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Competitiveness and Sustainability Effects of Cars and their Business Models in Swedish Small Town Regions
Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling. (SustainTrans)
Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling. (SustainTrans)
Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, nr Part 1, s. 333-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to develop and test a new approach for comparing sustainability effects (mainly approximated through CO2 emissions) and the total cost of ownership of various business models (Regular Purchasing, Car Pooling, Car Leasing, and Taxiing) applied to private cars with different energy carriers (Biogas, Ethanol, Gasoline, Plug-in Hybrid, and Electric). The results indicate that, out of all of the vehicles, electric vehicles are the most competitive—from both an ecological and economic perspective. Moreover, of all of the business models, Car Pooling is the most competitive when driving short to medium distances, reducing CO2 emissions by 20-40% compared with Regular Purchasing. Meanwhile, Car Leasing emits the same amount of CO2 emissions as Regular Purchasing if both are driven the same number of kilometers per year. The results also indicate that, from a cost effectiveness perspective, people who travel less than 2000 km per year should primarily consider using Taxis or similar services, while Car Pooling is most cost effective for those who travel from 2000 to 8500 km. For those who travel between 8500 and 13500 km per year, Car Leasing is the most cost effective, and Regular Purchasing is the best option above 13500 km per year. If most car owners were to accept and adapt to this identified need for a market move towards Car Pooling with Electric Vehicles, necessary transportation could be ensured while significantly reducing the number of cars on the road, whether from Regular Purchasing or Car Leasing, as well as those that run on fossil fuel. This, in turn, would result in less fossil fuel use, fewer emissions, and decreased negative effects on human health.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 140, nr Part 1, s. 333-348
Nyckelord [en]
Business modeling; Sustainable transport, Total Cost of Ownership, Electric car, Fossil-fueled car, Life cycle costing
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljöanalys och bygginformationsteknik Företagsekonomi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-11835DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.045ISI: 000388775100031OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-11835DiVA, id: diva2:922694
Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-24 Skapad: 2016-04-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-09-05Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. An Approach to Business Modeling for Sustainable Personal Road Transport
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>An Approach to Business Modeling for Sustainable Personal Road Transport
2016 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Between 1950 and 2013 the total amount of Swedish travelling has increased from about 20 billion to about 140 billion passenger kilometers. This included an increase in travelling with private cars from about 3 billion to about 105 billion passenger kilometers, and in bus travelling from about 2.5 billion to about 5 billion passenger kilometers. The European commission has indicated that public transportation (if powered by clean fuels) is a suitable way to reduce environmental and health problems.

 

This thesis focuses on sustainable personal road transport, and aims to develop and test a new approach to examining the economic and socio-ecological sustainability effects of various road vehicles for private travelling and related business models. A special focus is set on comparing various bus systems for public transport and ways (business models) for private people to access cars. The main comparison parameters are the total cost of ownership and carbon dioxide emissions of different energy carriers for buses and cars. The Design Research Methodology is used to guide the research approach. The approach also builds on the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, which includes, for example, principles that define any sustainable future and a strategic planning process. The approach first employs Strategic Life Cycle Assessment to give a quick overview of sustainability challenges in each bus life cycle stage from raw materials to end of life. Several analysis tools such as Life Cycle Costing, Life Cycle Analysis, Product Service System, and Business Model Canvas mapping are then iteratively used to ”dig deeper” into identified prioritized challenges. Literature reviews, interviews, and simulations are used as supporting methods.

 

The results from a first theoretical test of the new approach suggest that a shift from diesel buses to electric buses (powered by renewable energy) could significantly lower carbon dioxide emissions, while also significantly lowering the total cost of ownership. The theoretical calculations were followed up by testing of electric buses in real operation in eight Swedish municipalities. The tests verified the theoretical results, and showed that electric buses are better than diesel buses both from a sustainability point of view and a cost point of view, and also that electric bus operation is a practically viable alternative for public transport. The new approach was tested also by comparing a variety of business models for private car travelling. The results indicate, among other things, that only people who travel more than 13.500 kilometers per year would benefit from owning a car.

 

In all, the thesis suggests a simultaneous shift from diesel buses to electric buses in public transport and, for the majority of the car drivers that drive less than 13.500 kilometers per year, switching from car ownership to car use services would be favourable for an affordable transition of the transport sector towards sustainability. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2016. s. 133
Serie
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 3
Nyckelord
Business Modelling, Sustainable Transport
Nationell ämneskategori
Företagsekonomi Annan naturresursteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-11830 (URN)978-91-7295-327-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-10-12, J1650, Campus Gräsvik, Karlskrona, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-22 Skapad: 2016-04-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-23Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Towards sustainable personal mobility with electric cars and buses
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Towards sustainable personal mobility with electric cars and buses
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis was to explore if, and then how, electric cars and buses can contribute to sustainable personal mobility. Electric vehicles have increasingly been seen as a potential sustainable solution for the transport sector due to their high energy efficiency, close to zero emissions in the use phase, and the possibility to be powered by electricity from renewable resources. However, there are concerns about future scarcity of resources (e.g. lithium and cobalt for batteries), vehicle range, costs, high energy use in the production of batteries, as well as insufficient scientific support for how electric vehicles could be a part of a transition towards sustainability regarding personal mobility.  

The challenges for a fast transition towards sustainability are large and many. The transport sector is not contributing to such development, mainly due to emissions, use of fossil energy, and use of materials mined and recycled under unacceptable conditions. Furthermore, existing societal goals (e.g. fossil-fuel independent vehicle fleet by 2030 in Sweden, UN Agenda 2030, and the Paris agreement) are insufficient for sustainability and are not complemented by concrete plans or an approach for how to engage stakeholders and achieve coordinated actions for sustainability. The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development includes a principled definition of sustainability that is necessary and sufficient for sustainability and procedural support for collaborative innovation for a strategic transition to fulfillment of that definition, which is why it has been used as an overarching methodology in this thesis. 

The research verified through several studies conditions for how electric vehicles can play a vital role in a strategic transition of personal mobility towards sustainability. Through stakeholder collaboration (e.g. interviews and workshops), a vision for sustainable transport with a focus on electric vehicles and an initial development plan towards that vision were designed. Several life cycle focused studies investigated (through calculations and data collection from literature, life cycle databases, interviews and workshops) about environmental and social impacts and costs for electric cars and buses. The stakeholder collaboration, combined with conceptual modelling, also resulted in models for generic support for multi-stakeholder collaboration and planning for strategic sustainable development of transport systems and communities, and for how to include electric buses in the procurement model of public transport.

The strategic sustainable development perspective of this thesis broadens the analysis beyond the more common focus on climate change issues and should be able to reduce the risk of sub-optimizations in community and transport system development when applied in that context. The generic support for multi-stakeholder collaboration could potentially also promote a more participatory democratic approach to community development, grounded in a scientific foundation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlskrona: Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2018. s. 177
Serie
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 2018:08
Nyckelord
Strategic Sustainable Development, Transport Planning, Electric Vehicles, Testing, LCA, Mobility
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan teknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:bth-16965 (URN)978-91-7295-356-7 (ISBN)
Disputation
2018-10-18, J1650, Blekinge Institute of technology, Karlskrona, 09:30 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

Contact the author to receive a pdf of the full thesis (papers included): sven.boren@bth.se or telephone +46455385723.

Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-06 Skapad: 2018-09-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-23Bibliografiskt granskad

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