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The Effects of Emotions and Their Regulation on Decision-making Performance in Affective Serious Games
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Emotions are thought to be one of the key factors that critically influence human decision-making. Emotion-regulation can help to mitigate emotion-related decision biases and eventually lead to a better decision performance. Serious games emerged as a new angle introducing technological methods to practicing emotion-regulation, where meaningful biofeedback information communicates player's affective states to a series of informed gameplay choices. These findings motivate the notion that in the decision context of serious games, one would benefit from awareness and regulation of such emerging emotions.

This thesis explores the design and evaluation methods for creating serious games where emotion-regulation can be practiced using physiological biofeedback measures. Furthermore, it investigates emotions and the effect of emotion-regulation on decision performance in serious games. Using the psychophysiological methods in the design of such games, emotions and their underlying neural mechanism have been explored.

The results showed the benefits of practicing emotion-regulation in serious games, where decision-making performance was increased for the individuals who down-regulated high levels of arousal while having an experience of positive valence. Moreover, it increased also for the individuals who received the necessary biofeedback information. The results also suggested that emotion-regulation strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal) are highly dependent on the serious game context. Therefore, the reappraisal strategy was shown to benefit the decision-making tasks investigated in this thesis. The results further suggested that using psychophysiological methods in emotionally arousing serious games, the interplay between sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways could be mapped through the underlying emotions which activate those two pathways. Following this conjecture, the results identified the optimal arousal level for increased performance of an individual on a decision-making task, by carefully balancing the activation of those two pathways. The investigations also validated these findings in the collaborative serious game context, where the robot collaborators were found to elicit diverse affect in their human partners, influencing performance on a decision-making task. Furthermore, the evidence suggested that arousal is equally or more important than valence for the decision-making performance, but once optimal arousal has been reached, a further increase in performance may be achieved by regulating valence. Furthermore, the results showed that serious games designed in this thesis elicited high physiological arousal and positive valence. This makes them suitable as research platforms for the investigation of how these emotions influence the activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways and influence performance on a decision-making task.

Taking these findings into consideration, the serious games designed in this thesis allowed for the training of cognitive reappraisal emotion-regulation strategy on the decision-making tasks. This thesis suggests that using evaluated design and development methods, it is possible to design and develop serious games that provide a helpful environment where individuals could practice emotion-regulation through raising awareness of emotions, and subsequently improve their decision-making performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2019. , p. 297
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 6
Keywords [en]
Serious Games, Game Design, Emotions, Biofeedback, Emotion-Regulation, Decision-Making
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-17557ISBN: 978-91-7295-370-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-17557DiVA, id: diva2:1284122
Public defence
2019-04-26, J1640, Campus Gräsvik, Karlskrona, 09:12 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Future of Brain-Computer Interface for Games and Interaction Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Future of Brain-Computer Interface for Games and Interaction Design
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17555 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluating Games Designed to Improve Financial Capability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Games Designed to Improve Financial Capability
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Series
ECEL 2010, 9th European Conference on e-Learning
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17554 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
3. A Serious Game using Physiological Interfaces for Emotion Regulation Training in the context of Financial Decision-Making
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Serious Game using Physiological Interfaces for Emotion Regulation Training in the context of Financial Decision-Making
Show others...
2012 (English)In: ECIS 2012 - Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems, AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) , 2012, p. 1-14Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research on financial decision-making shows that traders and investors with high emotion regulation capabilities perform better in trading. But how can the others learn to regulate their emotions? ‘Learning by doing’ sounds like a straightforward approach. But how can one perform ‘learning by doing’ when there is no feedback? This problem particularly applies to learning emotion regulation, because learners can get practically no feedback on their level of emotion regulation. Our research aims at providing a learning environment that can help decision-makers to improve their emotion regulation. The approach is based on a serious game with real-time biofeedback. The game is settled in a financial context and the decision scenario is directly linked to the individual biofeedback of the learner’s heart rate data. More specifically, depending on the learner’s ability to regulate emotions, the decision scenario of the game continuously adjusts and thereby becomes more (or less) difficult. The learner wears an electrocardiogram sensor that transfers the data via Bluetooth to the game. The game itself is evaluated at several levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2012
Keywords
Biofeedback, Emotion Regulation, Serious Games
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17556 (URN)
Conference
20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2012), Barcelona
Note

open access

Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
4. Integrating biosignals into information systems: A NeuroIS tool for improving emotion regulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating biosignals into information systems: A NeuroIS tool for improving emotion regulation
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Management Information Systems, ISSN 0742-1222, E-ISSN 1557-928X, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 247-277Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traders and investors are aware that emotional processes can have material consequences on their financial decision performance. However, typical learning approaches for debiasing fail to overcome emotionally driven financial dispositions, mostly because of subjects' limited capacity for self-monitoring. Our research aims at improving decision makers' performance by (1) boosting their awareness to their emotional state and (2) improving their skills for effective emotion regulation. To that end, we designed and implemented a serious game-based NeuroIS tool that continuously displays the player's individual emotional state, via biofeedback, and adapts the difficulty of the decision environment to this emotional state. The design artifact was then evaluated in two laboratory experiments. Taken together, our study demonstrates how information systems design science research can contribute to improving financial decision making by integrating physiological data into information technology artifacts. Moreover, we provide specific design guidelines for how biofeedback can be integrated into information systems

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ME Sharpe, 2013
Keywords
Biofeedback, Decision-making processes, Design science, Emotion regulation, Financial decision making, IT artifacts, NeuroIS, Serious games
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6665 (URN)10.2753/MIS0742-1222300309 (DOI)000333022200010 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfoC89E9AE2D0DE7354C1257CBA00253B0A (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfoC89E9AE2D0DE7354C1257CBA00253B0A (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoC89E9AE2D0DE7354C1257CBA00253B0A (OAI)
Available from: 2014-07-17 Created: 2014-04-14 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
5. Modeling cognitive load and physiological arousal through pupil diameter and heart rate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling cognitive load and physiological arousal through pupil diameter and heart rate
2018 (English)In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study investigates individuals’ cognitive load processing abilities while engaged on a decision-making task in serious games, to explore how a substantial cognitive load dominates over the physiological arousal effect on pupil diameter. A serious game was presented to the participants, which displayed the on–line biofeedback based on physiological measurements of arousal. In such dynamic decision-making environment, the pupil diameter was analyzed in relation to the heart rate, to evaluate if the former could be a useful measure of cognitive abilities of individuals. As pupil might reflect both cognitive activity and physiological arousal, the pupillary response will show an arousal effect only when the cognitive demands of the situation are minimal. Evidence shows that in a situation where a substantial level of cognitive activity is required, only that activity will be observable on the pupil diameter, dominating over the physiological arousal effect indicated by the pupillary response. It is suggested that it might be possible to design serious games tailored to the cognitive abilities of an individual player, using the proposed physiological measurements to observe the moment when such dominance occurs. © 2018, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2018
Keywords
Arousal, Cognitive load, Electrocardiogram, Physiology, Pupil diameter, Serious games, Biofeedback, Decision making, Electrocardiography, Heart, Neurophysiology, Physiological models, Cognitive activities, Cognitive loads, Dynamic decision making, Physiological measurement, Processing ability, Pupillary response, Psychophysiology
National Category
Other Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17052 (URN)10.1007/s11042-018-6518-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85053407843 (Scopus ID)
Note

open access

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
6. The Effect of Emotions and Social Behavior on Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and Autonomous Robots
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Emotions and Social Behavior on Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and Autonomous Robots
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to investigate performance in a collaborative human–robot interaction on a shared serious game task. Furthermore, the effect of elicited emotions and perceived social behavior categories on players’ performance will be investigated. The participants collaboratively played a turn-taking version of the Tower of Hanoi serious game, together with the human and robot collaborators. The elicited emotions were analyzed in regards to the arousal and valence variables, computed from the Geneva Emotion Wheel questionnaire. Moreover, the perceived social behavior categories were obtained from analyzing and grouping replies to the Interactive Experiences and Trust and Respect questionnaires. It was found that the results did not show a statistically significant difference in participants’ performance between the human or robot collaborators. Moreover, all of the collaborators elicited similar emotions, where the human collaborator was perceived as more credible and socially present than the robot one. It is suggested that using robot collaborators might be as efficient as using human ones, in the context of serious game collaborative tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Autonomous robots, Serious games, Collaborative play, Social interaction, Robot-assisted play, Emotions
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15541 (URN)10.1007/s12369-017-0437-4 (DOI)000423152900008 ()
Projects
PsyIntEC
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-231143
Note

open access

Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
7. Physiological Affect and Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and an Autonomous Robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physiological Affect and Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and an Autonomous Robot
2018 (English)In: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11112, p. 127-138Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper sets out to examine how elicited physiological affect influences the performance of human participants collaborating with the robot partners on a shared serious game task; furthermore, to investigate physiological affect underlying such human-robot proximate collaboration. The participants collaboratively played a turn-taking version of a serious game Tower of Hanoi, where physiological affect was investigated in a valence-arousal space. The arousal was inferred from the galvanic skin response data, while the valence was inferred from the electrocardiography data. It was found that the robot collaborators elicited a higher physiological affect in regard to both arousal and valence, in contrast to their human collaborator counterparts. Furthermore, a comparable performance between all collaborators was found on the serious game task. © 2018, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag, 2018
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), ISSN 03029743
Keywords
Affect, Autonomous robots, Collaborative play, Emotions, Physiology, Robot-assisted play, Serious games, Electrophysiology, Robots, Galvanic skin response, Human robots, Robot Partners, Tower of Hanoi, Turn-taking
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17087 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99426-0_11 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053772889 (Scopus ID)9783319994253 (ISBN)
Conference
17th IFIP TC 14 International Conference on Entertainment Computing, ICEC, Poznan
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
8. Practicing Emotion-Regulation Through Biofeedback on the Decision-Making Performance in the Context of Serious Games: a Systematic Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practicing Emotion-Regulation Through Biofeedback on the Decision-Making Performance in the Context of Serious Games: a Systematic Review
2019 (English)In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 29, p. 75-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Evidence shows that emotions critically influence human decision-making. Therefore, emotion-regulation using biofeedback has been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, serious games have emerged as a valuable tool for such investigations set in the decision-making context. This review sets out to investigate the scientific evidence regarding the effects of practicing emotion-regulation through biofeedback on the decision-making performance in the context of serious games. A systematic search of five electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, IEEE, PubMed Central, Science Direct), followed by the author and snowballing investigation, was conducted from a publication's year of inception to October 2018. The search identified 16 randomized controlled experiment/quasi-experiment studies that quantitatively assessed the performance on decision-making tasks in serious games, involving students, military, and brain-injured participants. It was found that the participants who raised awareness of emotions and increased the skill of emotion-regulation were able to successfully regulate their arousal, which resulted in better decision performance, reaction time, and attention scores on the decision-making tasks. It is suggested that serious games provide an effective platform validated through the evaluative and playtesting studies, that supports the acquisition of the emotion-regulation skill through the direct (visual) and indirect (gameplay) biofeedback presentation on decision-making tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
serious games, emotions, affect, biofeedback, emotion-regulation, decision-making
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-17580 (URN)10.1016/j.entcom.2019.01.001 (DOI)000458213700008 ()
Note

open access

Available from: 2019-02-05 Created: 2019-02-05 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved

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