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The Effects of Emotions and Their Regulation on Decision-making Performance in Affective Serious Games
Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
2019 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Emotions are thought to be one of the key factors that critically influence human decision-making. Emotion-regulation can help to mitigate emotion-related decision biases and eventually lead to a better decision performance. Serious games emerged as a new angle introducing technological methods to practicing emotion-regulation, where meaningful biofeedback information communicates player's affective states to a series of informed gameplay choices. These findings motivate the notion that in the decision context of serious games, one would benefit from awareness and regulation of such emerging emotions.

This thesis explores the design and evaluation methods for creating serious games where emotion-regulation can be practiced using physiological biofeedback measures. Furthermore, it investigates emotions and the effect of emotion-regulation on decision performance in serious games. Using the psychophysiological methods in the design of such games, emotions and their underlying neural mechanism have been explored.

The results showed the benefits of practicing emotion-regulation in serious games, where decision-making performance was increased for the individuals who down-regulated high levels of arousal while having an experience of positive valence. Moreover, it increased also for the individuals who received the necessary biofeedback information. The results also suggested that emotion-regulation strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal) are highly dependent on the serious game context. Therefore, the reappraisal strategy was shown to benefit the decision-making tasks investigated in this thesis. The results further suggested that using psychophysiological methods in emotionally arousing serious games, the interplay between sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways could be mapped through the underlying emotions which activate those two pathways. Following this conjecture, the results identified the optimal arousal level for increased performance of an individual on a decision-making task, by carefully balancing the activation of those two pathways. The investigations also validated these findings in the collaborative serious game context, where the robot collaborators were found to elicit diverse affect in their human partners, influencing performance on a decision-making task. Furthermore, the evidence suggested that arousal is equally or more important than valence for the decision-making performance, but once optimal arousal has been reached, a further increase in performance may be achieved by regulating valence. Furthermore, the results showed that serious games designed in this thesis elicited high physiological arousal and positive valence. This makes them suitable as research platforms for the investigation of how these emotions influence the activation of sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways and influence performance on a decision-making task.

Taking these findings into consideration, the serious games designed in this thesis allowed for the training of cognitive reappraisal emotion-regulation strategy on the decision-making tasks. This thesis suggests that using evaluated design and development methods, it is possible to design and develop serious games that provide a helpful environment where individuals could practice emotion-regulation through raising awareness of emotions, and subsequently improve their decision-making performance.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2019. , s. 297
Serie
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 6
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-17557ISBN: 978-91-7295-370-3 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-17557DiVA, id: diva2:1284122
Disputas
2019-03-29, Campus Gräsvik, Karlskrona, 23:01 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-01-31 Laget: 2019-01-30 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-31bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. The Future of Brain-Computer Interface for Games and Interaction Design
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Future of Brain-Computer Interface for Games and Interaction Design
2010 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-17555 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-01-30 Laget: 2019-01-30 Sist oppdatert: 2019-02-11bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Evaluating Games Designed to Improve Financial Capability
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Evaluating Games Designed to Improve Financial Capability
2010 (engelsk)Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
Serie
ECEL 2010, 9th European Conference on e-Learning
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-17554 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-01-30 Laget: 2019-01-30 Sist oppdatert: 2019-02-11bibliografisk kontrollert
3. A Serious Game using Physiological Interfaces for Emotion Regulation Training in the context of Financial Decision-Making
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A Serious Game using Physiological Interfaces for Emotion Regulation Training in the context of Financial Decision-Making
Vise andre…
2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: ECIS 2012 - Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems, AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) , 2012, s. 1-14Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Research on financial decision-making shows that traders and investors with high emotion regulation capabilities perform better in trading. But how can the others learn to regulate their emotions? ‘Learning by doing’ sounds like a straightforward approach. But how can one perform ‘learning by doing’ when there is no feedback? This problem particularly applies to learning emotion regulation, because learners can get practically no feedback on their level of emotion regulation. Our research aims at providing a learning environment that can help decision-makers to improve their emotion regulation. The approach is based on a serious game with real-time biofeedback. The game is settled in a financial context and the decision scenario is directly linked to the individual biofeedback of the learner’s heart rate data. More specifically, depending on the learner’s ability to regulate emotions, the decision scenario of the game continuously adjusts and thereby becomes more (or less) difficult. The learner wears an electrocardiogram sensor that transfers the data via Bluetooth to the game. The game itself is evaluated at several levels.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2012
Emneord
Biofeedback, Emotion Regulation, Serious Games
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-17556 (URN)
Konferanse
20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2012), Barcelona
Merknad

open access

Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-01-30 Laget: 2019-01-30 Sist oppdatert: 2019-02-11bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Integrating biosignals into information systems: A NeuroIS tool for improving emotion regulation
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Integrating biosignals into information systems: A NeuroIS tool for improving emotion regulation
Vise andre…
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Management Information Systems, ISSN 0742-1222, E-ISSN 1557-928X, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 247-277Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Traders and investors are aware that emotional processes can have material consequences on their financial decision performance. However, typical learning approaches for debiasing fail to overcome emotionally driven financial dispositions, mostly because of subjects' limited capacity for self-monitoring. Our research aims at improving decision makers' performance by (1) boosting their awareness to their emotional state and (2) improving their skills for effective emotion regulation. To that end, we designed and implemented a serious game-based NeuroIS tool that continuously displays the player's individual emotional state, via biofeedback, and adapts the difficulty of the decision environment to this emotional state. The design artifact was then evaluated in two laboratory experiments. Taken together, our study demonstrates how information systems design science research can contribute to improving financial decision making by integrating physiological data into information technology artifacts. Moreover, we provide specific design guidelines for how biofeedback can be integrated into information systems

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
ME Sharpe, 2013
Emneord
Biofeedback, Decision-making processes, Design science, Emotion regulation, Financial decision making, IT artifacts, NeuroIS, Serious games
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-6665 (URN)10.2753/MIS0742-1222300309 (DOI)000333022200010 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfoC89E9AE2D0DE7354C1257CBA00253B0A (Lokal ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfoC89E9AE2D0DE7354C1257CBA00253B0A (Arkivnummer)oai:bth.se:forskinfoC89E9AE2D0DE7354C1257CBA00253B0A (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-07-17 Laget: 2014-04-14 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-30bibliografisk kontrollert
5. Modeling cognitive load and physiological arousal through pupil diameter and heart rate
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Modeling cognitive load and physiological arousal through pupil diameter and heart rate
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study investigates individuals’ cognitive load processing abilities while engaged on a decision-making task in serious games, to explore how a substantial cognitive load dominates over the physiological arousal effect on pupil diameter. A serious game was presented to the participants, which displayed the on–line biofeedback based on physiological measurements of arousal. In such dynamic decision-making environment, the pupil diameter was analyzed in relation to the heart rate, to evaluate if the former could be a useful measure of cognitive abilities of individuals. As pupil might reflect both cognitive activity and physiological arousal, the pupillary response will show an arousal effect only when the cognitive demands of the situation are minimal. Evidence shows that in a situation where a substantial level of cognitive activity is required, only that activity will be observable on the pupil diameter, dominating over the physiological arousal effect indicated by the pupillary response. It is suggested that it might be possible to design serious games tailored to the cognitive abilities of an individual player, using the proposed physiological measurements to observe the moment when such dominance occurs. © 2018, The Author(s).

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer New York LLC, 2018
Emneord
Arousal, Cognitive load, Electrocardiogram, Physiology, Pupil diameter, Serious games, Biofeedback, Decision making, Electrocardiography, Heart, Neurophysiology, Physiological models, Cognitive activities, Cognitive loads, Dynamic decision making, Physiological measurement, Processing ability, Pupillary response, Psychophysiology
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-17052 (URN)10.1007/s11042-018-6518-z (DOI)2-s2.0-85053407843 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

open access

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-27 Laget: 2018-09-27 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-30bibliografisk kontrollert
6. The Effect of Emotions and Social Behavior on Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and Autonomous Robots
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Effect of Emotions and Social Behavior on Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and Autonomous Robots
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 115-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to investigate performance in a collaborative human–robot interaction on a shared serious game task. Furthermore, the effect of elicited emotions and perceived social behavior categories on players’ performance will be investigated. The participants collaboratively played a turn-taking version of the Tower of Hanoi serious game, together with the human and robot collaborators. The elicited emotions were analyzed in regards to the arousal and valence variables, computed from the Geneva Emotion Wheel questionnaire. Moreover, the perceived social behavior categories were obtained from analyzing and grouping replies to the Interactive Experiences and Trust and Respect questionnaires. It was found that the results did not show a statistically significant difference in participants’ performance between the human or robot collaborators. Moreover, all of the collaborators elicited similar emotions, where the human collaborator was perceived as more credible and socially present than the robot one. It is suggested that using robot collaborators might be as efficient as using human ones, in the context of serious game collaborative tasks.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer, 2018
Emneord
Autonomous robots, Serious games, Collaborative play, Social interaction, Robot-assisted play, Emotions
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-15541 (URN)10.1007/s12369-017-0437-4 (DOI)000423152900008 ()
Prosjekter
PsyIntEC
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-ICT-231143
Merknad

open access

Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-11-28 Laget: 2017-11-28 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-30bibliografisk kontrollert
7. Physiological Affect and Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and an Autonomous Robot
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Physiological Affect and Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and an Autonomous Robot
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Lect. Notes Comput. Sci., Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11112, s. 127-138Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

This paper sets out to examine how elicited physiological affect influences the performance of human participants collaborating with the robot partners on a shared serious game task; furthermore, to investigate physiological affect underlying such human-robot proximate collaboration. The participants collaboratively played a turn-taking version of a serious game Tower of Hanoi, where physiological affect was investigated in a valence-arousal space. The arousal was inferred from the galvanic skin response data, while the valence was inferred from the electrocardiography data. It was found that the robot collaborators elicited a higher physiological affect in regard to both arousal and valence, in contrast to their human collaborator counterparts. Furthermore, a comparable performance between all collaborators was found on the serious game task. © 2018, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer Verlag, 2018
Serie
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), ISSN 03029743
Emneord
Affect, Autonomous robots, Collaborative play, Emotions, Physiology, Robot-assisted play, Serious games, Electrophysiology, Robots, Galvanic skin response, Human robots, Robot Partners, Tower of Hanoi, Turn-taking
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-17087 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99426-0_11 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053772889 (Scopus ID)9783319994253 (ISBN)
Konferanse
17th IFIP TC 14 International Conference on Entertainment Computing, ICEC, Poznan
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-05 Laget: 2018-10-05 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-30bibliografisk kontrollert

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123 3 of 3
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