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Designing Electronic Waybill Solutions for Road Freight Transport
Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In freight transportation, a waybill is an important document that contains essential information about a consignment. The focus of this thesis is on a multi-purpose electronic waybill (e-Waybill) service, which can provide the functions of a paper waybill, and which is capable of storing, at least, the information present in a paper waybill. In addition, the service can be used to support other existing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services by utilizing on synergies with the existing services. Additionally, information entities from the e-Waybill service are investigated for the purpose of knowledge-building concerning freight flows.

A systematic review on state-of-the-art of the e-Waybill service reveals several limitations, such as limited focus on supporting ITS services. Five different conceptual e-Waybill solutions (that can be seen as abstract system designs for implementing the e-Waybill service) are proposed. The solutions are investigated for functional and technical requirements (non-functional requirements), which can potentially impose constraints on a potential system for implementing the e-Waybill service. Further, the service is investigated for information and functional synergies with other ITS services. For information synergy analysis, the required input information entities for different ITS services are identified; and if at least one information entity can be provided by an e-Waybill at the right location we regard it to be a synergy. Additionally, a service design method has been proposed for supporting the process of designing new ITS services, which primarily utilizes on functional synergies between the e-Waybill and different existing ITS services. The suggested method is applied for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service isto support the process of identifying when and where a consignment has been damaged and who was responsible when the damage occurred. Furthermore, information entities from e-Waybills are utilized for building improved knowledge concerning freight flows. A freight and route estimation method has been proposed for building improved knowledge, e.g., in national road administrations, on the movement of trucks and freight.

The results from this thesis can be used to support the choice of practical e-Waybill service implementation, which has the possibility to provide high synergy with ITS services. This may lead to a higher utilization of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions. Furthermore, the implemented e-Waybill service can be an enabler for collecting consignment and traffic data and converting the data into useful traffic information. In particular, the service can lead to increasing amounts of digitally stored data about consignments, which can lead to improved knowledge on the movement of freight and trucks. The knowledge may be helpful when making decisions concerning road taxes, fees, and infrastructure investments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlskrona: Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, 2016. , 210 p.
Series
Blekinge Institute of Technology Doctoral Dissertation Series, ISSN 1653-2090 ; 4
Keyword [en]
Electronic waybill, e-waybill, Intelligent transport system, ITS services, Freight transport
National Category
Computer Systems Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:bth-11775ISBN: 978-91-7295-326-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:bth-11775DiVA: diva2:915657
Public defence
2016-05-17, Ateljén, Biblioteksgatan 4, Karlshamn, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2016-08-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electronic Waybill Solutions: A Systemtic Review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic Waybill Solutions: A Systemtic Review
(English)In: Journal of Special Topics in Information Technology and Management, ISSN 1385-951X, E-ISSN 1573-7667Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

A critical component in freight transportation is the waybill, which is a transport document that has essential information about a consignment. Actors within the supply chain handle not only the freight but also vast amounts of information,which are often unclear due to various errors. An electronic waybill (e-Waybill) solution is an electronic replacement of the paper waybill in a better way, e.g., by ensuring error free storage and flow of information. In this paper, a systematic review using the snowball method is conducted to investigate the state-of-the-art of e-Waybill solutions. After performing three iterations of the snowball process,we identified eleven studies for further evaluation and analysis due to their strong relevancy. The studies are mapped in relation to each other and a classification of the e-Waybill solutions is constructed. Most of the studies identified from our review support the benefits of electronic documents including e-Waybills. Typically, most research papers reviewed support EDI (Electronic Documents Interchange) for implementing e-Waybills. However, limitations exist due to high costs that make it less affordable for small organizations. Recent studies point to alternative technologies that we have listed in this paper. Additionally in this paper, we present from our research that most studies focus on the administrative benefits, but few studies investigate the potential of e-Waybill information for achieving services, such as estimated time of arrival and real-time tracking and tracing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-11774 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved
2. Analysis of information synergy between e-Waybill solutions and intelligent transport system services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of information synergy between e-Waybill solutions and intelligent transport system services
2013 (English)In: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 4, no 2-3, 123-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a study on information synergy between an electronic waybill (e-Waybill) and intelligent transportation system (ITS) services. A waybill is an important transport document, and it contains essential information about a consignment. We consider five e-Waybill solutions, which differ in where the e-Waybill information is stored, read, and written. We analyse 20 ITS services, and for each of them, the required input entities that can be provided by an e-Waybill are identified, and the synergy with each of the e-Waybill solutions is determined based on the location of the e-Waybill information. The analysis shows that e-Waybill solutions with storage at the freight-level enable the highest information synergy with ITS services. Our result may support the implementation of practical e-Waybill systems that provide high synergy with ITS services, which may lead to higher utilisation of ITS services and more sustainable transport, e.g., in terms of reduced congestion and emissions

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Inderscience, 2013
Keyword
E-Waybill, Electronic waybill, Information synergy, Intelligent transport systems services, ITS services
National Category
Software Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6752 (URN)10.1504/WRITR.2013.058978 (DOI)oai:bth.se:forskinfo80EF7698D161F098C1257CA60034FD94 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfo80EF7698D161F098C1257CA60034FD94 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfo80EF7698D161F098C1257CA60034FD94 (OAI)
Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved
3. Technical Requirements of the e-Waybill Service
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technical Requirements of the e-Waybill Service
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Computer and Communication Engineering, ISSN 2010-3743, ISSN 2010-3743, Vol. 5, no 2, 130-140 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An electronic waybill (e-Waybill) is a service whose purpose is to replace the paper waybill, which is a paper documents that traditionally follows a consignment during transport. An important purpose of the e-Waybill is to achieve a paperless flow of information during freight transport. In this paper, we investigate five e-Waybill solutions, that is, system design specifications for the e-Waybill, regarding their non-functional (technical) requirements. In addition, we discuss how well existing technologies are able to fulfil the identified requirements. We have identified that information storage, synchronization and conflict management, access control, and communication are important categories of technical requirements of the e-Waybill service. We argue that the identified technical requirements can be used to support the process of designing and implementing the e-Waybill service.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
San Bernardino, CA: International Academy Publishing (IAP), 2016
Keyword
E-Waybill, e-Waybill service, system design, technical requirements.
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10874 (URN)10.17706/IJCCE.2016.5.2.130-140 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-10-25 Created: 2015-10-25 Last updated: 2017-04-03Bibliographically approved
4. A Simulation Study of the Electronic Waybill Service
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Simulation Study of the Electronic Waybill Service
2015 (English)In: Proceedings - EMS 2015: UKSim-AMSS 9th IEEE European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation / [ed] David Al-Dabas, Gregorio Romero, Alessandra Orsoni, Athanasios Pantelous, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, 307-312 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present results from a simulation study, whichwas designed for investigating the potential positive impacts, i.e., the invoicing and processing time, and financial savings,when using an electronic waybill instead of paper waybillsfor road-based freight transportation. The simulation modelis implemented in an experiment for three different scenarios,where the processing time for waybills at the freight loadingand unloading locations in a particular scenario differs fromother scenarios. The results indicate that a saving of 65%–99%in the invoicing time can be achieved when using an electronicwaybill instead of paper waybills. Our study can be helpful todecision makers, e.g., managers and staff dealing with paperwaybills, to estimate the potential benefits when making deci-sions concerning the implementation of an electronic waybillsolution for replacing paper waybills.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keyword
Freight transportation; Invoicing time; Simulation; Waybill
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10878 (URN)10.1109/EMS.2015.53 (DOI)9781509002061 (ISBN)
Conference
9th UKSim-AMSS IEEE European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation, EMS
Available from: 2015-10-25 Created: 2015-10-25 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
5. A synergy based method for designing ITS services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A synergy based method for designing ITS services
2013 (English)In: international Journal of Advanced Logistics, ISSN 2287-7592, Vol. 2, no 2, 45-54 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we propose a method for supporting the process of designing Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services, which utilizes on primarily functional synergies with already existing services. Using synergies between services will enable sharing of resources, such as, information entities, functions and technical resources, which in turn may lead to reduced costs for implementing services. The method is built around an existing service description framework, which is used to describe both existing services and the service to be designed. In order to illustrate the usage of the suggested method, we have applied it for designing a new ITS service, i.e., the Liability Intelligent Transport System (LITS) service. The purpose of the LITS service is to support the process of identifying when, where and why freight has been damaged, and which actor was responsible when the freight was damaged. The LITS service may lead to better quality control of consignments and may also facilitate the identification of which actor was responsible for the freight damage, which is of particular interest in multi-modal transport. By applying our service design method we were able to identify that three out of four functions of the LITS service already exist in other existing ITS services. Therefore, the LITS service can be designed based on synergies with these services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keyword
freight damage, e-Waybill, ITS services, services synergy, service design method
National Category
Computer Science Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-6522 (URN)10.1080/2287108X.2013.11006086 (DOI)oai:bth.se:forskinfoB854C49CC15108A9C1257C3500396810 (Local ID)oai:bth.se:forskinfoB854C49CC15108A9C1257C3500396810 (Archive number)oai:bth.se:forskinfoB854C49CC15108A9C1257C3500396810 (OAI)
Available from: 2014-11-28 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2017-03-13Bibliographically approved
6. Freight transport prediction using electronic waybills and machine learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freight transport prediction using electronic waybills and machine learning
2014 (English)In: 2014 International Conference on Informative and Cybernetics for Computational Social Systems, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, 128-133 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A waybill is a document that accompanies the freight during transportation. The document contains essential information such as, origin and destination of the freight, involved actors, and the type of freight being transported. We believe, the information from a waybill, when presented in an electronic format, can be utilized for building knowledge about the freight movement. The knowledge may be helpful for decision makers, e.g., freight transport companies and public authorities. In this paper, the results from a study of a Swedish transport company are presented using order data from a customer ordering database, which is, to a larger extent, similar to the information present in paper waybills. We have used the order data for predicting the type of freight moving between a particular origin and destination. Additionally, we have evaluated a number of different machine learning algorithms based on their prediction performances. The evaluation was based on their weighted average true-positive and false-positive rate, weighted average area under the curve, and weighted average recall values. We conclude, from the results, that the data from a waybill, when available in an electronic format, can be used to improve knowledge about freight transport. Additionally, we conclude that among the algorithms IBk, SMO, and LMT, IBk performed better by predicting the highest number of classes with higher weighted average values for true-positive and false-positive, and recall.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Keyword
machine learning; Waybill; freight mobility; IBk; SMO; LMT
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10875 (URN)10.1109/ICCSS.2014.6961829 (DOI)000358127600024 ()978-1-4799-4753-9 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Informative and Cybernetics for Computational Social Systems, Qingdao, Shandong, China
Available from: 2015-10-25 Created: 2015-10-25 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved
7. A Data Mining Based Method for Route and Freight Estimation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Data Mining Based Method for Route and Freight Estimation
2015 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 52, 396-403 p.Conference paper, (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present a method, which makes use of historical vehicle data and current vehicle observations in order to estimate 1) the route a vehicle has used and 2) the freight the vehicle carried along the estimated route. The method includes a learning phase and an estimation phase. In the learning phase, historical data about the movement of a vehicle and of the consignments allocated to the vehicle are used in order to build estimation models: one for route choice and one for freight allocation. In the estimation phase, the generated estimation models are used together with a sequence of observed positions for the vehicle as input in order to generate route and freight estimates. We have partly evaluated our method in an experimental study involving a medium-size Swedish transport operator. The results of the study indicate that supervised learning, in particular the algorithm Naive Bayes Multinomial Updatable, shows good route estimation performance even when significant amount of information about where the vehicle has traveled is missing. For the freight estimation, we used a method based on averaging the consignments on the historical known trips for the estimated route. We argue that the proposed method might contribute to building improved knowledge, e.g., in national road administrations, on the movement of trucks and freight.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Series
Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509 ; Vol. 52
Keyword
Route estimation; freight estimation; supervised learning; Naive Bayes multinomial
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:bth-10877 (URN)10.1016/j.procs.2015.05.004 (DOI)000361567100048 ()
Conference
The 6th International Conference on Ambient Systems, Networks and Technologies (ANT-2015), London
Available from: 2015-10-25 Created: 2015-10-25 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved

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