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  • 1.
    Abghari, Shahrooz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Brage, Jens
    NODA Intelligent Systems AB, SWE.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    A Higher Order Mining Approach for the Analysis of Real-World Datasets2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 21, article id 5781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we propose a higher order mining approach that can be used for the analysis of real-world datasets. The approach can be used to monitor and identify the deviating operational behaviour of the studied phenomenon in the absence of prior knowledge about the data. The proposed approach consists of several different data analysis techniques, such as sequential pattern mining, clustering analysis, consensus clustering and the minimum spanning tree (MST). Initially, a clustering analysis is performed on the extracted patterns to model the behavioural modes of the studied phenomenon for a given time interval. The generated clustering models, which correspond to every two consecutive time intervals, can further be assessed to determine changes in the monitored behaviour. In cases in which significant differences are observed, further analysis is performed by integrating the generated models into a consensus clustering and applying an MST to identify deviating behaviours. The validity and potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a real-world dataset originating from a network of district heating (DH) substations. The obtained results show that our approach is capable of detecting deviating and sub-optimal behaviours of DH substations.

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  • 2. Al-Moathin, Ali Hussain Hassan
    Modeling of Photovoltaic Power System2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Arhall, Johanna
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Reis, Manuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Determinants of Alternative Fuel Technology for Small Road Freight Transport Companies in Sweden2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transportation sector plays a significant role in global carbon emissions, emphasizing the need for transitioning to alternative fuel technologies. This thesis primarily aims to examine the factors that influence small road freight transport companies in Sweden when transitioning to alternative fuel technology. The focus is on identifying these determinants and their respective significance, utilizing a company internal Resource-Based view as the analytical framework. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among small road freight transport companies, with data analyzed using pattern and keyword matching analysis. The results reveal multiple determinants within financial, technological and organizational resources. Range, purchase cost, and customer demand emerged as the most influential determinants, with range limitations hindering adoption and high costs deterring investment. However, customer demand for eco-friendly transport presents an opportunity for companies to gain a competitive advantage. Company size, cargo type, and operational constraints also influence decision-making. In the data selection, micro companies exhibit a higher propensity for drop-in alternative fuels, while small-sized companies engaged in short-haul transportation are more open to alternative fuel adoption and riskier investments. Risk-averse followers tend to stick to established practices. Policymakers are recommended to invest in infrastructure, provide subsidies, and implement regulations to incentivize adoption, while vehicle producers should optimize designs and collaborate with fuel producers. Further research is advised to investigate the viability of different low-carbon fuel alternatives, explore challenges and motivations faced by different company types, and conduct comparative studies. Quantitative research methods can offer broader insights into this area of study.

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    Determinants of Alternative Fuel Technology for Small Road Freight Transport Companies in Sweden
  • 4.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Ding, Jianguo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Yuning, Jiang
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Brax, Christoffer
    CombiTech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    CombiTech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Cyber-Threat Intelligence Architecture for Smart-Grid Critical Infrastructures Protection2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures (CIs) are becoming increasingly sophisticated with embedded cyber-physical systems (CPSs) that provide managerial automation and autonomic controls. Yet these advances expose CI components to new cyber-threats, leading to a chain of dysfunctionalities with catastrophic socio-economical implications. We propose a comprehensive architectural model to support the development of incident management tools that provide situation-awareness and cyber-threats intelligence for CI protection, with a special focus on smart-grid CI. The goal is to unleash forensic data from CPS-based CIs to perform some predictive analytics. In doing so, we use some AI (Artificial Intelligence) paradigms for both data collection, threat detection, and cascade-effects prediction. 

  • 5.
    Bergström, Jarl
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Franzon, Conny
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Thermo-economic optimization of a combined heat and power plant in Sweden: A case study at Lidköping power plant2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy production in power plants comes with both high costs and turnover whereas variations in the production strategy—that is, which boilers, coolers, or generators that should be running—have big impact on the economic result. This is especially true for a combined heat and power (CHP) plant where the production of district heating and electricity is linked, thus allowing for a higher flexibility in the production strategy and potential of increasing the revenue.

    Previous research states that thermo-economic optimization can have a great impact on economic result of power plants, but every power plant is operating under a unique set of conditions depending on its location, operating market, load demand, construction, surrounding, and the like, and comparable studies on CHP plants in Sweden are very few. This study aims to fill this research gap by evaluating savings potential of a CHP plant in Lidköping, Sweden by utilizing thermo-economic optimization with the approach of combining actual historical data from the power plant with mass-flow equations and constraints to construct a mathematical MODEST model that is optimized by linear programming.

    The result demonstrates a clear theoretical potential to improve earnings and the conclusion that the studied CHP would benefit by implementing optimization procedures or software to schedule production. The result was also comparable to previous research but varied over time, which highlights how unique conditions may impact the result.

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  • 6.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Electric buses' sustainability effects, noise, energy use, and costs2020In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 956-971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric buses are growing in numbers in Sweden, which contributes to the development of a fossil fuel free society and a reduction of emissions. Earlier studies of bus systems have identified a need to further investigate societal costs, total cost of ownership, energy use on a yearly basis to account for seasonal variations, and noise during acceleration. Addressing those needs was the purpose of this study. 

    Investigations were made in five cities in Sweden that have recently implemented different electric buses in their respective public transport system. Based on results from these investigations and earlier studies, updated and new calculations were made for electric buses on route 1 in Karlskrona, as a representative example. It was found that there were significant savings in societal costs and total cost of ownership when compared to diesel and biogas powered buses, mainly due to decreased noise, no emissions in the use phase, and decreased energy use.

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  • 7.
    Borén, Sven
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ny, Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Andersson, Mats
    Electrodriving Scandinavia, SWE.
    Nilsson, Stefan
    Miljöfordon Syd, SWE.
    Lööf, Jonas
    Miljöfordon Syd, SWE.
    GreenCharge: demotest i fält med elbuss2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    GreenCharge Sydost är en sammanslutning av regionförbund, kommuner, landsting och företag medett övergripande syfte att främja införandet av elfordon i främst sydöstra Sverige. Blekinge TekniskaHögskola är huvudman för projektet med ansvar för att driva forskningen, och Miljöfordon Syd attdriva den operativa projektledningen avseende demonstrationer och samverkan med intressenter.Under 2013 gjorde forskningen inom GreenCharge en beräkningsstudie som påvisade att elbussar urett livscykelperspektiv har mycket mindre utsläpp än dagens dieselbussar och totalkostnaden skullekunna bli 25 % lägre över en 8-års period i Karlskrona på linje 1 och 7, 21 % i Jönköping på linje 1och 3, samt 17 % i Sundsvall på linje 2 och 4. Detta gäller under antagande att bussen drivs med nygrön el, att realränteökningen blir 1 % per år samt att energi-pristrender sedan 10 år tillbaka fortsättergälla framöver.. Beräkningsstudien antog också efter simuleringar utifrån befintliga linjer och aktuellavärden från busstillverkare en energianvändning på 1,04 kWh/km för eldrift.

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  • 8.
    Ding, Jianguo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Aklilu, Yohannes Tadesse
    University of Skövde.
    Blockchain for Smart Grid Operations,Control and Management2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive overview of blockchain-based smart grid management, control, and operation solutions. The report compares with related reviews andhighlights the challenges in management, control, and operation for a blockchain-based smart grid, as well as future research directions in five categories: collaboration between actors, data analytics and management, control ofnetwork imbalances, decentralization of network management and operation,security and privacy.The report reviews how blockchain technology can potentially solve thechallenges of decentralized solutions for future renewable energy systems. Asa result, several applications of blockchain for renewable energy are discussed,such as electric vehicles, decentralized P2P energy transactions, carbon certification and trading, physical information security, energy transfer, Energy-to-X,and the Internet of Energy.A guideline for the implementation of blockchain to corresponding applications for future renewable energy is also presented in this report. This includesthe different blockchain system architectures, the data flow from the powergrid processed and recorded, the choice of the appropriate consensus, and thedifferent blockchain frameworks. 

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  • 9.
    Ding, Jianguo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Naserinia, Vahid
    University of Skövde, SWE.
    Blockchain for future renewable energy2022In: Decentralized Frameworks for Future Power Systems: Operation, Planning and Control Perspectives / [ed] Mohsen Parsa Moghaddam, Reza Zamani, Hassan Haes Alhelou, Pierluigi Siano, Academic Press, 2022, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better optimize and control the renewable energy system and its integration with traditional grid systems and other energy systems, corresponding technologies are needed to meet its growing practical application requirements: decentralized management and control, support for decentralized decision-making, fine-grained and timely data sharing, maintain data and business privacy, support fast and low-cost electricity market transactions, maintain the security and reliability of system operation data, and prevent malicious cyberattacks. Blockchain is based on core technologies such as distributed ledgers, asymmetric encryption, consensus mechanisms, and smart contracts and has some excellent features such as decentralization, openness, independence, security, and anonymity. These characteristics seem to meet the technical requirements of future renewable energy systems partially. This chapter will systematically review how blockchain technology can potentially solve the challenges with decentralized solutions for future renewable energy systems and show a guideline to implement blockchain-based corresponding applications for future renewable energy. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Holmgren, Johan
    Malmö Högskola, SWE.
    Optimal placement of charging stations for electric vehicles in large-scale transportation networks2019In: Procedia Computer Science / [ed] Shakshuki, E; Yasar, A; Malik, H, Elsevier B.V. , 2019, Vol. 160, p. 77-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new practical approach to optimally allocate charging stations in large-scale transportation networks for electric vehicles (EVs). The problem is of particular importance to meet the charging demand of the growing fleet of alternative fuel vehicles. Considering the limited driving range of EVs, there is need to supply EV owners with accessible charging stations to reduce their range anxiety. The aim of the Route Node Coverage (RNC) problem, which is considered in the current paper, is to find the minimum number of charging stations, and their locations in order to cover the most probable routes in a transportation network. We propose an iterative approximation technique for RNC, where the associated Integer Problem (IP) is solved by exploiting a probabilistic random walk route selection, and thereby taking advantage of the numerical stability and efficiency of the standard IP software packages. Furthermore, our iterative RNC optimization procedure is both pertinent and straightforward to implement in computer coding and the design technique is therefore highly applicable. The proposed optimization technique is applied on the Sioux-Falls test transportation network, and in a large-scale case study covering the southern part of Sweden, where the focus is on reaching the maximum coverage with a minimum number of charging stations. The results are promising and show that the flexibility, smart route selection, and numerical efficiency of the proposed design technique, can pick out strategic locations for charging stations from thousands of possible locations w ithout numerical difficulties. ©2019 Hie Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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    Optimal placement of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles inlarge-scale Transportation Networks
  • 11. Hjalmarsson, Oskar
    Miljökonsekvenser och kostnader för byte till elbilar inom Postnord i Vetlanda2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 12.
    Jadim, Ramsey
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, SWE.
    Kans, Mirka
    Linnaeus University, SWE.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Alhattab, Mohammed
    Ministry of Electricity and Water, KWT.
    May, Alhendi
    Ministry of Electricity and Water, KWT.
    Ali, Bushehry
    Ministry of Electricity and Water, KWT.
    On Approaching Relevant Cost-Effective SustainableMaintenance of Mineral Oil-Filled Electrical Transformers2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 12, article id 3670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and explosion accidents of oil-filled electrical transformers are leading to negativeimpacts, not only on the delivery of energy, but also on workplace health and safety as well asthe surrounding environment. Such accidents are still being reported, regardless of applying theregular maintenance strategy in the power plants. The purpose of this paper is to integrate asustainability perspective into the maintenance strategy. The problem addressed is: how can weapproach the relevant cost-effective sustainable maintenance for oil-filled electrical transformers?For this purpose, an empirical study in a power plant in Kuwait was introduced. The first stagewas to carry out a sustainability assessment using the ABCD procedure. In this procedure, gaps toapproach sustainability were identified and actions prioritized to close these gaps were demonstrated.Applying this procedure yielded an early fault diagnosis (EFD) model for achieving cost-effectivesustainable maintenance using a fault trend chart based on a novel numerical method. Implementingthis model resulted in an extension of the lifetime of transformers with suspected failure propagation,leading to a deferral of the replacement investment costs. The principal conclusion of this paper isthe importance of viewing the maintenance strategy of transformers from a strategic sustainabilityperspective, in order to approach relevant cost-effective sustainable maintenance.

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    2021 Jadim, Kans, Schulte et al. On Approaching Relevant Cost-Effective Sustainable Maintenance
  • 13.
    Karabulut, Mehmet
    et al.
    Yildirim Beyazit University, TUR.
    Kusetogullari, Hüseyin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Kivrak, Sinan
    Yildirim Beyazit University, TUR.
    Outdoor Performance Assessment of New and Old Photovoltaic Panel Technologies Using a Designed Multi-Photovoltaic Panel Power Measurement System2020In: International Journal of Photoenergy (Online), ISSN 1110-662X, E-ISSN 1687-529X, Vol. 2020, article id 8866412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new multi-photovoltaic panel measurement and analysis system (PPMAS) developed for measurement of atmospheric parameters and generated power of photovoltaic (PV) panels. Designed system presented with an experimental study evaluates performance of four new and four 5-year-old PV panel technologies which are based on polycrystalline (Poly), monocrystalline (Mono), copper indium selenide (CIS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) in real time, under same atmospheric conditions. The PPMAS system with the PV panels is installed in Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara Province, in Turkey. The designed PPMAS consists of three different subsystems which are (1) photovoltaic panel measurement subsystem (PPMS), (2) meteorology measurement subsystem (MMS), and (3) data acquisition subsystem (DAS). PPMS is used to measure the power generation for PV panels. MMS involves different types of sensors, and it is designed to determine atmospheric conditions including wind speed, wind direction, outdoor temperature, humidity, ambient light, and panel temperatures. The measured values by PPMS and MMS are stored in a database using DAS subsystem. In order to improve the measurement accuracy, PPMS and MMS are calibrated. This study also focuses on outdoor testing performances of four new and four 5-year-old PV panels. Average monthly panel efficiencies are estimated as 8.46%, 8.11%, 5.65%, and 3.88% for new Mono, new Poly, new CIS, and new CdTe PV panels, respectively. Moreover, average monthly panel efficiencies of old panels are calculated as 8.22%, 7.85%, 5.35%, and 3.63% in the same order. Test results obtained from the experimental system are also statistically examined and discussed to analyze the performance of PV panels in terms of monthly panel efficiencies. © 2020 Mehmet Karabulut et al.

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  • 14.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ding, Jianguo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Blockchain-Enabled Renewable Energy Traceability with a Crypto-based Arbitrage Pricing Model2023In: 8th International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing, FMEC 2023 / [ed] Quwaider M., Awaysheh F.M., Jararweh Y., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023, p. 34-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for Renewable Energy (RE) market decentralization and its rapid growth has led to new challenges related to energy traceability and pricing. While RE has undergone remarkable growth, the traditional methods of tracking renewable energy transactions lack transparency, making it difficult to ensure the authenticity of claims related to the source and quality of energy. Blockchain has been seen as a remarkable future technology capable of being integrated across many systems on the internet. This paper proposes a blockchainenabled solution to address these challenges by providing a secure and transparent traceability and pricing model for RE. The proposed approach uses blockchain technology to record and verify all energy transactions in a decentralized and tamper-proof manner. Additionally, the approach suggests the incorporation of smart contracts and Crypto-based Arbitrage techniques to automate the pricing of RE and the exploitation of a fair and efficient pricing mechanism. The paper goes the extra mile and presents an RE-based hypothetical case scenario that illustrates the implementation of the proposed model in an RE market while highlighting the benefits of using blockchain technology for energy traceability and pricing. The culminating discussions show that the blockchain-enabled RE traceability and pricing model offers a secure, transparent, and efficient pricing solution that can enhance trust in the RE market while promoting the transition to a sustainable energy future. © 2023 IEEE.

  • 15. Larsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Lars, Emmelin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Objectively best or most acceptable? Expert and lay knowledge inSwedish wind power permit processes2016In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 1360-1376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses legal aspects of the Swedish wind power development, theoreticallybased on how different types of knowledge are represented in legal contexts, mainly inthe courts. A sample of appealed wind power permits is analysed, a handful of relevantinformants are interviewedincluding two judges in the Land and Environment Courtand the appeal courtand the legal setting is analysed. Of key interest here is theinterplay between expert and lay statements in the court cases, which here is related tothe concepts of calculating and communicative rationalities that are developed in theplanning literature. The results indicate that the juridificationwhich takes place as apermit issue is appealed in the judiciary systemsupports the calculating rationalitymore than the communicative, and that the plaintiffs often attempt to adapt in how theyshape their argumentation.

  • 16.
    Madjidian, Josefin
    et al.
    World Maritime Univ, SWE.
    Dalaklis, Dimitrios
    World Maritime Univ, SWE.
    Paulauskas, Vytatutas
    Klaipeda Univ, Klaipeda, LIT.
    Henesey, Lawrence
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Olcer, Aykut I.
    World Maritime Univ, Swe.
    Ballini, Fabio
    World Maritime Univ, SWE.
    Kitada, Momoko
    World Maritime Univ, SWE.
    Developing a Strategy for Liquefied Natural Gas Powered Transport Corridors in the Baltic Sea Region2018In: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN MARITIME ENERGY MANAGEMENT / [ed] Olcer, AI Kitada, M Dalaklis, D Ballini, F, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2018, p. 383-399Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Meusburger, Johannes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Trofimova, Ekaterina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Muller, Annefleur
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    The Role of Small-Scale Photovoltaics in Transitioning to a Sustainable Energy System: Shining a light on Austria and Sweden2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To tackle the global sustainability challenge, the energy system needs to transition towards a sustainable system, since it is responsible for two-thirds of global greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce emissions researchers urged for a 100% renewable based energy system, in which photovoltaic (PV) energy production is seen as a key component. Social aspects should be considered and participation from individuals is needed. This thesis aims to answer the question“How can small-scale photovoltaics (SSPV) contribute to a transition towards a sustainableenergy system?” The case of Austria and Sweden. This thesis conducted 10 in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews from each country, applying PESTLE framework in coding. Results were assessed through a unique combination of Backcasting as a lens, eight Sustainability Principles (8 SPs), and PESTLE. SSPV enables individual contribution to the energy transition. SSPV has a limited role to play in the energy system in Austria, but even more limited in Sweden. Both countries are currently overwhelmed with the demand for SSPV. Since SSPV is not sustainable according to the 8 SPs the method of Backcasting should be repeatedly applied for SSPV to assess if this trend is truly contributing to a sustainable energy system.

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    The Role of Small-Scale Photovoltaics in Transitioning to a Sustainable Energy System Shining a light on Austria and Sweden
  • 18.
    Newton, Peter W.
    et al.
    Swinburne University of Technology, AUS.
    Newman, Peter W. G.
    Curtin University, AUS.
    Glackin, Stephen
    Swinburne University of Technology, AUS.
    Thomson, Giles
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Transport and Urban Fabrics: Moving from TODs to TACs with Greyfield Regeneration2021In: Greening the Greyfields: New Models for Regenerating the Middle Suburbs of Low-Density Cities, Palgrave Macmillan, 2021, p. 89-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter will focus on how new transit technology and corridor-regeneration policies can help transition greyfields. It builds on Chap. 3, which outlined the new distributed green technologies and their potential to help with urban regeneration in the greyfields at precinct scale. Transport systems are the sole focus of this chapter, as they have a very specific ability to help with urban regeneration via transit-activated GPR, given that accessibility is probably the largest city-shaping mechanism.

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  • 19.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Vägval 2030: Färdplan för snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter - kortversionen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsektorns beroende av fossila bränslen är en av de största utmaningarna ien omställning till ett klimatneutralt och hållbart samhälle.

    Denna färdplansrapport syftar till att undersöka hur elfordonssystem kan bidra tillen snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge, samttill att presentera en metodik för vägledning av liknande snabbomställningsarbetei andra regioner och samhällssektorer.

    Detta arbete har övergripande vägletts av en vetenskapligt framtagen och beprövadmetodik för strategisk hållbar utveckling (eng. Framework for Strategic SustainableDevelopment – FSSD). Specifikt ges svar på fyra forskningsfrågor som struktureras irelation till de fyra delsystemen ’Politik och styrmedel’, ’Användare och marknad’,’Fordon och infrastruktur’ samt ’Energi och material’:

    1. Hur skulle en hållbar vision för persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge kunnase ut?

    2. Hur skulle ett etappmål för år 2030 kunna se ut?

    3. Hur ser nuläget ut i förhållande till 2030-målet och visionen?

    4. Hur skulle gapet mellan nuläget, 2030-målet och visionen kunna överbryggas?

    Rapportens resultat visar att dagens fokus på fossilfrihet och klimatåtgärder måstebreddas till hela hållbarhetsfrågan så att även andra hållbarhetsproblemadresseras och så att inte lösningar på vissa hållbarhetsproblem skapar nya.

    Rapporten tydliggör också att det är nödvändigt, praktiskt möjligt och ekonomisktfördelaktigt för Sydostregionen att göra en snabbare hållbarhetsomställning avpersontransporterna än vad som har föreslagits i tidigare studier och utredningar.Det görs även troligt att detsamma gäller för hela transportsystemet och för helaSverige och världen.

    Även geopolitiska fördelar är troliga. En global övergång till transport- ochenergisystem som baseras på energi från fritt tillgängliga flödesresurser som soloch vind istället för fossila bränslen skulle därför sannolikt minska konfliktriskernai världen. Begränsade tillgångar av litium och platina som batteri- ochbränslecellselbilar är beroende av, och andra metaller som behövs till solceller ochvindkraftverk, kan dock ge motsvarande konfliktproblematik. Denna rapportsrekommendationer om minskat transportbehov och bilberoende och dess fokus påresurseffektivitet motverkar detta genom att slå mot bakomliggande resursdrivandemekanismer. Skulle denna färdplan omsättas i praktisk politik så borde alltså denkommande omställningen som ändå är på gång bli betydligt mer ’framtidssäker’.

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  • 20.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    On Track for 2030: Roadmap for a fast transition to sustainable personal transport: English short version with foreword by Peter Newman2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector's dependence on fossil fuels is one of the biggest challenges in a shift towards a climate-neutral and sustainable society.

    This roadmap report aims to investigate how electric vehicle systems can contribute to a faster transition to sustainable passenger transport in Southeast Sweden, as well as to present a methodology for guidance of similar work for faster transitions in other regions and sectors.

    This work has been guided by a scientifically designed and proven Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Specifically, answers are given to four research questions structured in relation to the four subsystems 'Politics and instruments', 'Users and markets', 'Vehicles and infrastructure' and 'Energy and materials':

    1. What could a sustainable vision for passenger transport in Southeast Sweden look like?
    2. What could be a milestone goal for 2030?
    3. What is the current reality in relation to the 2030 goal and the vision?
    4. How could the gap between the present, 2030 and the vision be bridged?

    The report's results show that today's focus on fossil independence and measures against climate change must be broadened to cover the whole sustainability challengeso that other sustainability issues are addressed and so that solutions to some of the sustainability issues do not create new ones.

    The report also clarifies that it is necessary, practically possible and economically advantageous for Southeast Sweden to make a faster sustainability transition of passenger transportthan what has been proposed in previous studies and investigations. It is also likely that the same applies to the entire transport system and for the whole of Sweden and the world.

    Even geopolitical benefits are likely. A global transition to transport and energy systems based on energy from widely available flow resources like sun and wind instead of the limited fossil fuels would likely reduce the conflicts risks in the world.Restricted cobalt, lithium and platinum resources that battery and fuel cell cars depend on, and other metals needed for solar cells and wind turbines can, however, give rise to similar conflict risks. This roadmap report's recommendations on reduced transport needs and car dependency and its focus on resource efficiency counteract these conflict risks by striking against underlying resource-driving mechanisms. Should this roadmap be translated into practical policies, the forthcoming transition would therefore likely be made considerably more 'future-proof'.

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    On Track for 2030
  • 21.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Prieto Beaulieu, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Hållbarhetspotentialen i byggnaders integrering med samhällssystem (B2X) –Tidiga exempel mot energi och transporter: FALLSTUDIE 6 INOM ENERGISAMVERKAN BLEKINGE2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna sjätte fallstudien inom projektet Energisamverkan Blekinge är att ge en översiktligbild av hållbarhetspotentialen i byggnaders integrering med andra viktiga samhällssystem (B2X) -med tidiga exempel mot energi- och transportsystem. I detta ingår både att analysera enskildabyggnaders integrering och bedöma uppskalningspotential mot hela byggnadsbeståndet. Aspektersom ingår är byggnadernas energiproduktion (solceller på i första hand tak, väggar och parkeringar)och energilagring (batterier eller vätgas) samt stöd till energisystemet (elutbyte mellan byggnaderoch elnätet) och transportsystemet (elutbyte mellan byggnader och elfordon).

    Metoden som har använts bygger på det etablerade ramverket för strategisk hållbar utveckling(FSSD) och dess allmänt tillämpliga hållbarhetsprinciper. Detta för att ta itu med komplexiteten ihållbarhetsomställningen av byggnader och byggnadssystem och samtidigt säkerställa tillräckligekonomisk avkastning på vägen dit. Studien genomfördes i fyra steg enligt FSSD:s så kallade abcdprocess.

    Resultatet kan sammanfattas med att:

    • Det befintliga beståndet är den största utmaningen storleksmässigt och i potential aveffektivisering eftersom endast ett par procent av beståndet förnyas varje år.• Vi identifierade också gränssnitt mellan byggnader och omgivande system där vi såg synergieroch vi föreslår därför ett schematiskt koncept för att arbeta med frågeställningen B2X. Detta servi som ett komplement till Blekinges manual för hållbart byggande och vi vill framöver ävenutveckla en 4-stegsprincip som guide för åtgärder och strategier.• Det behövs helhetstjänster för upphandling av ombyggnad/uppgradering/effektivisering• Energirådgivarna blir viktiga framöver när underhållsberget byggs bort.• Det är genom att gå från demonstrationer och piloter till fullskalig implementering och spridningsom de positiva effekterna av ett integrerat helhetssystem når sin fulla potential. Där ärlösningarnas skalbarhet av högsta prioritet.

    Slutsatserna kan sammanfattas med att en byggnad inte längre kan ses som en isolerad enhet utanen del av ett komplext system. Enskilda byggnader bör effektiviseras för att säkerställa effektivtutnyttjande av resurser. Samtidigt kan en byggnad ge ännu större nytta genom att bli ensjälvförsörjande enhet som kopplas upp till det större omgivande samhällssystemet (t.ex. ombyggnaden producerar energi och blir en plusenergibyggnad). Om byggnaden lagrar energi dessutomkan den bli en del i energisystemet och stötta samhällets effekthantering. Till detta kan man tilläggade elektriska fordonens lagringskapacitet. Redundansen blir alltså större då individuella byggnaderoch andra självförsörjande enheter kopplas ihop i ett integrerat energisystem som, till skillnad fråndagens centralt styrda system, en angripare inte kan slå ut. Detta blir alltså även en säkerhetspolitiskfördel i framtiden.

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  • 22.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Prieto Beaulieu, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Ny kärnkraft eller effektivisering och ny förnybar energi för ett kostnadseffektivt svenskt elsystem?: MODELLERING OCH KOSTNADSANALYSER KRING FÖRDUBBLAD ELANVÄNDNING TILL ÅR 20502024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige och världen är mitt i en omställning till ett ekologiskt, socialt och ekonomiskt hållbart samhälle. I detta förväntas en storskalig elektrifiering spela en stor roll under de närmaste decennierna. 

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om den senaste tidens rapporter om olika energislags samhällskostnader skulle kunna peka på att det blir billigare att möta en ökad elanvändning med ny kärnkraft, i linje med regeringens nya kärnkraftsfärdplan, än med en kombination av effektivisering och ny förnybar energi. 

    Metoden var att ställa upp fem scenarier baserade på Svenska Kraftnäts tidigare analyser och beräkna deras respektive livscykelkostnader, inklusive omkostnader för flexibilitet, utifrån nya data från International Energy Agency:

    ·         Scenario 1a. Planerbart (Svenska kraftnäts planerbartscenario)

    ·         Scenario 1b. Planerbart med ny kärnkraft (Svenska kraftnäts planerbartscenario med variant av Regeringens kärnkraftsfärdplan)

    ·         Scenario 1c. Planerbart med ny kärnkraft och förnybart (Svenska kraftnäts planerbartscenario med variant av Regeringens kärnkraftsfärdplan)

    ·         Scenario 2a. Förnybart (Svenska kraftnäts förnybartscenario)

    ·         Scenario 2b. Förnybart med effektivisering (Svenska kraftnäts förnybartscenario med energieffektivisering)

    Resultatet blev att regeringens billigaste kärnkraftsfärdplansscenario (Sc1c) blir 470 miljarder kr dyrare än det dyraste förnybartscenariot (Sc2a) medan det dyraste kärnkraftsfärdplansscenariot (Sc1b) blir 1070 miljarder kr dyrare än det billigaste förnybartscenariot med effektivisering (Sc2b). Dessutom tillkommer en merkostnad för Regeringens kärnkraftsfärdplansscenarier på minst 2000 till 5000 miljarder kr från år 2050 till 2100. 

    Slutsatsen blir alltså att vi har stärkt de samhällsekonomiska argumenten för att satsa på effektivisering och förnybart snarare än ny kärnkraft för att möta framtidens ökade elenergianvändning. Förnybartscenarierna har även fördelen att de skulle ge mycket mer hanterbara hållbarhetsrisker jämfört med kärnkraftsscenarierna och de skulle, till skillnad från kärnkraftsscenarierna, kunna genomföras tillräckligt snabbt för att bli relevanta för klimatutmaningen. Om vi skulle satsa på effektivisering och ny förnybar energi skulle hela landet också kunna byggas ihop till ett decentraliserat och integrerat energisystem. Ett ‘självspelande piano’ som när det väl är uppbyggt kan förse samhället med billig förnybar energi från eviga flöden. Ett sådant energisystem skulle, till skillnad från dagens centralt styrda system, vara motståndskraftigt mot översvämningar och andra klimatfaktorer samt bli omöjligt för en angripare att slå ut. Det skulle alltså även bli en säkerhetspolitisk fördel i framtiden.

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  • 23.
    Ny, Henrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Sven, Borén
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lisiana, Nurhadi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Schulte, Jesko
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Vägval 2030: färdplan för snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsektorns beroende av fossila bränslen är en av de största utmaningarna ien omställning till ett klimatneutralt och hållbart samhälle.

    Denna färdplansrapport syftar till att undersöka hur elfordonssystem kan bidra tillen snabbomställning till hållbara persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge, samttill att presentera en metodik för vägledning av liknande snabbomställningsarbetei andra regioner och samhällssektorer.

    Detta arbete har övergripande vägletts av en vetenskapligt framtagen och beprövadmetodik för strategisk hållbar utveckling (eng. Framework for Strategic SustainableDevelopment – FSSD). Specifikt ges svar på fyra forskningsfrågor som struktureras irelation till de fyra delsystemen ’Politik och styrmedel’, ’Användare och marknad’,’Fordon och infrastruktur’ samt ’Energi och material’:

    1. Hur skulle en hållbar vision för persontransporter i Småland och Blekinge kunnase ut?

    2. Hur skulle ett etappmål för år 2030 kunna se ut?

    3. Hur ser nuläget ut i förhållande till 2030-målet och visionen?

    4. Hur skulle gapet mellan nuläget, 2030-målet och visionen kunna överbryggas?

    Rapportens resultat visar att dagens fokus på fossilfrihet och klimatåtgärder måstebreddas till hela hållbarhetsfrågan så att även andra hållbarhetsproblemadresseras och så att inte lösningar på vissa hållbarhetsproblem skapar nya.

    Rapporten tydliggör också att det är nödvändigt, praktiskt möjligt och ekonomisktfördelaktigt för Sydostregionen att göra en snabbare hållbarhetsomställning avpersontransporterna än vad som har föreslagits i tidigare studier och utredningar.Det görs även troligt att detsamma gäller för hela transportsystemet och för helaSverige och världen.

    Även geopolitiska fördelar är troliga. En global övergång till transport- ochenergisystem som baseras på energi från fritt tillgängliga flödesresurser som soloch vind istället för fossila bränslen skulle därför sannolikt minska konfliktriskernai världen. Begränsade tillgångar av litium och platina som batteri- ochbränslecellselbilar är beroende av, och andra metaller som behövs till solceller ochvindkraftverk, kan dock ge motsvarande konfliktproblematik. Denna rapportsrekommendationer om minskat transportbehov och bilberoende och dess fokus påresurseffektivitet motverkar detta genom att slå mot bakomliggande resursdrivandemekanismer. Skulle denna färdplan omsättas i praktisk politik så borde alltså denkommande omställningen som ändå är på gång bli betydligt mer ’framtidssäker’.

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  • 24.
    Olsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Frånberg, Oskar
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Strategic development of environmental impact assessment decision support tool for offshore energy enables decreased costs, increased utilization, and quality2023In: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 60, article id 103493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the transition to a sustainable energy system, there is an urgent need for expansion of offshore renewable energy installations. To ensure sustainable development also with respect to the marine environment, a variety of decision support tools (DSTs) are currently under development, aiming at potentially increased quality and efficiency for environmental risk assessment (EIA) of planned offshore energy installations. However, the savings potential of a DSTs is to a large extent governed by the timing of the DST development, which in turn is directly dependent on the investment rate over time. A set of development scenarios were evaluated, simulating different degrees of strategic implementation and successful utilization of the DST for offshore energy. Using the situation in Sweden as a case study, we demonstrate that a planned investment can lead to considerably lower total costs for the EIA at a national level, at the same time allowing for improved quality of the EIA in line with the ambitions in both marine spatial planning and existing goals within marine environmental management. © 2023 The Author(s)

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  • 25.
    Sassersson Busadee, Nelly
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Elnät eller off-grid: Ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All types of electricity production have a negative impact on the environment, the most sustainable electricity is the one that never has been produced. If the West is to continue living with electricity and at the same time try to reduce the carbon footprints, there must be a change.

    In order to increase the use of renewable energy, off-grid installations are currently being produced for those houses that are far from civilization. But if you can connect to the grid electricity, what option is best from a sustainability perspective? This project therefore examines the possibilities for energy alternatives and aims to explore which option is most environmentally friendly based on the resources offered by the environment on Bornholm.

    Based on previous research and data, the conditions for electricity from the grid and an off-grid combination, are examined. The study begins with an in-depth literature study that deals with site data, technical aspects and life-cycle assessments of the energy alternatives that today can be used on Bornholm.

    Built on the analyses and measurements made on Bornholm's electrical mix and the off-grid system that works best given the conditions that the site has, it is concluded that electricity from the electricity grid is affecting the environment the least.

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    Elnät eller off-grid: Ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv
  • 26.
    Tkachuk, Roman-Valentyn
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Efficient Design of Decentralized Privacy and Trust in Distributed Digital Marketplaces2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to advance the knowledge on the efficient design and evaluation of distributed marketplaces with an emphasis on trust and privacy. Distributed systems are an integral part of today's computing infrastructures, enabling multiple nodes to work towards a common goal. Although distributed, most of today's computational systems are still built with a centralized architecture, which assumes complete governance by a single organization. In the case of centralized marketplaces, the correct trade execution guarantees, \ie digital trust, and data privacy are provided centrally, containing all processes and operations within a single organization's boundaries. This puts the marketplace operator in a prime position to govern trade settlement conditions. However, trust issues are raised if more than one organization has to govern the marketplace. In such a case, trust and privacy are decentralized, and control is distributed among all organizations which are part of the marketplace system. Thus, a decentralized marketplace requires a robust and secure consensus mechanism, which enables digital trust while allowing organizations to process and store private data for further usage in trade settlements. 

    This thesis investigates both centralized and decentralized marketplace architectures applied to use cases of AI artifacts and renewable energy trading. It begins with a study of a marketplace for Artificial Intelligence (AI) artifacts where multiple organizations collaborate on AI pipeline execution. The study defines a Secure Virtual Premise, which enables AI pipeline execution in a centralized marketplace governed by a trusted third party. The thesis continues with a survey of the telecommunication services marketplaces, where both centralized and decentralized architectures are discussed. In addition, the survey provides an in-depth investigation of blockchain technology as a main trust-enabling platform, providing distributed storage and data assurance to all processes in a decentralized marketplace. Having mapped the state-of-the-art, the research shifts towards an in-depth investigation of blockchain-based decentralized renewable energy marketplaces. The main aim of such a marketplace is to incentivize the widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, resulting in the decarbonization of electricity distribution systems. The designed marketplace enables automation and trusted execution of peer-to-peer (P2P) energy trade settlements in decentralized systems while preserving users' data privacy. Furthermore, the marketplace is aligned with the data and P2P energy trade regulations. The studies provide an in-depth requirements definition, system architecture, implementation, and performance evaluation of marketplaces based on two major blockchain platforms. The final study of this thesis provides the improvements towards the renewable energy marketplace model aiming at an enhancement of trust, privacy, and scalability.

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  • 27.
    Tkachuk, Roman-Valentyn
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ilie, Dragos
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Robert, Remi
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    On the Performance and Scalability of Consensus Mechanisms in Privacy-Enabled Decentralized Renewable Energy Marketplace2023In: Annales des télécommunications, ISSN 0003-4347, E-ISSN 1958-9395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy sources were introduced as an alternative to fossil fuel sources to make electricity generation cleaner. However, today's renewable energy markets face a number of limitations, such as inflexible pricing models and inaccurate consumption information. These limitations can be addressed with a decentralized marketplace architecture. Such architecture requires a mechanism to guarantee that all marketplace operations are executed according to predefined rules and regulations. One of the ways to establish such a mechanism is blockchain technology. This work defines a decentralized blockchain-based peer-to-peer (P2P) energy marketplace which addresses actors' privacy and the performance of consensus mechanisms. The defined marketplace utilizes private permissioned Ethereum-based blockchain client Hyperledger Besu (HB) and its smart contracts to automate the P2P trade settlement process. Also, to make the marketplace compliant with energy trade regulations, it includes the regulator actor, which manages the issue and consumption of guarantees of origin and certifies the renewable energy sources used to generate traded electricity. Finally, the proposed marketplace incorporates privacy-preserving features, allowing it to generate private transactions and store them within a designated group of actors. Performance evaluation results of HB-based marketplace with three main consensus mechanisms for private networks, i.e., Clique, IBFT 2.0, and QBFT, demonstrate a lower throughput than another popular private permissioned blockchain platform Hyperledger Fabric (HF). However, the lower throughput is a side effect of the Byzantine Fault Tolerant characteristics of HB's consensus mechanisms, i.e., IBFT 2.0 and QBFT, which provide increased security compared to HF's Crash Fault Tolerant consensus RAFT.

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  • 28.
    Tkachuk, Roman-Valentyn
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ilie, Dragos
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Robert, Remi
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Towards Efficient Privacy and Trust in Decentralized Blockchain-Based Peer-to-Peer Renewable Energy Marketplace2023In: Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, E-ISSN 2352-4677, Vol. 35, article id 101146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly important as a substitute for fossil energy production. However, distributed renewable energy production faces several challenges regarding trading and management, such as inflexible pricing models and inaccurate green consumption information. A decentralized peer-to-peer (P2P) electricity marketplace may address these challenges. It enables prosumers to market their self-produced electricity. However, such a marketplace needs to guarantee that the transactions follow market rules and government regulations, cannot be manipulated, and are consistent with the generated electricity. One of the ways to provide these guarantees is to leverage blockchain technology.

    This work describes a decentralized blockchain-based P2P energy marketplace addressing privacy, trust, and governance issues. It uses a private permissioned blockchain Hyperledger Fabric (HF) and its smart contracts to perform energy trading settlements. The suggested P2P marketplace includes a particular regulator actor acting as a governmental representative overseeing marketplace operations. In this way, the suggested P2P marketplace can address the governance issues needed in electricity marketplaces. Further, the proposed marketplace ensures actors’ data privacy by employing HF’s private data collections while preserving the integrity and auditability of all operations. We present an in-depth performance evaluation and provide insights into the security and privacy challenges emerging from such a marketplace. The results demonstrate that partial centralization by the applied regulator does not limit the P2P energy trade settlement execution. Blockchain technology allows for automated marketplace operations enabling better incentives for prosumer electricity production. Finally, the suggested marketplace preserves the user’s privacy when P2P energy trade settlements are conducted.

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  • 29.
    Tkachuk, Roman-Valentyn
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ilie, Dragos
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Robert, Remi
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    On the Application of Enterprise Blockchains in Decentralized Renewable Energy MarketplacesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy distribution infrastructure is a vital part of any modern society. Thus, renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly important as a substitute for energy produced with fossil fuels. However, renewable energy production faces several challenges in the energy market and its management, such as inflexible pricing models and inaccurate green consumption information. A decentralized electricity marketplace may address these challenges. However, such a platform must guarantee that the transactions follow the market rules and regulations, cannot be manipulated, and are consistent with the energy generated. One of the ways to provide these guarantees is to leverage blockchain technology. Our previous studies demonstrate the current energy trade regulations result in partial marketplace centralization around governmental authority. The governmental authority, i.e., the regulator, oversees marketplace operations and requires energy providers to share private data about electricity generation and energy trade settlement. This study proposes amendments to D2018/2001 legislation and the governmental regulator actor to improve marketplace flexibility and data privacy. Further, we propose a new blockchain-based P2P energy marketplace model with increased flexibility and scalability while addressing actors' privacy and trust requirements. The marketplace utilizes a private permissioned blockchain Hyperledger Fabric (HF) due to its privacy-preserving and trust-enabling capabilities. This study provides HF comparison with Ethereum-based competitor Hyperledger Besu (HB). Further, based on the identified advantages and limitations, we discuss the rationale for the choice of HF. We utilize HF's smart contracts to enable P2P energy trade settlement orchestration and management. Based on previous studies, we propose an improvement towards HF security by utilizing a Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) consensus mechanism, which is protected against malicious system actors. The results demonstrate that while protecting the blockchain network from malicious system actors, the BFT mechanism shows a similar throughput to the RAFT Crash Fault Tolerant consensus in the context of the P2P energy marketplace. Finally, BFT consensus enables legislation enhancements, resulting in increased flexibility and data privacy in the energy trade marketplace.

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