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Efficient document image binarization using heterogeneous computing and parameter tuning
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2161-7371
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9947-1088
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0535-1761
2018 (English)In: International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, ISSN 1433-2833, E-ISSN 1433-2825, Vol. 21, no 1-2, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the context of historical document analysis, image binarization is a first important step, which separates foreground from background, despite common image degradations, such as faded ink, stains, or bleed-through. Fast binarization has great significance when analyzing vast archives of document images, since even small inefficiencies can quickly accumulate to years of wasted execution time. Therefore, efficient binarization is especially relevant to companies and government institutions, who want to analyze their large collections of document images. The main challenge with this is to speed up the execution performance without affecting the binarization performance. We modify a state-of-the-art binarization algorithm and achieve on average a 3.5 times faster execution performance by correctly mapping this algorithm to a heterogeneous platform, consisting of a CPU and a GPU. Our proposed parameter tuning algorithm additionally improves the execution time for parameter tuning by a factor of 1.7, compared to previous parameter tuning algorithms. We see that for the chosen algorithm, machine learning-based parameter tuning improves the execution performance more than heterogeneous computing, when comparing absolute execution times. © 2018 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag , 2018. Vol. 21, no 1-2, p. 41-58
Keywords [en]
Automatic parameter tuning, Heterogeneous computing, Historical documents, Image binarization, Bins, History, Image analysis, Learning systems, Document image binarization, Government institutions, Heterogeneous platforms, Parameter tuning algorithm, Parameter estimation
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-15891DOI: 10.1007/s10032-017-0293-7ISI: 000433193500003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85041228615OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-15891DiVA, id: diva2:1182896
Available from: 2018-02-15 Created: 2018-02-15 Last updated: 2018-08-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Efficient Document Image Binarization using Heterogeneous Computing and Interactive Machine Learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Document Image Binarization using Heterogeneous Computing and Interactive Machine Learning
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large collections of historical document images have been collected by companies and government institutions for decades. More recently, these collections have been made available to a larger public via the Internet. However, to make accessing them truly useful, the contained images need to be made readable and searchable. One step in that direction is document image binarization, the separation of text foreground from page background. This separation makes the text shown in the document images easier to process by humans and other image processing algorithms alike. While reasonably well working binarization algorithms exist, it is not sufficient to just being able to perform the separation of foreground and background well. This separation also has to be achieved in an efficient manner, in terms of execution time, but also in terms of training data used by machine learning based methods. This is necessary to make binarization not only theoretically possible, but also practically viable.

In this thesis, we explore different ways to achieve efficient binarization in terms of execution time by improving the implementation and the algorithm of a state-of-the-art binarization method. We find that parameter prediction, as well as mapping the algorithm onto the graphics processing unit (GPU) help to improve its execution performance. Furthermore, we propose a binarization algorithm based on recurrent neural networks and evaluate the choice of its design parameters with respect to their impact on execution time and binarization quality. Here, we identify a trade-off between binarization quality and execution performance based on the algorithm’s footprint size and show that dynamically weighted training loss tends to improve the binarization quality. Lastly, we address the problem of training data efficiency by evaluating the use of interactive machine learning for reducing the required amount of training data for our recurrent neural network based method. We show that user feedback can help to achieve better binarization quality with less training data and that visualized uncertainty helps to guide users to give more relevant feedback.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2018. p. 135
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 3
Keywords
image binarization, heterogeneous computing, recurrent neural networks, interactive machine learning, historical documents
National Category
Computer Engineering Computer Sciences Computer Vision and Robotics (Autonomous Systems)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-16797 (URN)978-91-7295-355-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-09-10, J1640, Valhallavägen 1, Karlskrona, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Scalable resource-efficient systems for big data analytics
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140032
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-07-12 Last updated: 2018-11-14Bibliographically approved

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Westphal, FlorianGrahn, HåkanLavesson, Niklas

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