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Coefficient of Throughput Variation as Indication of Playback Freezes in Streamed Omnidirectional Videos
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0536-7165
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8929-4911
2018 (English)In: 2018 28TH INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND APPLICATIONS CONFERENCE (ITNAC), IEEE , 2018, p. 392-397Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A large portion of today's network traffic consists of streamed video of large variety, such as films, television shows, live-streamed games and recently omnidirectional videos. A common way of delivering video is by using Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), or recently with encrypted HTTPS. Encrypted video streams disable the use of Quality of Service (QoS) systems that rely on knowledge of application-dependent data, such as video resolution and bit-rate. This could make it difficult for a party providing bandwidth to efficiently allocate resources and estimate customer satisfaction. An application-independent way of measuring video stream quality could be of interest for such a party. In this paper, we investigate encrypted streaming of omni-directional video via YouTube to a smartphone in a Google Cardboard VR-headset. We monitored such sessions, delivered via both WiFi and mobile networks, at different times of day, implying different levels of congestion, and characterised the network traffic by using the Coefficient of Throughput Variation (CoTV) as statistic. We observe that this statistic shows to be able to indicate whether a stream is stable or unstable, in terms of potential video playback freezes, when the DASH delivery strategy is used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE , 2018. p. 392-397
Keywords [en]
Virtual Reality, 360-videos, video streaming, Quality of Experience, video freezes, throughput statistics
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-17728DOI: 10.1109/ATNAC.2018.8615312ISI: 000459862300072Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85062191313ISBN: 978-1-5386-7177-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-17728DiVA, id: diva2:1297771
Conference
28th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC), Sydney, NOV 21-23
Part of project
VIATECH- Human-Centered Computing for Novel Visual and Interactive Applications, Knowledge FoundationAvailable from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Remote Rendering for VR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote Rendering for VR
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to study and advance technology relating to remote

rendering of Virtual Reality (VR). In remote rendering, rendered content is

commonly streamed as video images in network packets from a server to a

client. Experiments are conducted with varying networks and configurations

throughout this work as well as with different technologies that enable or improve

remote VR experiences.

As an introduction to the field, the thesis begins with related studies on

360-video. Here, a statistic based on throughput alone is proposed for use in

light-weight performance monitoring of encrypted HTTPS 360-video streams.

The statistic gives an indication of the potential of stalls in the video stream

which may be of use for network providers wanting to allocate bandwidth

optimally. Moving on from 360-video into real-time remote rendering, a wireless

VR adapter, TPCAST, is studied and a method for monitoring the inputand

video-throughput of this device is proposed and implemented. With the

monitoring tool, it is for example possible to identify video stalls that occur

in TPCAST and thus determine a baseline of its robustness in terms of video

delivery. Having determined the baseline, we move on to developing a prototype

remote rendering system for VR. The prototype has so far been used to study

the bitrate requirements of remote VR and to develop a novel method that

can be used to reduce the image size from a codec-perspective by utilizing the

Hidden Area Mesh (HAM) that is unique to VR. By reducing the image size,

codecs can run faster and time will therefore be saved each frame, potentially

reducing the latency of the system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2021. p. 114
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 6
Keywords
Remote rendering, VR, Virtual reality
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-21382 (URN)978-91-7295-423-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-06-22, Online, Karlskrona, 14:04 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20170056
Available from: 2021-05-06 Created: 2021-05-06 Last updated: 2021-07-01Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation and Reduction of Temporal Issues in Remote VR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation and Reduction of Temporal Issues in Remote VR
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to study and advance knowledge and technologies surrounding remote rendering of Virtual Reality (VR). In particular regarding temporal aspects such as latency and video stalling events. In remote rendering, rendered content is commonly streamed as video images in network packets from a server to a client. The main purpose is to be able to utilize the processing power available in stationary machines on thin clients that are otherwise limited by weight and size due to their mobility requirements. Achieving this process in real-time with excellent quality is not trivial in interactive VR due to the requirements on low latency and high visual fidelity. The dissertation brings to light the main challenges of the field as well as a set of new proposals and knowledge on the topic. 

As an introduction to the field, the dissertation begins with a study on 360-video streaming, which is a form of VR but less interactive. Moving on into real-time remote rendering, a commercial wireless VR adapter is studied and a method for monitoring its data traffic is proposed and implemented. The monitoring is able to provide a baseline in terms of video stalling events in a commercial remote-VR product. Moving on, a prototype remote renderer for VR is implemented using a proposed architecture, it is furthermore tested in various network conditions to determine under which conditions such remote rendering may be viable. Having constructed the remote renderer, a study is conducted that shows the effect of headset movements on the resulting video bitrate requirements in remote VR. Furthermore, a method that can reduce the codec image size in remote VR is proposed and its viability is tested with the prototype. Finally, two works are reported, in which human participants are involved, one for studying the subjective effects of video stalls in VR and one for studying the objective effects of hand-controller latency on aiming accuracy in VR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2023. p. 191
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 4
Keywords
Remote Rendering VR Network
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24388 (URN)978-91-7295-453-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-05-08, J1630, Valhallavägen 1, Karlskrona, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20170056
Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-04-18Bibliographically approved

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Kelkkanen, ViktorFiedler, Markus

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