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Towards decision-making to choose among different component origins
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Context: The amount of software in solutions provided in various domains is continuously growing. These solutions are a mix of hardware and software solutions, often referred to as software-intensive systems. Companies seek to improve the software development process to avoid delays or cost overruns related to the software development.  

Objective: The overall goal of this thesis is to improve the software development/building process to provide timely, high quality and cost efficient solutions. The objective is to select the origin of the components (in-house, outsource, components off-the-shelf (COTS) or open source software (OSS)) that facilitates the improvement. The system can be built of components from one origin or a combination of two or more (or even all) origins. Selecting a proper origin for a component is important to get the most out of a component and to optimize the development. 

Method: It is necessary to investigate the component origins to make decisions to select among different origins. We conducted a case study to explore the existing challenges in software development.  The next step was to identify factors that influence the choice to select among different component origins through a systematic literature review using a snowballing (SB) strategy and a database (DB) search. Furthermore, a Bayesian synthesis process is proposed to integrate the evidence from literature into practice.  

Results: The results of this thesis indicate that the context of software-intensive systems such as domain regulations hinder the software development improvement. In addition to in-house development, alternative component origins (outsourcing, COTS, and OSS) are being used for software development. Several factors such as time, cost and license implications influence the selection of component origins. Solutions have been proposed to support the decision-making. However, these solutions consider only a subset of factors identified in the literature.   

Conclusions: Each component origin has some advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the scenario, one component origin is more suitable than the others. It is important to investigate the different scenarios and suitability of the component origins, which is recognized as future work of this thesis. In addition, the future work is aimed at providing models to support the decision-making process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2016. , 156 p.
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 2016:01
Keyword [en]
Component-based software development, component origin, decision-making, snowballing, database search, Bayesian synthesis
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Software Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-11653ISBN: 978-91-7295-323-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-11653DiVA: diva2:906551
Presentation
2016-04-13, J1650, Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Karlskrona, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2016-04-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Software Component Decision-making: In-house, OSS, COTS or Outsourcing: A Systematic Literature Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Software Component Decision-making: In-house, OSS, COTS or Outsourcing: A Systematic Literature Review
2016 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 121, 105-124 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Component-based software systems require decisions on component origins for acquiring components. A component origin is an alternative of where to get a component from. Objective: To identify factors that could influence the decision to choose among different component origins and solutions for decision-making (For example, optimization) in the literature. Method: A systematic review study of peer-reviewed literature has been conducted. Results: In total we included 24 primary studies. The component origins compared were mainly focused on in-house vs. COTS and COTS vs. OSS. We identified 11 factors affecting or influencing the decision to select a component origin. When component origins were compared, there was little evidence on the relative (either positive or negative) effect of a component origin on the factor. Most of the solutions were proposed for in-house vs. COTS selection and time, cost and reliability were the most considered factors in the solutions. Optimization models were the most commonly proposed technique used in the solutions. Conclusion: The topic of choosing component origins is a green field for research, and in great need of empirical comparisons between the component origins, as well of how to decide between different combinations of them.

Keyword
Component-based software engineering; COTS; Decision-making; In-house development; OSS; Outsourcing
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11759 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2016.07.027 (DOI)000384864500008 ()
Available from: 2016-03-18 Created: 2016-03-18 Last updated: 2016-11-15Bibliographically approved
2. Perspectives on Productivity and Delays in Large-Scale Agile Projects
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspectives on Productivity and Delays in Large-Scale Agile Projects
2013 (English)Conference paper, (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many large and distributed companies run agile projects in development environments that are inconsistent with the original agile ideas. Problems that result from these inconsistencies can affect the productivity of development projects and the timeliness of releases. To be effective in such contexts, the agile ideas need to be adapted. We take an inductive approach for reaching this aim by basing the design of the development process on observations of how context, practices, challenges, and impacts interact. This paper reports the results of an interview study of five agile development projects in an environment that was unfavorable for agile principles. Grounded theory was used to identify the challenges of these projects and how these challenges affected productivity and delays according to the involved project roles. Productivity and delay-influencing factors were discovered that related to requirements creation and use, collaboration, knowledge management, and the application domain. The practitioners’ explanations about the factors' impacts are, on one hand, a rich empirical source for avoiding and mitigating productivity and delay problems and, on the other hand, a good starting point for further research on flexible large-scale development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vienna, Austria: Springer, 2013
Keyword
Inductive process improvement, large-scale agile development, grounded theory.
National Category
Business Administration Human Aspects of ICT Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6363 (URN)000345323500013 ()oai:bth.se:forskinfo076F06B9D5822754C1257BC6001D5BFD (Local ID)978-3-642-38313-7 (ISBN)oai:bth.se:forskinfo076F06B9D5822754C1257BC6001D5BFD (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo076F06B9D5822754C1257BC6001D5BFD (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Agile Software Development
Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2016-03-21Bibliographically approved
3. Experiences from Using Snowballing and Database Searches in Systematic Literature Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences from Using Snowballing and Database Searches in Systematic Literature Studies
2015 (English)Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Background: Systematic literature studies are commonly used in software engineering. There are two main ways of conducting the searches for these type of studies; they are snowballing and database searches. In snowballing, the reference list (backward snowballing - BSB) and citations (forward snowballing - FSB) of relevant papers are reviewed to identify new papers whereas in a database search, different databases are searched using predefined search strings to identify new papers. Objective: Snowballing has not been in use as extensively as database search. Hence it is important to evaluate its efficiency and reliability when being used as a search strategy in literature studies. Moreover, it is important to compare it to database searches. Method: In this paper, we applied snowballing in a literature study, and reflected on the outcome. We also compared database search with backward and forward snowballing. Database search and snowballing were conducted independently by different researchers. The searches of our literature study were compared with respect to the efficiency and reliability of the findings. Results: Out of the total number of papers found, snowballing identified 83% of the papers in comparison to 46% of the papers for the database search. Snowballing failed to identify a few relevant papers, which potentially could have been addressed by identifying a more comprehensive start set. Conclusion: The efficiency of snowballing is comparable to database search. It can potentially be more reliable than a database search however, the reliability is highly dependent on the creation of a suitable start set.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACM Press, 2015
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11371 (URN)10.1145/2745802.2745818 (DOI)978-1-4503-3350-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Proceedings 19th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE 2015), Nanjing, China
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20140218
Available from: 2016-01-06 Created: 2016-01-06 Last updated: 2016-03-21Bibliographically approved
4. Towards decision-making to choose among different component origins
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards decision-making to choose among different component origins
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Context: The amount of software in solutions provided in various domains is continuously growing. These solutions are a mix of hardware and software solutions, often referred to as software-intensive systems. Companies seek to improve the software development process to avoid delays or cost overruns related to the software development.  

Objective: The overall goal of this thesis is to improve the software development/building process to provide timely, high quality and cost efficient solutions. The objective is to select the origin of the components (in-house, outsource, components off-the-shelf (COTS) or open source software (OSS)) that facilitates the improvement. The system can be built of components from one origin or a combination of two or more (or even all) origins. Selecting a proper origin for a component is important to get the most out of a component and to optimize the development. 

Method: It is necessary to investigate the component origins to make decisions to select among different origins. We conducted a case study to explore the existing challenges in software development.  The next step was to identify factors that influence the choice to select among different component origins through a systematic literature review using a snowballing (SB) strategy and a database (DB) search. Furthermore, a Bayesian synthesis process is proposed to integrate the evidence from literature into practice.  

Results: The results of this thesis indicate that the context of software-intensive systems such as domain regulations hinder the software development improvement. In addition to in-house development, alternative component origins (outsourcing, COTS, and OSS) are being used for software development. Several factors such as time, cost and license implications influence the selection of component origins. Solutions have been proposed to support the decision-making. However, these solutions consider only a subset of factors identified in the literature.   

Conclusions: Each component origin has some advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the scenario, one component origin is more suitable than the others. It is important to investigate the different scenarios and suitability of the component origins, which is recognized as future work of this thesis. In addition, the future work is aimed at providing models to support the decision-making process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2016. 156 p.
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 2016:01
Keyword
Component-based software development, component origin, decision-making, snowballing, database search, Bayesian synthesis
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11653 (URN)978-91-7295-323-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-04-13, J1650, Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Karlskrona, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2016-04-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards decision-making to choose among different component origins
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards decision-making to choose among different component origins
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Context: The amount of software in solutions provided in various domains is continuously growing. These solutions are a mix of hardware and software solutions, often referred to as software-intensive systems. Companies seek to improve the software development process to avoid delays or cost overruns related to the software development.  

Objective: The overall goal of this thesis is to improve the software development/building process to provide timely, high quality and cost efficient solutions. The objective is to select the origin of the components (in-house, outsource, components off-the-shelf (COTS) or open source software (OSS)) that facilitates the improvement. The system can be built of components from one origin or a combination of two or more (or even all) origins. Selecting a proper origin for a component is important to get the most out of a component and to optimize the development. 

Method: It is necessary to investigate the component origins to make decisions to select among different origins. We conducted a case study to explore the existing challenges in software development.  The next step was to identify factors that influence the choice to select among different component origins through a systematic literature review using a snowballing (SB) strategy and a database (DB) search. Furthermore, a Bayesian synthesis process is proposed to integrate the evidence from literature into practice.  

Results: The results of this thesis indicate that the context of software-intensive systems such as domain regulations hinder the software development improvement. In addition to in-house development, alternative component origins (outsourcing, COTS, and OSS) are being used for software development. Several factors such as time, cost and license implications influence the selection of component origins. Solutions have been proposed to support the decision-making. However, these solutions consider only a subset of factors identified in the literature.   

Conclusions: Each component origin has some advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the scenario, one component origin is more suitable than the others. It is important to investigate the different scenarios and suitability of the component origins, which is recognized as future work of this thesis. In addition, the future work is aimed at providing models to support the decision-making process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2016. 156 p.
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Licentiate Dissertation Series, ISSN 1650-2140 ; 2016:01
Keyword
Component-based software development, component origin, decision-making, snowballing, database search, Bayesian synthesis
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11653 (URN)978-91-7295-323-9 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-04-13, J1650, Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Karlskrona, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-02-24 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2016-04-13Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf