617A3B809DDF9BCC125780E002A9E21 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo1617A3B809DDF9BCC125780E002A9E21 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo1617A3B809DDF9BCC125780E002A9E21 (OAI)
Note

Open Access Journal

Available from: 2012-09-27 Created: 2011-01-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C., Wernstedt, F. & Davidsson, P. (2010). Deployment of Agent Based Load Control in District Heating Systems. In: : . Paper presented at First Agent Technology for Energy Systems Workshop, Ninth International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems. Toronto, Canada
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deployment of Agent Based Load Control in District Heating Systems
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes results and experiences from an industrial proof-of-concept installation of a multi-agent based load control system in three major district heating systems in Sweden. A district heating system is a demand-driven system, i.e. the consumption controls the level of energy input which the district heating producer needs to deliver into the system. The basic idea of load control is that the individual consumers can be utilized as heat load buffers which, when coordinated on a system-wide scale, can be used to adjust the total consumption demand instead of having to change the production scheme. Load control leads to several important benefits such as giving the district heating producer the capability to avoid using expensive and environmentally unsound peak load boilers, while at the same time lowering the overall energy consumption at the consumer side. In order for load control to work the system needs to be able to coordinate the behaviour of a large amount of consumer substations in relation to the dynamic status among a range of production units, while continuously maintaining a sufficient level of quality of service among the consumers. The results show that the multi-agent based system was capable of reducing the peak loads with up to 20% of the total load, and to lower the average energy consumption with about 7,5% without any deterioration of the experienced indoor climate. Different theoretical aspects of load control have long been studied, but it is not until recently that technical advances in hardware and communication infrastructure has made it possible to implement these schemes in real-world settings.

Abstract [sv]

Denna artikel beskriver resultat och erfarenheter från drifsättning av ett industriellt demonstrationsprojekt gällande multiagentbaserad laststyrning inom tre större svenska fjärrvärmenät.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toronto, Canada: , 2010
Keywords
Agent-based industrial applications
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7625 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo3707C9AFFC344001C125780E002BE56B (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo3707C9AFFC344001C125780E002BE56B (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo3707C9AFFC344001C125780E002BE56B (OAI)
Conference
First Agent Technology for Energy Systems Workshop, Ninth International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2011-01-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. & Wernstedt, F. (2010). Dynamisk Fjärrvärmesimulator. Svensk Fjärrvärme AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamisk Fjärrvärmesimulator
2010 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Dynamic District Heating Simulator
Abstract [sv]

Simulation techniques are regularly used by district heating companies as a support system when optimizing and improving the operational and strategic functionality within a district heating system. Normally the simulation models regarding production, distribution and consumption are handled separately, but there are several benefits to be found by combining these models. HEMOS is a simulation tool based on open source software which aims to join different simulation models in order to achieve such a system-wide overview. This simulation tool has been developed as part of previous research and has been used within several earlier projects as a support tool for new technologies. The purpose of this pre-study is first and foremost to: * evaluate the current status and capacity of DHEMOS * carry out a comparison between existing commercial simulation systems and DHEMOS * evaluate the future potential of DHEMOS and estimate the amount of work needed in order to make the system a mature and usable simulation tool for trade, research and learning. The results from this study show that DHEMOS has a basic ability to ”compute correctly”, even though the present system lacks important functionality without which it cannot fully compete with commercial alternatives. However, DHEMOS does display a number of fundamental design characteristics which shows that the system has a legitimate potential for the future. This pre-study has been a collaboration between Blekinge Institute of Technology and Göteborg Energi. Simulation results from the district heating network in Ale i Gothenburg has been used when comparing the systems.

Abstract [en]

Detta är en förstudie som har som syfte att jämföra simuleringsverktyget DHEMOS med andra på marknaden förekommande kommersiella verktyg. DHEMOS baseras på öppen källkod och har utvecklats i samband med tidigare forskning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svensk Fjärrvärme AB, 2010
Series
Dynamisk Fjärrvärmesimulator
Keywords
District heating, simulation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7626 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6BF93A00F7DC1BF9C125780E002B3E0C (Local ID)978-91-7381-066-1 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6BF93A00F7DC1BF9C125780E002B3E0C (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo6BF93A00F7DC1BF9C125780E002B3E0C (OAI)
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2011-01-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Johansson, C. & Wernstedt, F. (2010). Heat Load Reductions and Their Effect on Energy Consumption. In: : . Paper presented at 12th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling. Tallinn, Estonia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heat Load Reductions and Their Effect on Energy Consumption
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we investigate the consequences of using temporary heat load reductions on consumer substations, from the perspective of the individual consumer as well as the district heating company. The reason for using such reductions are normally to save energy at the consumer side, but the ability to control the heat load also lie at the core of more complex control processes such as Demand Side Management (DMS) and Load Control (LC) within district heating systems. The purpose of this paper is to study the way different types of heat load reductions impact on the energy usage as well as on the indoor climate in the individual buildings. We have performed a series of experiments in which we have equipped multi-apartment buildings with wireless indoor temperature sensors and a novel type of load control equipment, which gives us the ability to perform remotely supervised and coordinated heat load reductions among these buildings. The results show that a substantial lowering of the heat load and energy usage during periods of reductions is possible without jeopardizing the indoor climate, although we show that there are differences in the implications when considering different types of heat load reductions.

Abstract [sv]

Denna artikel undersöker effekterna av att använda tillfälliga laststyrningar i fjärrvärmecentraler. Studien fokuserar både på effekterna ur aspekter relaterade till såväl enskilda konsumenter som fjärrvärmeföretag.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tallinn, Estonia: , 2010
Keywords
District heating, heat load reductions, energy
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-7623 (URN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo685CDF31566960FBC125780E002C5888 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo685CDF31566960FBC125780E002C5888 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo685CDF31566960FBC125780E002C5888 (OAI)
Conference
12th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling
Available from: 2012-09-18 Created: 2011-01-04 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
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