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Mechanics and Failure in Thin Material Layers: Towards Realistic Package Opening Simulations
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The final goal of this PhD-work is an efficient and user-friendly finite element modelling strategy targeting an industrial available package opening application.  In order to reach this goal, different experimental mechanical and fracture mechanical tests were continuously refined to characterize the studied materials. Furthermore, the governing deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties involved in the opening sequence were quantified with full field experimental techniques to extract the intrinsic material response. An identification process to calibrate the material model parameters with inverse modelling analysis is proposed. Constitutive models, based on the experimental results for the two continuum materials, aluminium and polymer materials, and how to address the progressive damage modelling have been concerned in this work. The results and methods considered are general and can be applied in other industries where polymer and metal material are present.                                                                   

This work has shown that it is possible to select constitutive material models in conjunction with continuum material damage models, adequately predicting the mechanical behaviour in thin laminated packaging materials. Finally, with a slight modification of already available techniques and functionalities in a commercial general-purpose finite element software, it was possible to build a simulation model replicating the physical behaviour of an opening device. A comparison of the results between the experimental opening and the virtual opening model showed a good correlation.

The advantage with the developed modelling approach is that it is possible to modify the material composition of the laminate. Individual material layers can be altered, and the mechanical properties, thickness or geometrical shape can be changed. Furthermore, the model is flexible and a new opening design with a different geometry and load case can easily be implemented and changed in the simulation model. Therefore, this type of simulation model is prepared to simulate sustainable materials in packages and will be a useful tool for decision support early in the concept selection in technology and development projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2019. , p. 140
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 9
Keywords [en]
aluminium foil, FEM, LDPE, localisation, necking, polymer, progressive damage, semi-crystalline, simulation, virtual twin
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-17748ISBN: 978-91-7295-374-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-17748DiVA, id: diva2:1299762
Public defence
2019-05-29, J1650, BTH, Campus Gräsvik, Karlskrona, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Anisotropic Elastic-Viscoplastic Properties at Finite Strains of Injection-Moulded Low-Density Polyethylene
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anisotropic Elastic-Viscoplastic Properties at Finite Strains of Injection-Moulded Low-Density Polyethylene
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2018 (English)In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 75-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Injection-moulding is one of the most common manufacturing processes used for polymers. In many applications, the mechanical properties of the product is of great importance. Injection-moulding of thin-walled polymer products tends to leave the polymer structure in a state where the mechanical properties are anisotropic, due to alignment of polymer chains along the melt flow direction. The anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic properties of low-density polyethylene, that has undergone an injection-moulding process, are therefore examined in the present work. Test specimens were punched out from injection-moulded plates and tested in uniaxial tension. Three in-plane material directions were investigated. Because of the small thickness of the plates, only the in-plane properties could be determined. Tensile tests with both monotonic and cyclic loading were performed, and the local strains on the surface of the test specimens were measured using image analysis. True stress vs. true strain diagrams were constructed, and the material response was evaluated using an elastic-viscoplasticity law. The components of the anisotropic compliance matrix were determined together with the direction-specific plastic hardening parameters. © 2017 The Author(s)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer New York LLC, 2018
Keywords
Anisotropic, Constitutive behaviour, Elasticity, Injection-moulding, LDPE, Polyethylene, Tensile, Viscoplasticity, Anisotropy, Low density polyethylenes, Mechanical properties, Molding, Plasticity, Plates (structural components), Polyethylenes, Polymers, Strain, Tensile testing, Thin walled structures, Anisotropic elastic, Compliance matrixes, Elastic-viscoplasticity, Manufacturing process, Monotonic and cyclic loading, Injection molding
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15095 (URN)10.1007/s11340-017-0322-y (DOI)000418799700006 ()2-s2.0-85027718634 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20150165
Note

Open access

Available from: 2017-09-01 Created: 2017-09-01 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
2. Simulation of thin aluminium-foil in the packaging industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of thin aluminium-foil in the packaging industry
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2017 (English)In: AIP Conference Proceedings / [ed] Brabazon D.,Ul Ahad I.,Naher S., American Institute of Physics Inc. , 2017, Vol. 1896, article id 160014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work present an approach of how to account for the anisotropic mechanical material behaviour in the simulation models of the thin aluminium foil layer (≈10 μm) used in the Packaging Industry. Furthermore, the experimental results from uniaxial tensile tests are parameterised into an analytical expression and the slope of the hardening subsequently extended way beyond the experimental data points. This in order to accommodate the locally high stresses present in the experiments at the neck formation. An analytical expression, denominated Ramberg-Osgood, is used to describe the non-linear mechanical behaviour. Moreover it is possible with a direct method to translate the experimental uniaxial tensile test results into useful numerical material model parameters in Abaqus™. In addition to this the extended material behaviour including the plastic flow i.e. hardening, valid after onset of localisation, the described procedure can also capture the microscopic events, i.e. geometrical thinning, ongoing in the deformation of the aluminium foil. This method has earlier successfully been applied by Petri Mäkelä for paperboard material [1]. The engineering sound and parameterised description of the mechanical material behaviour facilitates an efficient categorisation of different aluminium foil alloys and aid the identification of the correct anisotropic (RD/TD/45°) mechanical material behaviour derived from the physical testing. © 2017 Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics Inc., 2017
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-15679 (URN)10.1063/1.5008189 (DOI)000419825000232 ()2-s2.0-85037691878 (Scopus ID)9780735415805 (ISBN)
Conference
20th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming, ESAFORM,Dublin
Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
3. Micro-mechanisms of a laminated packaging material during fracture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro-mechanisms of a laminated packaging material during fracture
2014 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Alternative title[sv]
Micro-mechanisms of a laminated packaging material during fracture
Abstract [en]

The micro-mechanisms of fracture in a laminate composed of an aluminium foil and a polymer film are considered in this study. The laminates as well as the individual layers, with and without premade centre-cracks, were tensile tested. Visual inspection of the broken cross-sections shows that failure occurs through localised plasticity. This leads to a decreasing and eventually vanishing cross-section ahead of the crack tip for both the laminate and their single constituent layers. Experimental results are examined and analysed using a slip-line theory to derive the work of failure. An accurate prediction was made for the aluminium foil and for the laminate but not for the freestanding polymer film. The reason seems to be that the polymer material switches to non-localised plastic deformation with significant strain-hardening.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Aluminium, Laminate, Polymer, SEM, Toughness
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6600 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2014.04.017 (DOI)000341551700023 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfo896ACA1E962E694BC1257D61006E5B27 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo896ACA1E962E694BC1257D61006E5B27 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo896ACA1E962E694BC1257D61006E5B27 (OAI)
Note
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013794414001210Available from: 2014-10-10 Created: 2014-09-28 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
4. Advancements in package opening simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advancements in package opening simulations
2014 (English)In: Procedia Materials Science / [ed] Zhang, Z; Skallerud, B; Thaulow, C; Ostby, E; He, J, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 3, p. 1441-1446Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The fracture mechanical phenomenon occurring during the opening of a beverage package is rather complex to simulate. Reliable and calibrated numerical material models describing thin layers of packaging materials are needed. Selection of appropriate constitutive models for the continuum material models and how to address the progressive damage modeling in various loading scenarios is also of great importance. The inverse modeling technique combined with video recording of the involved deformation mechanisms is utilized for identification of the material parameters. Large deformation, anisotropic non-linear material behavior, adhesion and fracture mechanics are all identified effects that are needed to be included in the virtual opening model. The results presented in this paper shows that it is possible to select material models in conjunction with continuum material damage models, adequately predicting the mechanical behavior of failure in thin laminated packaging materials. Already available techniques and functionalities in the commercial finite element software Abaqus are used. Furthermore, accurate descriptions of the included geometrical features are important. Advancements have therefore also been made within the experimental techniques utilizing a combination of microCT-scan, SEM and photoelasticity enabling extraction of geometries and additional information from ordinary experimental tests and broken specimens. Finally, comparison of the experimental opening and the virtual opening, showed a good correlation with the developed finite element modeling technique.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Abaqus, adhesion, constitutive model, opening simulation, progressive damage
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6611 (URN)10.1016/j.mspro.2014.06.233 (DOI)000398274600228 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfoAB636FE90962BF23C1257D61006CFFF4 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfoAB636FE90962BF23C1257D61006CFFF4 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoAB636FE90962BF23C1257D61006CFFF4 (OAI)
Conference
0th European Conference on Fracture (ECF), Trondheim
Note

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221181281400234X Open access journal

Available from: 2014-10-03 Created: 2014-09-28 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved

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