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  • 1.
    Abdalameir, Hussein
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Daher, Maher
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Standardization of interfaces for electrical cabinets: How to optimize time saving and cost efficiency for electrical cabinets in submarines2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In general, it is very complicated to build submarines. There are many parts and equipment that must be in place, and there are tight spaces on the boat. As submarine development progresses and new modern concepts take shape, the installation of new equipment on board becomes more complex, placing higher demands on well-defined interfaces, both geometrically and logically. The approach to electrical cabinets today is to run the cables from the bottom or top through a cable transit system, and only after the cabinet is installed on the submarine can the cables be installed in the proper terminals. This means that the installation takes a lot of time and combined with the fact that there are so many cables sticking out of the cable grommet, the work becomes even more superficial as installers are also constrained by the tight space. Sometimes workers also must move around to make room for others to pass through other parts of the submarine. This means that workers must leave their jobs and move before resuming their work. The following can happen several times a day, which means more time is needed to install electrical cabinets on the submarine.

     

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop and design a solution that is a standardized interface for equipment in the form of electrical cabinets that are present and used in submarines. In this way, the solution must be able to satisfy the different interfaces of the devices that the different subcontractors provide to the company. The created proposals must be illustrated with a CAD software to visualize the concept.

     

    Methodology: The research methodology used in this project is a combination of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and Design Thinking (DT).

     

    Result: The result presents a solution (ISO-box) that shows that it is possible to reduce and optimize the time to install the cabinet once the cabinet is permanently mounted on the submarine. The solution is presented in the form of a CAD model. The model is set up so that all the cables coming from the cable transit system have an adapter at the end, which has a counterpart in a box to the cabinet that is installed on the submarine. Then when the cabinet is assembled, all that must be done is to plug the right connector into the right place in this box. The box has colors for the connectors and numbering that makes it easier for the installer to know which adapter to use.

     

    Conclusions: The work shows that it is quite possible to change the current solution so that less time is needed in the final assembly of the cabinets. It will be easier to just connect the contacts and then leave room for others to pass in the confined spaces. It will also be easier to maintain, as the installer can replace broken contacts as the solution is modular, and there is the possibility of installing new equipment with ISO-box if necessary.

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  • 2.
    Abdallah, Lana
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Persson, Mattias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    The effects of environmental uncertainty conditions on organisational innovativeness and performance of SMEs.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Innovativeness is considered to be an important factor for firm’s survival and their ability to compete in today’s market. Therefore, researchers have become more interested in studying innovativeness and its drivers. Studies have also showed that there’s a positive relationship between environmental uncertainty and innovativeness. Organisations are responsive to turbulent environments through innovativeness in order to stay competitive and improve performance. The purpose of this thesis is to rank critical environmental factor’s effect on organisational innovativeness of small and medium enterprises in Sweden, through investigating the impact of market/demand turbulence and technological turbulence on innovativeness. Additionally, we want to examine the relationship between innovativeness and business performance, as well as the indirect relationship between environmental uncertainty and performance. Based on previous literature, we have developed hypotheses and proposed a research model to study the formulated problems. Data for the study were collected from 50 SMEs in Sweden, through a survey with well-known scales and were analysed using regression analysis. The results of the study, reveal that environmental uncertainty has a positive effect on the innovativeness of SMEs. In addition, technological turbulence showed to have a positive significant effect on an SME’s innovativeness; however, contrary to general belief, market/demand turbulence did not have any prominent effect. Our findings also proved that innovativeness have a strong positive impact on business performance, and that only technological turbulence have an indirect influence on performance through innovativeness. This study aimed to contribute to the management a better understanding, of which conditions of environmental turbulences SMEs should adapt to, in order to increase their level of innovativeness. Keywords: environmental uncertainty, organizational innovativeness, performance, market/demand turbulence, technological turbulence, SMEs.

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  • 3.
    Aco, Dekan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Tillverkningsekonomisk utvärdering av återvinning och återanvändning av blyfri mässing2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is part of a larger project (Evochip), conducted at Lund University, faculty of engineering, Industrial Production Department (iProd). The project is in collaboration with AB Markaryds metallarmatur and Mistra innovation. In this work, a dynamic cost model has been developed to calculate the manufacturing costs of components made from recycled chips of lead-free brass from the manufacturing processes of AB Markaryds metallarmatur (MMA).

    In the current situation, all rejected details and waste materials are sent to the material supplier in southern Europe for recycling. The transport takes place by trucks and the recycling process is based on an energy-intensive melting step. Development projects are currently underway to reuse the chips without melting at sight at MMA´s facilities, but the cost per detail has been unknown for the company. With the help of this thesis, the manufacturing price will be presented. The manufacturing process is divided into a total of 11 different processing stations. To estimate the costs, Jan-Eric Ståhl's dynamic cost model is used. Necessary data and information have been collected using interviews with the employees of the company and through the company's own documentation regarding the production lines. In order to reduce the error margin in the results, suitable Monte Carlo simulations have been performed.

    The work is also based on a sustainability perspective. In addition to eliminating transportations by trucks and energy-intensive melting processes for the products, the work also promotes the use and reuse of lead-free brass by pressing metal chips to form new bars. All this in order to avoid leaded brass components due to the negative health effects caused by the lead.

    The component investigated in this work is a radiator valve called EVO 10. The valve is found in the company's lead-free standard range. The cost model in this project is dynamic to the extent that it could be applied in the future to other lead-free brass components at MMA.

    A comparison of two different concepts is presented in the results section. Concept one represents the current manufacturing system, and concept two, the future compacting technology. Since many of the processing steps are the same for both systems, a comparison was made between the productions of the pellet through the two different concepts. The results show that pellets made according to today's manufacturing system cost 12.75 SEK / detail, and pellets manufactured according to concept two costs 9.61 SEK / detail.

    As concept two is dependent on chips from today's manufacturing system, MMA cannot completely switch to compacting chips to new pellets. More work must be done to find a balanced model between the two different manufacturing systems for the best possible results.The results from the Monte Carlo-simulations shows that the manufacturing cost with the chosen parameters and variables is 12.96 SEK/detail.

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  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Erika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Automatiseringskonstruktion till mätfixtur2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    BTH2019Adolfsson
  • 5.
    Agenyi, Benjamin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Mobile Banking and Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries:A case study of Nigeria2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify ways by which entrepreneurial mobile banking growth could be accelerated in developing countries. An exploratory research method was adopted to identify the facilitators and obstacles to entrepreneurial mobile banking. The finding reveals some facilitators which include government policies and efforts of donor agencies, stiffer competition among banks, need for efficiency and lower cost, telecoms focus on customers retention. While some obstacles include conservative and vague regulation, security issues, underdeveloped infrastructures, lack of interoperability and lack of basic need for financial services. The main contribution of this study is the concise identification of the facilitators and obstacles to entrepreneurial mobile banking especially in developing countries. Suggestion for further study was made. The findings could be useful to policy-makers, donor agencies and other development partners in designing and directing their policies intervention

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  • 6.
    Aisvaran, Chandramohan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Study of non-linear strain path in sheet metal forming2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, Sheet Metal Forming (SMF) is not just limited to increasing demand from automobile industries but also to various other manufacturing industries that utilize sheet metal forming processes. The surplus demands for optimised manufacturing products warrant the need for an extended decisive study on SMF. 

    One such area of study in SMF is formability. Traditionally, formability is predicted using the conventional Forming Limit Curve (FLC). But when it comes to complex SMF processes, FLC failure model can sometimes overestimate (for low uniaxial straining) or underestimate (for bi-axial straining) failure. This thesis focuses on suitable test procedures to generate non-linear strain paths and prediction of formability using the concept of Generalized Forming Limit Curve (GFLC). Initially, through systematic literature review, two-step process is chosen as the test procedure in this thesis. The test procedure was simulated in LS-Dyna to obtain results which are then used by GFLC concept to predict formability for a bi-linear deformation history. The predicted formability using the concept of GFLC is then compared with the predicted formability using FE-simulation and using experimentation.  The found percent error for GFLC prediction compared to that of FE-simulation prediction is 11% and the percent error for GFLC prediction and experimentation prediction is 14%. However, these two predictions can not be used to validate the GFLC prediction. This is because in this thesis GFLC procedure uses data obtained from FE-simulation with GISSMO failure model. Through literature, it is identified that the GFLC concept can be applied for multi-linear deformation histories to predict formability and the method to do so is explained in detail in this thesis. Finally, it is concluded that the use of the GFLC concept in conjunction with the two-step drawing process to predict formability for bi-linear deformation history is acceptable.

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  • 7.
    ALAMSETTY, SREETEJA
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    VEMURI, SAITEJA
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Springback Analysis of Aluminium Alloy 2024 in Flex-forming Process2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Allesson, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Sheet Metal Forming Simulations with Elastic Dies: Emphasis on Computational Cost2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The car industry produces many of their car parts by using sheet metal forming, where one of the most time-consuming phases is the development and manufacturing of new forming tools. As of today, when a new tool is to be evaluated in terms of usability, a forming simulation is conducted to predict possible failures before manufacturing. The assumption is then that the tools are rigid, and the only deformable part is the sheet metal itself. This is however not the case, since the tools also deform during the forming process. A previous research, which is the basis of this thesis, included a model with only elastic tools and showed results of high accuracy in comparison to using a rigid setup. However, this simulation is not optimal to implement for a daily based usage, since it requires high computational power and has a long simulation time. 

    The aim and scope for this thesis is to evaluate how a sheet metal forming simulation with elastic tool consideration can be reduced in terms of computational cost, by using the software LS-DYNA. A small deviation of the forming result is acceptable and the aim is to run the simulation with a 50-75 % reduction of time on fewer cores than the approximate 14 hours and 800 CPUs that the simulation requires today.

    The first step was to alter the geometry of the tools and evaluate the impact on the deformations of the blank. The elastic solid parts that only has small deformations are deleted and replaced by rigid surfaces, making the model partly elastic. Later, different decomposition methods are studied to determine what kind that makes the simulation run faster. At last, a scaling analysis is conducted to determine the range of computational power that is to be used to run the simulations as efficient as possible, and what part of the simulation that is affecting the simulation time the most.

    The correlation of major strain deviation between a fully elastic model and a partly elastic model showed results of high accuracy, as well as comparison with production measurements of a formed blank. The computational time is reduced by over 90 % when using approximately 65 % of the initial computational power. If the simulations are run with even less number of cores, 10 % of the initial number of CPUs, the simulation time is reduced by over 70 %.

    The conclusion of this work is that it is possible to run a partly elastic sheet metal forming simulation much more efficient than using a fully elastic model, without reliability problems of the forming results. This by reducing the number of elements, evaluate the decomposition method and by conducting a scaling analysis to evaluate the efficiency of computational power.

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  • 9.
    An, Hai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Gu, Lujun
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Main Success Factors for Developing Car-sharing in China2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 10.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Measuring the contact pressure during sheet metal forming of automotive components2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The competition in the car market in the world is continuously intensifying. To gain an advantage in the market while making a profit, each car manufacturer needs a strong focus on always improving in the technology development. It is not just technology of the cars that need development, but it is equally important to improve the manufacturing processes itself. In the end, this will result in more appealing products for the customer at a competitive cost.

    The aim and scope of this master thesis is to get a deeper understanding of the forces in the stamping die during sheet metal forming in manufacturing. By using strain gauges and microcontrollers, the forces during the entire forming process could be measured and analyzed. The relationship between the force on the pressure pins in the die and the length of the pressure pins was also investigated by adding shims on the pressure pins.

    A modular system using Arduino Uno with 3D-printed parts was developed to measure the forces in the blank holder during sheet metal forming. An Arduino software system and TeraTerm was found the most appropriate for collecting and organizing data from the strain gauge sensors and microcontrollers. Tests were then conducted using different settings of the press, and these showed that the forces in the blank holder were uneven. Adding shims to the pins so that they were all of equal length evened out the forces in the blank holder. Another test showed that adding more shims to only one of the pins increased the force in that pin, and that adding 0.5mm of shims to that pin more than doubled the maximum force.

    The system developed in this thesis can measure the forces in the blank holder during the sheet forming process at a lower speed of production. This system can also detect different force settings in the press. Lastly, it can also detect a difference in force for different pressure pin lengths.

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  • 11.
    Andersson, Carolina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Fritidsbåt för alla2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett fysiskt handikapp kan innebära stora begränsningar i livet. För de som sitter i rullstol kan det vara mycket svårt eller till och med omöjligt att förflytta sig dit de vill och få uppleva aktiviteter som personer utan handikapp tar för givet. Det här kandidatarbetet har haft som syfte att ta fram en handikappanordning som ska göra det möjligt för rullstolsburna att kunna ta sig ombord och iland från fritidsbåtar. Det finns redan olika lösningar på marknaden som syftar till att möjliggöra en sådan förflyttning, men målet med det här arbetet har varit att ta fram en lösning som är annorlunda jämfört med de befintliga lösningarna framförallt vad gäller möjligheten till att använda den från båten istället för från kaj, samt att den ska kunna installeras till en rimlig kostnad och dess design ska passa flertalet fritidsbåtar utan alltför stora krav på båtens utformning. 

    Det viktigaste kravet på produkten är att den ska vara säker att använda. Det får inte föreligga någon risk för personskada. Andra krav som ställdes upp när problembeskrivningen arbetades fram är att anordningen ska vara enkel att använda. Installationen ska vara möjlig att göra i flertalet fritidsbåtar till en rimlig kostnad. Detta för att ett plötsligt behov av rullstolsanpassning inte nödvändigtvis ska behöva innebära inköp av en ny båt. Produkten ska vara hållbar (kunna vara monterad och användas under många år) och inte kräva service under den primära utnyttjandeperioden (under sommaren). Under utvecklingen togs hänsyn till miljöaspekter i val av tillverkningsmetoder och materialval. 

    Det slutliga produktförslaget, som arbetats fram efter att ha gjort flertalet analyser och utvärderingar av på marknaden befintliga lösningar, är en mast som monteras i durken på båten. Masten har ett stödben som placeras på bryggan/kaj, vilket ger stabilitet och därmed hög säkerhet för användaren. Detta då motorbåtar inte har en köl som kan fungera som motvikt för den sidobelastning som ombordstigningen innebär. 

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Eric
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Kostero, Yousef
    Produktutveckling av momentomvandlare för underlättning av bildäcksbyte2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 13.
    Andersson, Isac
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av beräkningsmalltill ramar belastade med rör2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Utveckling av beräkningsmall till ramar belastade med rör
  • 14.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lu, Anqi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Elektriskt drivsystem för tandemvält: En utvecklingsprocess2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle har det blivit mer och mer populärt med miljövänliga lösningar. Inom detta område har fordonsindustrin utmärkt sig de senaste åren genom utvecklandet av eldrivna bilar. Därför börjar även företagen som utvecklar tunga maskiner bli intresserade av att börja utveckla mer miljövänliga produkter.

     

    Syftet med arbetet som vi utfört i samarbete med Dynapac Compaction Equipment AB i Karlskrona har varit att utveckla ett koncept till en lösning av ett miljövänligt drivsystem för deras minsta tandemvält. Det är tänkt att motsvara den vardagliga prestationen av det dieseldrivna systemet, utan att bli för dyrt, samt undvika att använda specialbeställda produkter.

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  • 15. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A case study of how knowledge based engineering tools support experience re-use2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A manufacturing company’s unique intellectual capital is to a large extent built on experience from its own product development and manufacturing processes. Thus, methods and tools to utilize and benefit from this experience in an efficient way have an impact on a company’s ability to stay competitive and advance on the global market. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) is an engineering methodology to capture engineering knowledge systematically into the design system. Hence, KBE tools are considered to support experience re-use and improve engineering activities. This paper presents the results from a study where the objective was to investigate the support for experience re-use in KBE applications in an aerospace company. A proposed framework is presented to analyze the capturing and use of experience in a company’s processes identifying gaps and propose improvements. The study revealed weaknesses in the process steps for experience feedback which can be used to improve KBE applications further.

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  • 16.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Lindström, Tommy
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Käck, Britta
    Altair Engineering AB, SWE.
    Malmberg, Christoffer
    Saab AB, SWE.
    Asp, Ann Magret
    Tetra Pak AB, SWE.
    Simulation of thin aluminium-foil in the packaging industry2017In: AIP Conference Proceedings / [ed] Brabazon D.,Ul Ahad I.,Naher S., American Institute of Physics Inc. , 2017, Vol. 1896, article id 160014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work present an approach of how to account for the anisotropic mechanical material behaviour in the simulation models of the thin aluminium foil layer (≈10 μm) used in the Packaging Industry. Furthermore, the experimental results from uniaxial tensile tests are parameterised into an analytical expression and the slope of the hardening subsequently extended way beyond the experimental data points. This in order to accommodate the locally high stresses present in the experiments at the neck formation. An analytical expression, denominated Ramberg-Osgood, is used to describe the non-linear mechanical behaviour. Moreover it is possible with a direct method to translate the experimental uniaxial tensile test results into useful numerical material model parameters in Abaqus™. In addition to this the extended material behaviour including the plastic flow i.e. hardening, valid after onset of localisation, the described procedure can also capture the microscopic events, i.e. geometrical thinning, ongoing in the deformation of the aluminium foil. This method has earlier successfully been applied by Petri Mäkelä for paperboard material [1]. The engineering sound and parameterised description of the mechanical material behaviour facilitates an efficient categorisation of different aluminium foil alloys and aid the identification of the correct anisotropic (RD/TD/45°) mechanical material behaviour derived from the physical testing. © 2017 Author(s).

  • 17.
    Anjorin, Joshua Adetunji
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Ravi, Poornima Vandhana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Management.
    Business Models: Assessment of the dynamic aspects and non-dynamic aspects2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this thesis was to identify and also compare dynamic issues in different business models. Findings: The thesis explored seven components of the business model including goals, scope, key activities, key resources, value proposition, customer relationship and channels. It thoroughly assessed how the sensing, seizing and transforming capabilities of the firm could be used to bring dynamism to each component and to the overall organisation’s business model. A review of the practical circumstances of three big corporations was conducted. The results included the discovery of interconnectivity and mutual dependence of the business model components, as well as some potentially linear and iterative relationships. Some components were found to foster dynamism, while some others were discovered to have the potential to impede dynamism. While the complexity and diversity of organisations’ business models was recognized, a simple framework for a dynamic business model was formulated. Research Implications: This research contributes to the understanding of dynamism of business models especially in regards to the dynamic and non-dynamic aspects of individual components. It also further highlights the need for further research on how organisations can practically make their business models dynamic through exploiting their dynamic capabilities. Practical Implications: These findings could be applied to multinationals in various industries. While companies of all sizes and in all industries could also find it useful, it should be noted that the empirical studies were conducted on multinationals. The findings could be useful in mapping out the business models through components that are easy to understand and assessing their related aspects of dynamism. Thus managers should be able to identify components of the business model that fosters dynamism, those that could hamper dynamism and how their dynamic capabilities could be exploited. Key Words: Business Model Innovation, Dynamic Capabilities, Strategy

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  • 18.
    Asbjorn Sorensen, Charlotte
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola, SWE.
    Warell, Anders
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Jagtap, Santosh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Material selection: A qualitative case study of five design consultancies2017In: DS87-1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 1: RESOURCE SENSITIVE DESIGN, DESIGN RESEARCH APPLICATIONS AND CASE STUDIES / [ed] Maier, A; Skec, S; Kim, H; Kokkolaras, M; Oehmen, J; Fadel, G; Salustri, F; VanDerLoos, M, The Design Society, 2017, no DS87-1, p. 439-448, article id DS87-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative case study aims at understanding when and how industrial designers, working in design consultancies, engage in activities that will influence material selection in the design process. While the extant literature presents material selection processes as a sequence of activities aimed at finding candidate materials, there is paucity of research on material criteria activities. Formulating material criteria is an activity that is performed during all design phases and they become clearer and more complete throughout the project. For the case studies, explorative semi-structured interviews were conducted with five industrial designers with 10 years of work experience or more. The results suggest (a) that risk management has a major influence on the material selection process, (b) that negotiations of project boundaries in the 'fuzzy' pre-design phase has crucial influence on the risk management aspect of the material criteria activities, and (c) a lack of awareness that design briefs usually outline material criteria expressed as sensorial characteristics, which are later translated by engineering into final material criteria used for the material selection process.

  • 19.
    Asbjörn Sörensen, Charlotte
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola, SWE.
    Jagtap, Santosh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Warell, Anders
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    A shift from technical properties towards sensorial characteristics in product design education2017In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education:: Building Community: Design Education for a Sustainable Future / [ed] Gulden T.,Pavel N.,Kovacevic A.,Buck L.,Bohemia E.,Berg A., Institution of Engineering Designers, The Design Society , 2017, p. 388-393Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a new pedagogic approach implemented in a compulsory materials course for product design students at bachelors level at ABC University. When developing a new curriculum for the material course, a decision was made to teach materials and production methods in a contextualized setting with emphasis on how students can deal with materials in a design process. Methods can be seen as mental tools that aid the design students in navigating complexity and offers them a structure to deal with unfamiliar territories. After an evaluation, some methods, guidelines and tools were selected to integrate in the compulsory materials course for the product design students, e.g. the Expressive-Sensorial Atlas [1], Meaning Driven Materials Selection [2] and the Material Driven Design method [3]. The implementation is made in two steps in order to test, evaluate and further develop a framework for teaching materials courses to product design students. The study evaluate the first step of implementation in general, and the implementation of the Material Driven Design method in particular. It is hoped that this research can contribute to further development of pedagogical approaches for teaching materials and production methods in a contextualized setting for product design students at bachelors level.

  • 20.
    Bafana, Ramzi
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Zulfiqar, Zain
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Solar Energy2014Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about Photovoltaic (PV) cells and its stresses in various directions by calculating the power generated using solar cells under different conditions to improve its efficiency. Our research studies found that using multi-junction cells with larger substrates can increase the efficiency to some extent which in practice is limited to 43 percent. The experiment was conducted using ten solar cells each with an area of 20.9〖cm〗 ^2, where each cell gives 0.5 V and 0.4 A and a 1.25 Ω resistor was used. The cells were connected in series. Once, the PV cells were fixed horizontally and the other time tested in tilted position under same outdoor condition. The purpose of testing PV cells was to investigate the efficiency under above mentioned conditions. The data collected from the readings was used in calculation, and we have obtained from the calculations that horizontally fixed cells gave 4.8 percent efficiency whereas tilted cells gave 6.6 percent efficiency. Hence, the ratio showed that fixed cells produced 37.5 percent more power compared to horizontally fixed cells. Our other experiment consisted of testing PV cells under different temperature conditions that was done using a freezer and an oven for temperature variation and a tungsten bulb was used as a light source. The purpose of performing this experiment was to investigate how the efficiency of PV cells is affected under extreme conditions. Part of our thesis was also including studies and analysis of produced energy by the solar panel installed on the roof of “BTH” building in Karlskrona, Sweden. The data consisted of energy produced from February up to August 2014. The investigation also included finding the highest produced energy during these months. We have found that the highest energy was generated on the 1st of July which was 12.86 kWh. Furthermore, we went deep into investigation of the 1st of July to know exactly which hour of that day the highest energy was produced. The data showed that the highest produced energy was at 12:19 and 13:19 which was 2.03 kWh.

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  • 21.
    Barlo, Alexander
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Manopulo, Niko
    AutoForm Engineering GmbH, Switzerland .
    Sigvant, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Endelt, Benny
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Trana, Kristoffer
    Volvo Cars Stamping Engineering, Olofström.
    Investigation of a Bending Corrected Forming Limit Surface for Failure Prediction in Sheet Metals2019In: Forming Technology Forum, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring process feasibility is a high priority in the automotive industry today. Within theCAE departments concerning the manufacturing of body components, one of the most important areas ofinterest is the accurate prediction of failure in components through Finite Element simulations. This paperinvestigates the possibility of introducing the component curvature as a parameter to improve failureprediction. Bending-under-tension specimens with different radii are used to create a Bending CorrectedForming Limit Surface (BC-FLS), and a test die developed at Volvo Cars, depicting production-like scenariosby exposing an AA6016 aluminium alloy blank to a stretch-bending condition with biaxial pre-stretching, isused to validate the proposed model in the commercial Finite Element code AutoFormTM R8. The findings ofthis paper showed that the proposed BC-FLS approach performed well in the failure prediction of the test diecompared to the already in AutoFormTM R8 implemented max failure approach.

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  • 22.
    Barlo, Alexander
    et al.
    Volvo, SWE.
    Sigvant, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Endelt, Benny
    Aalborg Universitet, DEN.
    On the Failure Prediction of Dual-Phase Steel and Aluminium Alloys Exposed to Combined Tension and Bending2019In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering / [ed] VanDenBoogaard, T; Hazrati, J; Langerak, N, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2019, Vol. 651, no 1, article id 012030Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in accurate prediction of failure of sheet metals in the automotive industry has increased significantly over the last two decades. This paper aims to evaluate two failure prediction approaches implemented in the commercial Finite Element code AutoFormplus R7.04; (i) the standard Forming Limit Diagram (FLD), and (ii) the Non-linear Forming Limit Diagram. The evaluation will be testing the two approaches accuracy on predicting failure of both an AA6016 aluminium alloy and a CR440Y780T-DP dual-phase steel alloy specimen exposed to combined tension and bending. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that neither of the evaluated approaches is able to accurately predict failure in both cases presented. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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    On the Failure Prediction of Dual-Phase Steel and Aluminium Alloys
  • 23.
    Bashir, Farrukh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Simplification of CAD Geometries to perform CEM Simulations2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate small features in CAD geometries which have high influence on computational time and memory consumption during electromagnetic simulations using CAE software. Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) simulations of complex CAD geometries like passenger cars crash often simulations remain incomplete due to a lot of irrelevant details. The key to eliminating the limitations enumerated above is to remove irrelevant details in CAD geometries within the acceptable margin of accuracy. The maximum 5% percentage of error in accuracy during Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) simulations is compromised. CAD geometry is transferred into CAE geometry. The modification of geometry is done by removing irrelevant details to get optimal mesh and improve the computational time and memory consumption during simulations with ANSA and HYPERMESH software at their best potential. At the end, electromagnetic simulations are done on original and simplified CAD models in CST and in COMSOL. Only magnetic flux density distribution across the modified and unmodified CAD model by cut points 3D on different coordinate positions is analysed. The results are compared with quality of mesh in terms of accuracy and reduction in computational time and memory. The features in CAD geometries are identified, these features can be removed and computational time and memory consumption reduced with minimum loss of accuracy during simulation.

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  • 24.
    Bechtel, Nicola
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Bojko, Roman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Völkel, Ronja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering.
    Be in the Loop: Circular Economy & Strategic Sustainable Development2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Current human activities have a significant impact on the socio-ecological system, endangering this system’s capacity to support human civilization and biodiversity. Today’s linear industrial model can be seen as a main driver of this challenge, which implies a need for a model that uses less raw material and is more aligned with the cyclical nature of Earth. A concept that claims to provide such a model is Circular Economy (CE). This study analyses CE for its potential contribution to strategic sustainable development, and explores the barriers and enablers companies face in its implementation process. The main methodologies used for this research include the analysis of the concept by means of a conceptual framework and a Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development, as well as interviews with experts in related fields. The research exposed several gaps between CE and strategic sustainable development. The main barriers were found on a technological, legal, economic level, and at the behavioural level, i.e. the difficulty to change mindsets. Leadership, collaboration, the CE concept itself and customer behaviour were identified as important enablers. These results show that the concept is difficult to implement and that there is a need for a refined approach, which is easier to apply while leading closer towards sustainability.

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  • 25.
    Benaim, Andre
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    The implementation of Innovation Metrics: A case study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the implementation process of an innovation measuring system prototype to support a heavy machinery multinational company to secure their innovative capability. In general,companies recognize the importance of becoming innovative to become, or remain, competitive on a global market. The case company decided to pilot a metric system that corresponds to the crucial factors to secure innovative capability and work with the stepwise improvement based on the assessment results.

    The methods are based on design-research approach and participatory action research. Interviews, surveys and observation were used, as well as, workshops were conducted to develop and follow up the implementation innovation measuring system.

    The findings explore topics and open questions related to metric selection, purpose and use of the selected indicators, as well as challenges related to the implementation of the metric system. Some of the conclusions question the viability of measuring project teams, as well as, it suggests the need for further research to clarify whether team metrics need to be develop in parallel to organizational ones.

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  • 26.
    Bentsrud, Herman
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Friction and material modelling in Sheet Metal Forming Simulations2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s car manufacturing industry, sheet metal forming is a important process that takes preparation, which is time consuming and complex when new processes are made. When new metal grades and alloys are provided to the industry, tests are conducted to determine it’s behaviour and strengths. This gives the data for complex material models that can approximate the metal behaviour in an accurate way in a simulation environment. One of the unknown factors from tests is the friction coefficient on the sheet metal. The software Triboform is able to provide an adaptable friction coefficient model that depends on multiple simulation and user input conditions. The problems that occur when acquiring data for the material model is that testing is time consuming and the friction model has to be adjusted to give accurate results. At Volvo Cars there are two material models used with their different advantages, BBC 2005 and Vegter 2017.The purpose with this work is to compare the two material models using the Triboform friction models implemented to see if any combination provides accurate simulation results and then create recommendations for which model is best suited for different cases. Some side studies is also done with an older Vegter model, a strain rate sensitive BBC 2005 model and a Triboform model on all simulation parts.The purpose is achieved by implementing the Triboform model in Autoform and run a simulation of a Limiting Dome Height (LDH) test with both material models and compare the results with experimental data for several different materials. The data that is directly compared from the LDH test is the major and minor strain from two perpendicular sections at four different stages and also the force from the punch tool. The material models will be evaluated by how it manages to mimic the strain behaviour of the metals and how it estimates the punch force.The results point towards an improvement of the accuracy for most of the metals tested and BBC 2005 is the better model if there’s available biaxial data from tests, Vegter 2017 is decent if there’s not. However Vegter 2017 is not a good option for aluminum alloys simulations when the punch force is compared. Side study also shows that Vegter 2017 is bit of a downgrade when it comes to strain values, compared to the old Vegter.The work, in summary shows a dynamic friction model can improve the accuracy for strain predictions in the simulation process. If there’s biaxial yield data available for the metal or if it’s an aluminum alloy, BBC 2005 is the superior choice, but if only tensile tests are available for metals, Vegter 2017 is a decent choice for some cases.

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  • 27.
    Berglind, Robin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Impact of Sidewall Pressure on High Voltage Cables2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a high voltage cable is transported throughout factory it is affected by sidewall pressure in cable bends between the roller supports and the cable. The problem is when the sidewall pressure is too high it will deform the cable which can have a negative impact on the conductivity of the cable. The roller supports can also get damaged because of fatigue. These negative consequences are the subject to exploration by implementing known analytical solution of contact mechanics developed by Hertz together with finite element analysis and experimental testing.

     

    Two possible methods of measuring the radial force is studied to be able adjust the roller supports positions to reduce the sidewall pressure on the cable. The first one is to use the pressure film to determine the radial force. The second one is to by measuring the compression in cable to thereafter translate it to radial force by having the relation between compression and radial force for the specific cable.

     

    Two different types of high voltage cables, a direct current (DC) cable and an alternating current (AC) cable is studied by using finite element method and experimental tests to see the relation between the compression and radial force in the cable. Also in these experimental tests the pressure films are used and evaluated to see if this measuring technique combined with Hertzian’s theory make it possible determining the radial force.

     

    For the method of using the pressure films to determine the radial force the result shows it is difficult to translate the pressure from the films to radial force for a high voltage because of the cable’s armouring wires. The conclusion about these the pressure films is that they are good to use to describe the compression and can be used as relative measurement between the rollers but not for determine the radial force.

     

    The result shows it is a possible to describe relation between compression and radial force for a high voltage cable and use this information to determine the radial force by measuring the compression. But the conclusion is that it is ineffective and less accurate way of measuring the radial force.

     

    These results from this thesis are important for further research within the area and they help creating a greater understanding of sidewall pressure related problems in cables.

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  • 28.
    Bergschöld, Patrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Källgren, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    How to motivate employees in order to succeed with Open Innovation Projects2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, internal resources are limited and could not master all new technologies that have emerged during the last few decades. The complexity and depth needed is too costly to maintain in house so the internal innovation functions have to be decreased as they do not generate enough return on their investment. Companies need to find new ways to meet their growth targets and one way is to leverage their innovation capabilities by using external innovations and not just rely on internal innovation. But changing the game from internal closed to open innovation comes with challenges when it comes to company culture and how the employees adapt. Open innovation can create conflicts between the internal team and external team. The internal employee might feel that their work is taken from them, increasing the risk of losing their jobs and specialists might become skeptical to an alternative solution in an innovation. To harvest the full advantage of open innovation the internal employees need not to resist open innovation and become motivated to participate and work with open innovation according to a best practice. This has led us to the Research Question: How could employees’ motivation be enhanced in Open Innovation Projects? The purpose of this paper was to identify key motivational factors for employees in open innovation projects as well as what can be done to enhance motivation in open innovation. Our hope is that the findings can be utilized in making open innovation projects more efficient and in the end contributing to a more efficient use of resources and a stronger economy. We have done a multiple case study with six European companies working with open innovation. Ten in-depth interviews have been conducted with employees at these companies. Based on extensive motivational theory like intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors, we have analyzed the motivations of the employees with qualitative methodology. Our findings show that to succeed with open innovation there are certain factors that stand out particular to open innovation, while other factors are relevant to all types of innovation. In order to fully exploit the potential of open innovation you need to find employees that are motivated by working with external contacts and celebrate collaboration. The employees need to have self-awareness that open innovation pose an opportunity to take advantage of external competence for his or her development as well as the opportunity develop better and faster products or service for the company. To enhance motivation among the employees each organization can facilitate open innovation centrally to reduce to resistance to undertake the effort to change way of working. Another key area to enhance motivation for open innovation is recognition of employees.

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  • 29. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Madelene
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Renström, Boo
    Needs as a basis for design rationale2008In: / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic, Mario Storga, Neven Pavkovic, Nenad Bojcetic, University of Zagreb, Dubrovnik, Croatia: University of Zagreb , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic principle for Needfinding [Faste, 1987; Patnaik & Becker, 1999] is that designers and engineers should interact directly with users to get direct insights into the user domain. Needfinding is not a new phenomena, it is almost forty years ago since the process was adopted at Stanford University’s product design program [Patnaik & Becker, 1999]. As the name, Need-finding, implies, this is an intertwined approach to find needs which are not readily articulated by users. The application of a Needfinding process offers qualitative methods to make those needs visible early on in product development. In fact, the process has become more interesting during recent time, since qualitative methods have gained more acceptance outside the academic realm [ibid.].The word qualitative indicates that what are sought for are qualities such as people’s experiences, what they perceive or interpret into a situation [Miles & Huberman, 1994; Patton, 2002]. Such data is contextually dependent, i.e., it must be generated in the context in which the phenomena occur. Besides context, people’s activities, behaviours and goals are important to observe and learn from. The objectives, for applying Needfinding, are to make the identification of needs and design a seamless effort, as well as an interest to identify opportunities to innovations. Needs last longer than any solution [Patnaik & Becker, 1999], since they are grounded in people’s activities. The solution and product that might meet such needs change over time. One example is how to store computer data, the products which satisfy the need has changed from, e.g., punch cards, magnetic tape, floppy discs [ibid.] to USB-flash memories. A guiding methodology in Needfinding is a flexible process, which is adapted to the task at hand [Kelley, 2001]. Such a process is conveyed in a few basic steps and, builds on a ‘philosophy’ which permeates all activities in order to adapt the process according to the project. Therefore, the designer’s ability to rely on such a process depends on familiarity with a number of methods for observations and interviews, as well as an aptitude for socio-technical skills. Hence, the purpose in this paper is to present and reflect on methods used in a running development project to identify needs in a product development project. This is done to contribute to the advancement of a need driven product development process. The disposition of this paper is as follows. First, our approach in studying the need identification activities is presented. Second, a theoretical frame for need identification and design is presented, i.e., Needfinding [Patnaik & Becker, 1999]. Third, the practice of finding needs is outlined and discussed.

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  • 30.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A Reverse Engineering Role-Play to Teach Systems Engineering Methods2019In: Education Sciences, ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students engaged in systems engineering education typically lack experience and understanding of the multidisciplinary complexity of systems engineering projects. Consequently, students struggle to understand the value, rationale, and usefulness of established systems engineering methods, often perceiving them as banal or trivial. The paper presents a learning activity based on a three-stage reverse engineering role-play developed to increase students’ awareness of the importance of correctly using systems engineering methods. The activity was developed and integrated in the Systems Engineering course given at Blekinge Institute of Technology. Its effectiveness was analyzed through semistructured self-reflection reports along with two editions of the course. The results showed the development of students’ understanding of how to use systems engineering methods. In particular, the students realized the need to deliver detailed and easy-to-read models to the decision makers. This result was in line with the achievement of some of the intended learning outcomes of the course.

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  • 31.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    MITIGATING UNCERTAINTY IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN USING OPERATIONAL SCENARIO SIMULATIONS: A DATA-DRIVEN EXTENSION OF THE EVOKE APPROACH2023In: Proceedings of the Design Society / [ed] Otto K., Cambridge University Press, 2023, Vol. 3, p. 2665-2674Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an approach where the iterative replication of Discrete Event Simulations on future operational scenarios is used to derive data-driven design merit functions. The presented contribution proposes an extension of the EVOKE (Early Value Oriented Design Exploration with Knowledge Maturity) approach determining when and how the experience-based judgment about maximization, minimization, optimization, and avoidance functions, correlating value drivers and quantified objectives, can be substituted by data-driven mathematical functions obtained by scenarios simulations. The approach is described through a simplified case concerning the development of autonomous electric vehicles to complement the public transport system in the city of Karlskrona in Sweden. The consideration of value drivers and quantified objectives presented is meant to support a preliminary screening of potential design configurations to support the definition of high-level product and system-related functional requirements, to be run before a more detailed conceptual design analysis. © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press.

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  • 32.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Amnell, Henrik
    Isaksson, Ola
    Value modelling in aerospace sub-system design: linking quantitative and qualitative assessment2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a prototype of a value model where engineering design teams can play with costand value data in a semi-structured way. In particular, the value model serves to facilitatecommunication of multidimensional information during preliminary design analysis and to visualizesuch information in a unique environment. The model first automatically generates, from the output ofa computer-based simulation, a quantitative assessment of manufacturer costs and customer costsaving of a set on different configuration of the same design concept. Second, it couples to the resultsa qualitative assessment of concept risks and product and process commonalities. Third, it allows anassessment of the concept impact on customer “ilities” (maintainability, survivability, scalability,flexibility). The model has been developed in collaboration with an aerospace sub-systemmanufacturer and it ultimately aims to enable the maturation of the knowledge about cost and valueaspects among the design team since the preliminary stages of design.

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  • 33.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A 10-year teachers' journey toward CDIO: lessons learned for dealing with students, companies, and yourself2023In: Bidrag från den 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar / [ed] Joel Midemalm, Amir Vadiee, Elisabeth Uhlemann, Fredrik Georgsson, Gunilla Carlsson- Kvarnlöf, Jonas Månsson, Kristina Edström, Lennart Pettersson, Pedher Johansson, Mälardalens universitet, 2023, p. 211-220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper summarizes the experiences of working for a decade to promote the transition of courses toward the CDIO framework. It presents a list of lessons learned when applying the CDIO principles in master-level classes in the field of Mechanical Engineering. The paper aims to formalize operational guidelines, serving as a platform for further discussion and as a set of practical recommendations for teachers and educators initially redesigning their courses toward a more CDIO-oriented structure. The paper initially presents the rationale formoving toward CDIO and describes where and how data were collected. Further, it lists several lessons learned for teachers on (1) how to support students in maximizing their learning opportunities in a CDIO context, (2) how to manage the relationship and engagement with company partners, dealing with expectations, trust, flexibility, and visibility.

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  • 34.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Modeling ‘ilities’ in early Product-Service Systems design2019In: Procedia CiRP / [ed] Huang, GQ; Qu, T; Thurer, M; Xu, S; Khalgui, M, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 83, p. 230-235Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems, like all complex systems, are vulnerable to unpredictable environmental changes that can seriously undermine their ability to continuously deliver value to customers. The long-term consequences of volatile markets, unanticipated technologies, and unpredictable changes in society must be captured, modeled and communicated to decision makers since the earliest stages of the design, so to identify sustainable PSS solutions able to deliver value for years or decades to come. The paper analyses the problem of PSS changeability from the perspective of established medium-large product manufacturers facing the transition toward result-oriented PSS offers. Building on established literature in the systems engineering field, the paper proposes the definition of the changeability criteria, also named ‘ilities’, that are relevant to consider for PSS engineers in the early stages of design. Furthermore, the paper describes a systematic framework for assessing ilities in early PSS design, elaborating on technological enablers for ilities modeling.

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  • 35.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Tobias, Larsson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Expanding Value Driven Design to meet Lean Product Service Development2015In: 7TH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS CONFERENCE: IPSS, INDUSTRY TRANSFORMATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND BUSINESS / [ed] Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 30, p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a discussion about gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between Value Driven Design and Lean Product Service Development to promote the use of value-driven method and tools since the preliminary design stages. In particular the paper discusses how methods and tools developed in Value Driven Design have the potential to be applied in the preliminary design stage in the context of Lean Product Service Development. The paper concludes by defining a research area on Value Innovation method and tools for preliminary Lean Product Service Development.

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  • 36.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Data Mining in Product Service Systems Design: Literature Review and Research Questions2017In: Procedia CIRP / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, p. 306-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a literature review about data mining applications in Product/Service-Systems (PSS) design. A systematic literature review, combined with snowballing techniques, has been run to identify relevant contributions in the area. The analysis has focused on the categorization of the contributions according to their impact on the PSS design process and according to their theoretical or empirical nature. A picture of the different research achievements for each stage of the PSS design process have been drawn, identifying the research gaps in respect to the challenges of PSS design. Based on the analysis the paper proposes a set of research questions for each PSS design stage with the intent of facilitating the application of data mining techniques in PSS design, and ultimately push forward the state of the art.

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  • 37.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson Askling, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    MODEL-DRIVEN PRODUCT SERVICE SYSTEMS DESIGN: THE MODEL-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT AND DECISION SUPPORT (MD3S) APPROACH2021In: Proceedings of the Design Society 2021, Cambridge University Press , 2021, p. 2137-2146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a Model-Driven approach for Product-Service System (PSS) Design promoting an increased digitalization of the PSS design process based on the combination of data-driven design (DDD) activities and value-driven design (VDD) methods. The approach is the results of an 8-year long research profile named (omitted for blind review) featuring the collaboration between (omitted for blind review) and nine industrial companies, in the field of PSS Design. It combines VDD models and the supporting data-driven activities in the frame of PSS design and aligns with the product value stream and the knowledge value stream in the product innovation process as described by Kennedy et al. (2008). The paper provides a high-level overview of the approach describing the different stages and activities, and provides references to external scientific contributions for more exhaustive descriptions of the research rationale and validity. The approach is meant to ultimately drive the development and implementation of a simulation environment for cross-functional and multi-disciplinary decision making in PSS, named Model-Driven Decision Arena, describe in the concluding part of the paper.

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  • 38.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Machchhar, Raj Jiten
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Frank, Bobbie
    Volvo Construction Equipment SWE.
    Digital Twins of Operational Scenarios in Mining for Design of Customized Product-Service Systems Solutions2022In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier, 2022, p. 532-537Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an approach, based on the development of digital twins, to support the transition toward electromobility and autonomy in the mining industry, by supporting the design space exploration of future operational scenarios based on different construction equipment and mining site configurations. With such an intent, the paper presents an approach combining systems and systems-of-systems simulations to run trade-off analysis based on different product-service systems (PSS) configurations. Additionally, the paper integrates the "operational context"variables in PSS design simulations to create a digital twin of a "mining operational scenario"customizable for the specific configurations of each mine. The paper exemplifies the proposed approach by contextualizing in a reference mining site describing how the multi-dimensional simulations have enabled PSS trade-off analysis and PSS sensitivity analyses, and how operational context variables are integrated into the digital twin of the operational scenario. © 2022 The Authors.

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  • 39.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Marco, Bertoni
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Value-driven product service systems development: Methods and industrial application2016In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 15, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times a service-dominant logic is permeating the design of complex systems. However, in spite of their appeal, initiatives such as Product Service Systems (PSS) have not become mainstream, and methods are lacking to support this transition. This paper argues that methodological guidance, as well as tools for decision support, may be found in the research field of Value Driven Design (VDD), which originates in the realm of Systems Engineering. The paper objective is to elaborate on gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between VDD and PSS. The results of a systematic review of methods and tools for design decision support highlight the opportunity for introducing optimization models derived from VDD in the PSS design process, while the latter can enrich VDD research with a more qualitative value assessment logic. The paper summarizes this integration in a methodological approach, and exemplifies its application in case studies mainly from the aerospace and road construction equipment sector.

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  • 40.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Boosting Value Co-creation in Design Through the Product-Service System Digital Twin: Questions to Be Answered2022In: Collaborative Networks in Digitalization and Society 5.0 / [ed] Camarinha-Matos, L.M., Ortiz, A., Boucher, X., Osório, A.L., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2022, Vol. 622, p. 592-602Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital Twins (DTs) are among the most hyped technologies of the 2020 s. Yet, the research dealing with the use of DTs in early Product-Service Systems design remains insufficiently systematized. Based on the findings of multiple-case studies in the Swedish manufacturing industry, the objective of this paper is to collect and present a set of ‘questions that need to be answered’ to foster the development and utilization of DTs in the PSS realm. The results highlight how the DTs should be composed of several layers to boost value co-creation in design, in a way to incorporate the digital ‘counterpart’ for more abstract entities, from processes to human behaviors to more intangible assets. © 2022, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

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  • 41.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Introducing Sustainability in Value Models to Support Design Decision Making: A Systematic Review2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing organizations shall recognize sustainability as a business occasion to capitalize on, rather than an undesirable pressing situation. Still, empirical evidence shows that this opportunity is hard to capture and communicate in global strategic decisions, through planning by tactical management, to daily operational activities. This paper systematically reviews the modeling challenges at the crossroad of value and sustainability decisions making, spotlighting methods and tools proposed in literature to link sustainability to customer value creation at strategic, tactical and operational level. While statistical results show that the topic of sustainability and value modeling is trending in literature, findings from content analysis reveal that recent attempts to promote a value-based view in the sustainability discussion remain at a strategic level, with most of the proposed indicators being suited for managerial decision-making. The lack of support at operational level points to the opportunity of cross-pollinating sustainability research with value-centered methodologies originating from the aerospace sector. The Value Driven Design framework is proposed as main hub from which to derive models supporting engineers and technology developers in the identification of win-win-win situations, where sustainable improvements are aligned with business advantages.

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  • 42.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Sustainability and Value Assessment in Early PSS Design2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 1952-1979, article id 1952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is increasingly recognized as a key innovation capability in the organization. However, it is not always evident for manufacturers how sustainability targets shall be “mixed and matched” with more traditional objectives—such as quality, time, cost, and performances—when designing and developing solutions. The emergence of “servitization” and product-service systems (PSS) further emphasizes the need for making thoughtful trade-offs between technical aspects, business strategies, and environmental benefits of a design. The objective of this paper is to investigate how multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) models shall be applied to down-select PSS concepts from a value perspective, by considering sustainability as one of the attributes of a design contributing to the overall value of a solution. Emerging from the findings of a multiple case study in the aerospace and construction sector, the paper presents a five-step iterative process to support decision making for sustainable PSS design, which was further applied to design an electrical load carrier. The findings show that the proposed approach creates a “hub” where argumentations related to “value” and “sustainability” of PSS solution concepts can be systematically captured in a way that supports the discussion on the appropriate quantification strategy.

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  • 43.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Towards Digital Immersive Experiences for Collaborative Value Co-creation in Design2023In: Collaborative Networks in Digitalization and Society 5.0: 24th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2023, Valencia, Spain, September 27–29, 2023, Proceedings, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023, p. 193-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metaverse, which is often described as featuring a range of technologies for Extended Reality (XR) to consume and digest information from large and complex Digital Twins (DTs), is often discussed as one of the pillars of Industry 5.0 transformation. Immersive computer-generated environments based on DT and XR are highlighted as cornerstone technologies for the future of product and system design. While they are expected to become a commodity in the engineering toolbox in the next 20 years, little is known about how to set up and implement such environments to maximize innovation and collaboration capabilities in design. This article discusses the high-level gaps that remain before the vision of the metaverse in design is realized. It further draws a roadmap, based on four major tracks, that pinpoints research areas, methodological approaches and capabilities needed to develop and realise digital immersive experiences for collaborative value co-creation in design.

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  • 44.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    WORK INTEGRATION SOCIAL ENTERPRISES: A TESTBED FOR CHALLENGE-BASED LEARNING?2019In: Proceedings of the 15th international CDIO Conference, Aarhus university , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISE) are a particular enterprise form permeated by a so-called ‘double business idea’. Besides the commercial imperative of providing product and services, WISE offer employment and training opportunities for individuals considered less able to compete in mainstream labour markets. The paper argues that this multiple goal structure makes WISE an ideal testbed for Challenge-Based Learning (CBL). The latter deepens both problem-based learning and CDIO, by featuring open-ended problems that stress an entrepreneurial, value-driven and sustainable approach to problem formulation and decision-making. The aim of this paper is to describe how real-life design projects conducted in collaboration with WISE take CBL a step forward compared with those involving more ‘traditional’ enterprise forms. Evidence is gathered along 4 main lines of thought, which are: 1) iterative problem formulating and designing; 2) entrepreneurial mindset and of value-driven learning; 3) social sustainability-aware designing; and 4) social-constructed learning. The findings indicate that WISE-based design experiences bring forward additional characteristics compared with more ‘traditional’ engineering ones. Students are able to expand the scope and depth of their problem identification and formulation activities, due to the continuous dialogue with a broad range of stakeholders, enthusiasts, and volunteers. They become more aware of the multifaceted meaning of the word ‘value’ in engineering, realizing the existence of competing value systems for the design problem. Eventually their decision-making activities emphasizes the pursuit of different goals and objectives (e.g., technical feasibility, business viability, and sustainable development) in the design process.

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  • 45.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Designing solutions with the product-service systems digital twin: What is now and what is next?2022In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 138, article id 103629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital Twins (DT) are of particular interest in the domain of Product-Service Systems (PSS), to predict hardware availability, to inform about the needed features of new solutions, and to forecast the expected performances of new configurations in operation. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the extent to which ‘twins’ are applied today across the PSS life cycle, and to spotlight the ability of DT-related case studies to capture a full value perspective vs. simply attempting to represent hardware and services in the digital realm. By means of a systematic literature review combined with a mapping study, the paper reveals how only a minimal part of the existing literature is able to demonstrate how real-time physical-to-virtual and virtual-to-physical connections can be used to improve the design of servitized solutions. The analysis shows how contributions in the topic are mostly proposing frameworks and methods, as opposed to models and tools, as well as how ‘evaluation’, ‘validation’ tasks are largely neglected. As a result, the paper proposes a specialized definition of the PSS DT, together with a set of research questions that need to be answered to empower the engineering teams with relevant DT for PSS design.

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  • 46.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Iterative value models generation in the engineering design process2019In: Design Science, Vol. 5, article id e18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value models are increasingly discussed today as a means to frontload conceptual design activities in engineering design, with the final goal of reducing cost and rework associated with sub-optimal decisions made from a system perspective. However, there is no shared agreement in the research community about what a value model exactly is, how many types of value models are there, their inputoutput relationships and their usage along the engineering design process timeline. Emerging from five case studies conducted in the aerospace and in the construction equipment industry, this paper describes how to tailor the development of value models in the engineering design process. The initial descriptive study findings are summarized in the form of seven lessons learned that shall be taken into account when designing valuemodels for design decision support. From these lessons, the paper proposes a six-step framework that considers the need to update the nature and definition of value models as far as new information becomes available,moving from initial estimations based on expert judgment to detailed quantitative analysis.

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  • 47.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Measuring Experiential Learning: An Approach Based on Lessons Learned Mapping2020In: Education Sciences, E-ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fostering ‘experiential learning’ in real-life situations is a critical task for engineering educators when creating constructively aligned learning activities. The paper proposes an approach to measure the students’ perception of learning in Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate activities conducted outside the classroom. The approach is based on the opportunity of gathering and analyzing lessons learned from the student reflection reports at the end of a team-based innovation project performed in collaboration with company partners. The approach is intended to provide a basis for the future development of innovation projects with engineering students, supporting the definition of learning outcomes that are relevant for the CDIO Syllabus 2.0, and of constructively aligned learning experiences. The paper exemplifies the approach with regards to a master course named Value Innovation and presents the findings obtained at the third and second level of the CDIO Syllabus 2.0. The results of the course implementation show how short team-based innovation projects largely contributed in developing social and communication-related skills in engineering students, going beyond the mere application of their technical skills.

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  • 48.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Models for Value-driven engineering design2016In: Proceedings of the International Design Conference / [ed] Marjanovic, D; Storga, M; Bojcetic, N; Skec, S, DESIGN SOC, UNIV STRATHCLYDE , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, it is a great challenge to understand what models shall be used to iteratively translate customer desires into terms that are meaningful for engineering design decision-making. This paper proposes a framework illustrating the iterative evolution of model-based enablers for value during conceptual system design. The framework is developed from the analysis of four case studies in the Swedish manufacturing industry. The paper discusses the learning from the cross-case study, and elaborates on how value models may complement existing Systems Engineering practices.

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  • 49.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Nonlinear Quality Function Deployment: an experimental analysis2017In: DS87-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 4: DESIGN METHODS AND TOOLS / [ed] Maier, A; Skec, S; Kim, H; Kokkolaras, M; Oehmen, J; Fadel, G; Salustri, F; VanDerLoos, M, The Design Society, 2017, p. 99-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a common model to frontload engineering design activities with, linking the characteristics of a product vs. the voice of the customer using linear relationships. This approximation is often claimed to be misleading when dealing with the design of complex engineering systems. The paper presents the results of experimental activities aimed at verifying usability and effectiveness of nonlinear functions as extension of the QFD logic. A total of 40 experiments was conducted in a given design episode, involving 139 participants, to analyse the trade-off between the benefit of introducing nonlinearity vs. effort and cost triggered by increased complexity in the modelling. The results show that nonlinear functions, while improving the granularity of the QFD mapping, keeps the method simple enough to work as ‘boundary object’ in cross-functional design teams, irrespectively from the experience of design team members. The experiments also highlight how users’ cognitive attention in the task is dependent from the format by which nonlinear merit functions are presented.

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  • 50.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Eres, Murat Hakki
    University of Southampton, GBR.
    Value Driven Design revisited: emerging modelling concepts and applicatons2019In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 2407-2416Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended product warranties, leasing, and pay-per-use schemes are few examples of how manufacturing companies are shifting their focus from selling products to offering “solutions”, combining products and services to maximise customer value. The idea of optimising a system towards the best ‘value’ is both "intuitive and sensible", and processes such as Value Driven Design (VDD), have been proposed to supplement traditional engineering design methodologies. Yet, value-driven initiatives struggle to communicate their benefits and to demonstrate how value models can solve actual problems. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the evolution of the VDD toolbox, mapping research clusters, applications and case studies from the perspective of how much (and how well) recent contributions have answered the five top-level questions of the VDD research agenda published in 2012. The results of the systematic literature review reveal the emergence of innovative modelling constructs, methods, and tools that help VDD in taking a leap forward in supporting organizations and teams in achieving the long-sought objective of designing for 'value'.

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