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Hand-Controller Latency and Aiming Accuracy in 6-DOF VR
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0536-7165
Ericsson, Sweden.
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8929-4911
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3604-2766
2023 (English)In: Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1687-5893, E-ISSN 1687-5907, article id 1563506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

All virtual reality (VR) systems have some inherent hand-controller latency even when operated locally. In remotely rendered VR, additional latency may be added due to the remote transmission of data, commonly conducted through shared low-capacity channels. Increased latency will negatively affect the performance of the human VR operator, but the level of detriment depends on the given task. This work quantifies the relations between aiming accuracy and hand-controller latency, virtual target speed, and the predictability of the target motion. The tested context involves a target that changes direction multiple times while moving in straight lines. The main conclusions are, given the tested context, first, that the predictability of target motion becomes significantly more important as latency and target speed increase. A significant difference in accuracy is generally observed at latencies beyond approximately 130 ms and at target speeds beyond approximately 3.5 degrees/s. Second, latency starts to significantly impact accuracy at roughly 90 ms and approximately 3.5 degrees/s if the target motion cannot be predicted. If it can, the numbers are approximately 130 ms and 12.7 degrees/s. Finally, reaction times are on average 190-200 ms when the target motion changes to a new and unpredictable direction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2023. article id 1563506
Keywords [en]
Tracking, Robot, Artificial intelligence
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-24387DOI: 10.1155/2023/1563506ISI: 001077344100001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85174505323OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-24387DiVA, id: diva2:1744889
Part of project
VIATECH- Human-Centered Computing for Novel Visual and Interactive Applications, Knowledge FoundationHINTS - Human-Centered Intelligent Realities
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20170056Knowledge Foundation, 20220068Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-11-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evaluation and Reduction of Temporal Issues in Remote VR
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation and Reduction of Temporal Issues in Remote VR
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to study and advance knowledge and technologies surrounding remote rendering of Virtual Reality (VR). In particular regarding temporal aspects such as latency and video stalling events. In remote rendering, rendered content is commonly streamed as video images in network packets from a server to a client. The main purpose is to be able to utilize the processing power available in stationary machines on thin clients that are otherwise limited by weight and size due to their mobility requirements. Achieving this process in real-time with excellent quality is not trivial in interactive VR due to the requirements on low latency and high visual fidelity. The dissertation brings to light the main challenges of the field as well as a set of new proposals and knowledge on the topic. 

As an introduction to the field, the dissertation begins with a study on 360-video streaming, which is a form of VR but less interactive. Moving on into real-time remote rendering, a commercial wireless VR adapter is studied and a method for monitoring its data traffic is proposed and implemented. The monitoring is able to provide a baseline in terms of video stalling events in a commercial remote-VR product. Moving on, a prototype remote renderer for VR is implemented using a proposed architecture, it is furthermore tested in various network conditions to determine under which conditions such remote rendering may be viable. Having constructed the remote renderer, a study is conducted that shows the effect of headset movements on the resulting video bitrate requirements in remote VR. Furthermore, a method that can reduce the codec image size in remote VR is proposed and its viability is tested with the prototype. Finally, two works are reported, in which human participants are involved, one for studying the subjective effects of video stalls in VR and one for studying the objective effects of hand-controller latency on aiming accuracy in VR.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2023. p. 191
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 4
Keywords
Remote Rendering VR Network
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-24388 (URN)978-91-7295-453-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-05-08, J1630, Valhallavägen 1, Karlskrona, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20170056
Available from: 2023-03-21 Created: 2023-03-21 Last updated: 2023-04-18Bibliographically approved

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Kelkkanen, ViktorFiedler, MarkusZepernick, Hans-Juergen

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