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EVALUATING PROTOTYPING SUPPORT IN EARLY TRANSFORMATIVE PSS DESIGN
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Blekinge Tekniska Högskola. (Product Development Research Lab)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0056-4562
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2211-2436
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. (Product Development Research Lab)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4875-391X
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. (Product Development Research Lab)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5114-4811
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2021 (English)In: Proceedings of Design Society 2021, Cambridge University Press, 2021, Vol. 1, p. 1411-1420Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Prototypes are an established tool for rapidly increasing learning, communication and decision making rationale for design projects. The proven success has spawned a litany of approaches and methods for building and planning the efficient planning and construction of prototypes. Translating these methods into simple usable tools to assist novice designers has generated broadly applicable canvases to support prototyping across the design process. Product Service System design has similarly introduced prototyping methods and tools into the process. Presently there is a lack of support for generating early phase tangible prototypes for functional PSS design aimed at more radically innovative solutions instead of currently dominant traditional products with traditional add-on services. This work explores the viability of utilizing existing prototyping support tools in the context of early PSS design through workshops with student designers and practitioners. The data from these workshops illuminates the alignments and misalignment gaps presented as guidelines to enable better support for early PSS designers. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2021. Vol. 1, p. 1411-1420
Series
Proceedings of the Design Society, ISSN 2732527X
Keywords [en]
Product-Service Systems (PSS), Prototyping Support, Early design phases, Conceptual design
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-22065DOI: 10.1017/pds.2021.141Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85117759690OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-22065DiVA, id: diva2:1589288
Conference
23rd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN, ICED21, Gothenburg, Sweden, 16th - 20th August, 2021
Part of project
Model Driven Development and Decision Support – MD3S, Knowledge Foundation
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20180159
Note

open access

Available from: 2021-08-31 Created: 2021-08-31 Last updated: 2023-08-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Innovation in a Changing World: Exploring PSS Design through Prototyping
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation in a Changing World: Exploring PSS Design through Prototyping
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Customers across all sectors have increasing expectations (e.g. value, efficiency, availability, quality, etc.) and expanding needs which traditional business models fail to address simultaneously and stand-alone products cannot be expected to solve. To expand the value provided to customers, manufacturers have begun adding services to their products through servitization. Similarly, service providers have begun adding products to expand their ability to capture market capacity. The end coupled product and service solutions have been classified as Product Service System (PSS) solutions. The challenge lies in defaulting to existing products or services as the starting point since these solutions can carry forward inefficiencies or limitations of legacy solutions. There is a recent proposal to integrate PSS design into a single process, rather than using separate design flows for products, services, and systems. This approach involves intentionally designing all elements together at the same time. Ideally, this approach will allow the most efficient existing and new products or services to be combined into a solution which produces exponentially more value than the sum of the individual elements. Realigning all components of a PSS from inception towards a function provides an opportunity to escape current product limitations and explore new solutions with potentially higher value. This approach becomes an increasingly wicked challenge of having a transformative view of the future solution scenario at the conceptual start of the design process while navigating the increased ambiguity brought forth due to the nature of PSS solution variability. A core tenet of the Design Thinking (DT) mindset prescribes extensive use of physical prototypes as a means to “dance with ambiguity” encouraging generative exploration in the early conceptual phases of design. This “show don’t tell” tenet of DT is incorporated in a novel way into what this research will define as "Intentional PSS design” through physical system prototypes to accomplish two primary objectives; Enabling internal consensus in a project team through rapid design space exploration and provoking Generative Design Questions from the various potential stakeholders up and down the future value chain. These prototypes enable co-creation of conceptual solutions that may not be technically possible today, but have enough impact potential to warrant deeper exploration and refinement to enable their evolution.    

The aim of this thesis is to explore the phenomenon of creating and utilizing physical prototypes in the conceptual phase of PSS design. The initial context and case studies are within the domain of construction equipment manufacturing. The resulting work produced a functional scale prototype of a future solution yielding valuable gains in co-creation and GDQs. Generating this prototype and understanding its impacts in the conceptual phase of the PSS design process is the phenomenon in question for the first half of the research. The second half of the research focuses on how to enable other designers to replicate the observed   prototyping qualities through various experimental means delivered via workshops.  

The work was performed in collaboration with a construction equipment manufacturer, conducting an exploration into the impacts of shifting towards autonomous electric machinery at a demonstrator production site. The thesis first depicts how the prototyping around the ancillary impacts and solutions leads to greater engagement from stakeholders regarding the new concepts. The later portion explores two methodological attempts at generalizing the process behind the creation of the demonstrator scale site as a boundary object for early phase exploration that are previously not accessible through current practices. This leads to the testing of the method in a broader perspective to represent tangible and intangible elements in a way that facilitates concept design decisions in interdisciplinary team settings. The thesis concludes by exploring the potential of utilizing the new workshop-based processes to move from an ambiguous asipirational goal towards an uncertain transformative PSS solution concept anchored by physical representations aiding concept generation, refinement and selection. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2023
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090
Keywords
Product-Service System Design, Design Thinking, Prototypes, Boundary Objects
National Category
Design
Research subject
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-25266 (URN)978-91-7295-463-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-08-14 Created: 2023-08-14 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved

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Ruvald, RyanLarsson, AndreasJohansson Askling, ChristianBertoni, AlessandroLarsson, Tobias

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