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  • 1.
    Andersson, Anders Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Facial Feature Tracking and Head Pose Tracking as Input for Platform Games2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern facial feature tracking techniques can automatically extract and accurately track multiple facial landmark points from faces in video streams in real time. Facial landmark points are defined as points distributed on a face in regards to certain facial features, such as eye corners and face contour. This opens up for using facial feature movements as a handsfree human-computer interaction technique. These alternatives to traditional input devices can give a more interesting gaming experience. They also open up for more intuitive controls and can possibly give greater access to computers and video game consoles for certain disabled users with difficulties using their arms and/or fingers.

    This research explores using facial feature tracking to control a character's movements in a platform game. The aim is to interpret facial feature tracker data and convert facial feature movements to game input controls. The facial feature input is compared with other handsfree inputmethods, as well as traditional keyboard input. The other handsfree input methods that are explored are head pose estimation and a hybrid between the facial feature and head pose estimation input. Head pose estimation is a method where the application is extracting the angles in which the user's head is tilted. The hybrid input method utilises both head pose estimation and facial feature tracking.

    The input methods are evaluated by user performance and subjective ratings from voluntary participants playing a platform game using the input methods. Performance is measured by the time, the amount of jumps and the amount of turns it takes for a user to complete a platform level. Jumping is an essential part of platform games. To reach the goal, the player has to jump between platforms. An inefficient input method might make this a difficult task. Turning is the action of changing the direction of the player character from facing left to facing right or vice versa. This measurement is intended to pick up difficulties in controling the character's movements. If the player makes many turns, it is an indication that it is difficult to use the input method to control the character movements efficiently.

    The results suggest that keyboard input is the most effective input method, while it is also the least entertaining of the input methods. There is no significant difference in performance between facial feature input and head pose input. The hybrid input version has the best results overall of the alternative input methods. The hybrid input method got significantly better performance results than the head pose input and facial feature input methods, while it got results that were of no statistically significant difference from the keyboard input method.

    Keywords: Computer Vision, Facial Feature Tracking, Head Pose Tracking, Game Control

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  • 2.
    Andersson, Emma
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Eye tracking complemented HUD for video games: A perception evaluation of information display in FPS games2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The heads-up display (HUD) is a useful tool for displaying information to the player in a game, but the HUD is not a part of the game world. This could take away from the desired experience of the game and block important parts of the main action screen. To counteract this the HUD mostly occupies the edges of the screen and avoids drawing the player’s attention away from the main action scene except when it has important information for the player. Only having the HUD visible when it has important information to the player could remove the distraction of the HUD while keeping all the benefits of having one.

    Objectives. By using eye tracking to complement the HUD, the HUD can be invisible when the player does not use it, and change how the information is presented depending on where the player is looking. By creating a first-person shooter (FPS) game with a HUD complemented by eye tracking, then comparing it to how a normal HUD differed in terms of visibility and clutter, using a survey.

    Methods. The game was created using the Tobii Unity SDK and modifying the FPS demo scene. To create the gaze sensitive HUD three scripts were created to produce the finished result. Giving the HUD the ability to make all HUD elements invisible and able to appear after passing a specific value or when the element has new information, the HUD also has the ability to present information close to the player’s gaze point in the of notifications. The game was then presented to the participants in the form of two videos one using the normal HUD and one using the gaze sensitive HUD. After watching the partisans answered a survey related to the videos.

    Results. The gaze-based HUD was generally on par with the normal HUD. The most noticeable significant difference being that the normal HUDs ammunition counter and health bar was proffered over a less visible one.

    Conclusions. From the results gathered having a gaze-based HUD does not make it harder to notify the player of important information and dos not make the HUD less cluttered, compared to a normal HUD, but there is a difference between them.

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Klara
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Landén, Erik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    The Impact of Foveated Rendering as Used for Head-Mounted Displays in Interactive Video Games2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In this study, foveated rendering has been explored as its impacton people in a virtual reality (VR) video game setting. Foveated rendering has thepotential to decrease the performance cost of virtual reality gaming by only renderingthe part of the scene where the user is looking. It achieves this with the use of aneye tracker. Although, this study does not focus on the performance gain.Related Work: The work that has previously been done has mostly focused onperformance. Studies that concentrate on how it affects people have only used ascene with a still or moving target in it. This work will expand upon this by includingit in a whole game instead. Method: A user study is conducted to test the perceived visual quality by playinga fast-paced game that requires a lot of eye and head movements. This is tested asa first-person shooter game, which is played thrice with different types of foveation.Those being no foveation, static, and dynamic foveated rendering and comparingthem with each other. The user study performed to test this had 20 participants whoplayed the game and answered a questionnaire afterward regarding the quality. These participants were experienced in normal gaming but had little previous experiencewith virtual reality. Results and Analysis: The results show that the majority do not notice a differencein quality between the game types. However, the type most people preferred wasfoveated rendering without the use of an eye tracker, called static foveation.Discussion: The results demonstrate that video games can effectively incorporatefoveated rendering, resulting in significant performance improvements with minimaldrawbacks. However, it is important to note that foveated techniques have certainhardware requirements that may limit their widespread adoption. One such require-ment is Variable Rate Shading, which is becoming increasingly prevalent as it issupported by all new graphics cards. This means that the market may more easilyadopt foveated rendering techniques that do not rely on an eye tracker. Additionally,a built-in eye tracker in headsets is another hardware requirement that might makeit harder for that to happen.Conclusion: Foveated rendering has almost no impact on the perceived quality of VR games which can lead to performance gains and makes it easier for people to getfeel more immersed in them.

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    The Impact of Foveated Rendering as Used for Head-Mounted Displays in Interactive Video Games
  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Melin, Johan
    Constrained procedural floor plan generation for game environments2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Procedural content generation (PCG) has become an important subject as the demand for content in modern games has increased. Paradox Arctic is a game development studio that aims to be at the forefront of technological solutions and is therefore interested in furthering their knowledge in PCG. To this end, Paradox Arctic has expressed their interest in a collaborative effort to further explore the subject of procedural floor plan generation.

    Objective: The main goal of this work is to test whether a solution based on growth, subdivision or a combination thereof, can be used to procedurally generate believable and varied floor plans for game environments, while also conforming to predefined constraints.

    Method: A solution capable of generating floor plans with the use of growth, subdivision and a combination of both has been implemented and a survey testing the believability and variation of the generated layouts has been conducted.

    Results & Conclusions: While the results of the subdivision and combined solutions show that more work is necessary before the generated content can be considered believable, the growth based solution presents promising results in terms of believability when generating smaller to medium sized layouts. This believability does however come at the cost of variation.

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  • 5.
    Björneskog, Amanda
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Goniband Shoshtari, Nima
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Comparison of Security and Risk awareness between different age groups2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet have become a 'necessity' in the everyday life of just below 50\% of the world population. With the growth of the Internet and it creating a great platform to help people and making life easier, it has also brought a lot of malicious situations. Now a days people hack or uses social engineering on other people for a living, scamming and fraud is part of their daily life. Therefore security awareness is truly important and sometimes vital.We wanted to look at the difference in security awareness depending on which year you were born, in relation to the IT-boom and growth of the Internet. Does it matter if you lived through the earlier stages of the Internet or not? We found that the security awareness did increase with age, but if it was due to the candidates growing up before or after the IT-boom or due to the fact that younger people tend to be more inattentive is hard to tell. Our result is that the age group, 16-19, were more prone to security risks, due to an indifferent mindset regarding their data and information.

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    BTH2017Björneskog
  • 6.
    Bonnevier, Paulina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Evaluating physiological phasic reaction and negative emotions in darkness within a video game setting: Using an EDA analysis and a game experience questionnaire2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is a method to measure variations in the electrical conductivity of the skin, and it is often used to help assess emotions like anxiety, or stress. However, it is not yet commonly used in video games, although emotions are an essential aspect to consider when developing a game.

    Objectives. By using EDA data and a questionnaire, the thesis aims to study the effect of darkness on the participant's skin conductance responses (SCR) and their potential correlation with negative emotions.

    Methods. Using the Shimmer3 GSR+ sensor and the Tobii Pro Lab software to measure and record the EDA data and handle the game, a within-participants experiment with 17 participants was conducted. Each participant played one daytime scene and one nighttime scene from the same game. During the experiment, the participant's EDA data was recorded by the Tobii Pro Lab software when the participant played the game. When the games were finished, the participant answered a questionnaire. The questionnaire presented multiple questions regarding their game experience based on negative emotions.

    Results. The EDA data point towards a rise in skin conductance responses (SCR) when playing the nighttime game compared to the daytime game. While the questionnaire data points towards a higher prominence of negative emotions during the nighttime game as well. Based on these results, playing the nighttime game made a majority of the participants experience a higher grade of reported negative emotions.

    Conclusions. The results suggest that darkness affects both SCR and negative emotions. Meaning that humans have a tendency to react in an emotionally negative way, and have a higher degree of measurable responses in the skin, to a dark environment.

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    Evaluating physiological phasic reaction and negative emotions in darkness within a video game setting - Using an EDA analysis and a game experience questionnaire
  • 7.
    Essinger, Karl
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    A comparison of interaction models in Virtual Reality using the HTC Vive2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a field within the gaming industry which has gained much popularity during the last few years. This is caused mainly by the release of the VR-headsets Oculus Rift [1] and HTC Vive [2] two years ago. As the field has grown from almost nothing in a short time there has not yet been much research done in all VR-related areas. One such area is performance comparisons of different interaction models independent of VR-hardware.

    This study compares the effectiveness of four software-based interaction models for a specific simple pick-and-place task. Two of the interaction models depend on the user moving a motion controller to touch a virtual object, one automatically picks them up on touch, the other requires a button press. The other two interaction models have the user move a laser pointer to point at an object to pick it up. The first has the laser pointer emitted from a motion controller and the second has it emitted from the user’s head. All four interaction models use the same hardware, the default HTC Vive equipment.

    The effectiveness is measured in three metrics, time to complete the task, number of errors made during the task, and the amount of participant enjoyment rated on a scale from one to five. The first two metrics are measured through an observational experiment where the application running the virtual environment also logs all relevant information. The user enjoyment is gathered through a questionnaire the participant answers during the experiment. These are the research questions:

    • How do the interaction models compare in terms of accuracy and time efficiency when completing basic pick and place tasks in this experiment?

    • Which interaction models are subjectively more enjoyable to use according to participants?

    The results of the experiment are displayed as charts in the results chapter and then further analysed in the analysis and discussion chapter. Possible sources of error and theories about why the results turned out the way they did are also discussed.

    The study concludes that the laser pointer based interaction models, 3 and 4, were much less accurate than the handheld interaction models, 1 and 2, in this experiment. All interaction models except 4 achieved about the same test duration while interaction model 4 lagged several seconds behind. The participants liked interaction model 1 the most, followed closely by 3. They disliked 4 the most and rated 2 at a point in the middle of the rest.

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    BTH2018Essinger
  • 8.
    Frigione, Ivana
    et al.
    University of Milano-Bicocca, ITA.
    Massetti, Gemma
    University of Milano-Bicocca, ITA.
    Girondini, Matteo
    University of Milano-Bicocca, ITA.
    Etzi, Roberta
    University of Milano-Bicocca, ITA..
    Scurati, Giulia Wally
    Politecnico di Milano, ITA.
    Ferrise, Francesco
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, ITA.
    Chirico, Alice
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, ITA.
    Gaggioli, Andrea
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, ITA.
    Gallace, Alberto
    University of Milano-Bicocca, ITA.
    An Exploratory Study on the Effect of Virtual Environments on Cognitive Performances and Psychophysiological Responses2022In: CyberPsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, ISSN 2152-2715, E-ISSN 2152-2723, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 666-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that reduced exposure to natural contexts is associated with an increase in psychophysical disorders. Recent evidence suggests that even a brief experience in natural scenarios can positively affect people's health and well-being. However, natural contexts are not always easily accessible. This study investigates the effects of natural and indoor virtual environments (VREs) on psychophysiological and cognitive responses. Following a within-subject design, 34 healthy participants were exposed to two VREs (i.e., a forest and a living room) in a counterbalanced order through a head-mounted display (Oculus Rift). Participants were asked to explore the scenarios and execute a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. Physiological parameters (heart rate, skin conductance level [SCL], and respiration rate) were recorded during the whole session. After the exposure to VREs, participants filled a set of visual analog scales to rate their subjective experience of presence, relaxation, and stress. Participants reported a higher perceived sense of relaxation in the virtual forest. Moreover, their SCLs were significantly higher in this environment, showing that the forest elicited higher physiological arousal than the living room. Furthermore, their SCLs were significantly higher during the attentional task in the virtual living room. The results suggest that a natural virtual environment can make people feel more relaxed and physiologically engaged than an indoor scenario. The latter instead can be linked to a performing venue, as reported for real contexts. However, these changes were not related to modulations of attentional performance. Copyright © 2022, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  • 9.
    Hallengren, Eric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Physical Fitness VS. Reaction Time in E-sports.: A Design of an Experiment.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: E-sports is a grand industry and has been gaining momentum in the latest decades. Reaction time (RT) is an important part of most e-sports games and therefore a possible way to evaluate and improve RT is desired. A tool that evaluates the players and shows them what executive functions they should improve on through what physical activity would be a great way to evaluate and improve RT. There has been a lot of studies performed on the effects of physical fitness on RT. Most studies seem to agree that improved physical fitness results in improved RT.

     

    Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to design an experiment that will evaluate the connection between e-sports players physical fitness, their RT and their executive functions through different tests. There will also be an evaluation of if it is possible to reliably find a connection between specific kinds of physical fitness and specific executive functions. The objectives are therefore to find suitable tests to evaluate RT and executive functions as well as finding a physical fitness test that allows for easy comparison between subjects.

     

    Methods: Literature study is used to find the answers to the research questions through reading different studies and papers. Scopus was chosen as the database to find the different studies to read because of the vast amount of material available there.

     

    Results: The test used to evaluate physical fitness will be the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). The tests that will evaluate RT and executive functions are the Stroop test, the Trail Making Test A & B, Tower of Hanoi and a variation of the n-Back test. It is very difficult to isolate executive functions and evaluate them without something else interfering with the results. This thesis’s hypothesis changed from the beginning of the research to that it was done. At first it was believed that executive functions could be isolated and evaluated separately, but that is no longer the case.

     

    Conclusion: The experiment will most likely show that subjects with greater APFT score will achieve a better overall score on the RT tests than those with lower score. This experiment will most likely not work as a tool to evaluate the executive functions connection to specific physical exercises of e-sports players in the state that the experiment is currently envisioned. More studies are required to link specific physical exercises to specific executive functions before a tool can be created.

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    Physical Fitness VS. Reaction Time in E-sports.: A Design of an Experiment.
  • 10.
    Johansson, Petter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Understanding User Experience Contributors in Free/Libre Open Source Software2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) has accomplished many incredible things, but the most lacking is user experience (UX) which has been perpetuated both inside and outside the FLOSS community. The intention of this study is to discover what perception the FLOSS community have about UX improvements and what are the most common themes in the current obstacles that the community faces. This study includes a survey on a selected set of projects to show the perception based on closed- and open-ended questions. Furthermore, the thesis also applies grounded theory (GT) to a set of Github issues that establishes which themes are the most common.

    The outcome gave that the perception is no different independent of what role a community member of a FLOSS project have, key values of user support and active feedback for developers are were discovered and UX practitioners is appreciated but not necessary for a software's success. Common themes in problems faced by the FLOSS community is intuitiveness and a lack of clear response from the software, closely followed by configuration options.

    Conclusively there are a need for UX practitioners in some studied projects and the issue lies in the lack of UX contributors and the general knowledge of UX in the community in a very code focused environment.

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  • 11.
    Krüger, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Recognizing and classifying a golf swing using accelerometer in a Smartwatch2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 12.
    KUTTNER, Filip
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    CHARIF, Bilal
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Economics.
    Technology driven innovation in a post-pandemic world2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Firms need to innovate to remain competitive and innovation requires multiple stakeholders to collaborate to successfully identify new opportunities. When unable to meet an interact, we would like to understand how these stakeholders connect and what other impact on innovation performance should be considered when collaborating remotely. 

    Objectives: The thesis aims to identify underlying management theory and establish a model which will be used to interview employees of suitable firms. The study will then apply the model and strive to validate whether COVID-19 drives innovation and if it can be successfully performed during personal movement restrictions. 

    Methodology: This study is exploratory and qualitative with 4 propositions based on theoretical models tested against a selected panel of interviewees. 

    Results: The analysis surfaces that COVID-19 positively impacted employee commitment, competency and satisfaction while balancing employees working remotely. Both employees and firms found themselves more productive, relying on IT systems for incremental simplification of non-value-added activities. All firms did not however convert this momentum to innovation related performance to date. Overall, employees did find it advantageous being able to balance work and life, while firms enjoyed greater productivity. 

    Recommendations for future research: The link between greater productivity, staff satisfaction and realization of the same deserves additional attention as the scope of this study did not permit further review on an industry and past innovation performance level. 

    Keywords: performance, innovation, remote work, covid-19, management, productivity 

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    Technology driven innovation in a post-pandemic world
  • 13.
    Liljeberg, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Bjäreborn, Anton
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Hur kan fysisk teater integreras i Virtual Reality för att främja kroppsligt berättande?2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the mixture of physical theater and Virtual Reality(VR) and aims to answer what benefits physical storytelling can generate from a digital environment. The context and the connections leads to a discussion of how VR as a media form can be compared to a theatrical mask that promotes physical storytelling. The article also addresses how the body is important in both VR and theater and how the design “Get Your Act Together” translates the physical world into a digital place. Finally, a connection between VR and theater is presented, which leads to a discussion about VR's role as a medium in a theater context.

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    Hur kan fysisk teater integreras i Virtual Reality för att främja kroppsligt berättande?
  • 14.
    Moreland, Paul
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Webbteknologier i skolmiljön: Digitalisering av det fysiska klassrummet2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization in schools is now a natural part of the teaching environment but issues related to the maintenance and management of classroom technology pose a challenge to both teachers and staff. Can using modern web technologies to create a web-based classroom inventory and malfunction report system solve the problem or does the introduction of a new digital system provide a greater challenge to teachers and staff.

    The goal of this study is to determine if better management of physical technologies inside today’s classrooms can help create a more stable learning environment with less time lost maintaining technology and more time using it. The study will focus on how modern web technologies can be used to create a system which can solve the problem, but more importantly if the system can meet the demands of teachers and staff.

    A literature study, including the needs and challenges of digitalization within schools today, provides important information to build upon. Then a combination of statistics and cooperation from staff at a large Swedish school are used to create a web-based solution to the problem at hand. Finally, system feedback is accompanied by three teacher interviews about the introduction of the new digital system.

    Results from the study show that staff acknowledge the need for improvements relating to the maintenance and management of physical technologies within classrooms. DLG Klassrum, a newly created web-based system, is supported by staff and viewed as a potential solution to the problem, but challenges related to the introduction of a new digital system and the level of a teacher’s digital competence must first be overcome.

    To digitalize the physical classroom, through a system using modern web technologies, can successfully improve the learning environment within classrooms, but a good level of planning, preparation and cooperation are key to its level of success.

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    Webbteknologier i skolmiljön: Digitalisering av det fysiska klassrummet
  • 15.
    Napieralla, Jonah
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Comparing Graphical Projection Methods at High Degrees of Field of View2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Graphical projection methods define how virtual 3D environments are depicted on 2D monitors. No projection method provides a flawless reproduction, and the look of the resulting projections vary considerably. Field of view is a parameter of these projection methods, it determines the breadth of vision of the virtual camera used in the projection process. Field of view is represented by a degree, that defines the angle from the left to the right extent of the projection, as seen from the camera.

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived quality of high degrees of field of view, using different graphical projection methods. The Perspective, the Panini, and the Stereographic projection methods were evaluated at 110, 140, and 170 degrees of field of view.

    Methods. To evaluate the perceived quality of the three projection methods at varying degrees of field of view; a user study was conducted in which 24 participants rated 81 tests each. This study was held in a conference room where the participants sat undisturbed, and could experience the tests under consistent conditions. The tests took three different usage scenarios into account, presenting scenes in which the camera was still, where it moved, and where the participants could control it. Each test was rated separately, one at a time, using every combination of projection method and degree of field of view.

    Results. The perceived quality of each projection method dropped at an exponential rate, relative to the increase in the degree of field of view. The Perspective projection method was always rated the most favorably at 110 degrees of field of view, but unlike the other projections, it would be rated much more poorly at higher degrees. The Panini and the Stereographic projections received favorable ratings at up to 140-170 degrees, but the perceived quality of these projection methods varied significantly, depending on the usage scenario and the virtual environment displayed.

    Conclusions. The study concludes that the Perspective projection method is optimal for use at up to 110 degrees of field of view. At higher degrees of field of view, no consistently optimal choice remains, as the perceived quality of the Panini and the Stereographic projection method vary significantly, depending on the usage scenario. As such, the perceived quality becomes a function of the graphical projection method, the degree of field of view, the usage scenario, and the virtual environment displayed.

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    BTH2018Napieralla
  • 16.
    Navarro, Diego
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Biofeedback Interaction: Applying Physiological Methods to Entertainment Video Games2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofeedback interaction offers interesting opportunities for video games since it allows player physiological information to be used in novel interaction techniques. Despite several contributions in the area, biofeedback interaction faces a set of challenges relating to its design and implementation. First, it has mainly been used as a method to replace more traditional interaction devices, such as gamepads, mice or keyboards. Also, few of the previous interaction techniques have made an essential use of physiological data: exploring possibilities that could only be developed by involving physiological inputs.

    This dissertation explores how different physiological methods, such as electroencephalography, eye tracking, electrocardiography, electrodermal activity, or electromyography, could be used in the design and development of natural user interaction techniques that might be applied to entertainment video games, highlighting technical details for the appropriate use of physiological signals. The research also discusses interaction design principles from a human-computer interaction perspective, evaluates several novel biofeedback interaction techniques with a set of user studies, and proposes ethical considerations for the appropriate exposure to virtual reality and physiological sensor technology.

    Results show that the use of biofeedback inputs in novel interaction techniques, vary in complexity and functionality depending on the type of measurements used. They also showed that biofeedback interaction can positively affect player experience since it allows games and virtual reality applications to synchronize with player physiology, making of playing games a personalized experience. Results highlighted that biofeedback interaction can significantly affect player performance, being influenced by the interaction complexity and the reliability of the sensor technology used.

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    fulltext
  • 17.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Biofeedback Methods in Entertainment Games and Virtual Reality: A Review of Physiological Interaction TechniquesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of biofeedback interaction has grown over recent years, thanks to the release of affordable and reliable sensor technology, and the accessibility offered by modern game development tools. This article reviews how different biofeedback interaction methods have been used for entertainment purposes in video games and virtual reality, between the years 2008 and 2020. It divides previous contributions in terms of a proposed interaction classification criteria and six different biofeedback methods: electroencephalography, electrocardiography, eye tracking, electrodermal activity, electromyography, and multi-modal interaction respectively. The review describes the properties, sensor technology, and the type of data gathered for every included biofeedback method, and summarizes their respective interaction techniques into tables. Also, it proposes a set of opportunities and challenges for both, each included method and the area as a whole, based on the results from previous publications.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Max
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    VR som verktyg i kommunal fysisk planering av offentliga platser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The process of digitalizing our society is in full swing and the Swedish government has set its sight on Sweden being the spearhead of development and innovation in the field. There is great demand for digital solutions among Swedish citizens and most branches of industry are making investments to answer it. What this means for spatial planning is, among other things, that new technical solutions should be explored to keep up with citizens demands regarding participatory planning today and in the future.

    The purpose of this thesis has been to explore virtual reality technology’s potential and application in municipalities spatial planning. With point of departure in Jan Gehl’s “12 quality criteria for public space” a case study was performed on Nättraby center in Karlskrona municipality. This was followed by a plan proposal constructed in 3D with a documented design process and work methodology for working with VR in spatial planning. Gehl’s method was then applied in the virtual environment where officials from Karlskrona municipality evaluated the plan proposal. The purpose of the method for analyzing public space was to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the technology to create a discussion with officials from Karlskrona municipality, through an interview, about where VR is best used and how spatial planning proposals should be visualized to fulfill the municipality’s intent with using the technology.

    The results showed that the analysis method “12 quality criteria for public space” proved to be applicable in a virtual environment, but some of the criteria were easier to evaluate than others. Criteria related to scale, space and relation between volumes deemed easiest to evaluate. Criteria related to actual movement and senses that were not simulated like sound and touch were deemed harder to evaluate, but their lack of representation did not hinder the planning officials to evaluate the criteria. In the design of planning proposals for VR the officials emphasized the need to communicate to its citizens that the proposal was changeable and discuss the importance of the relation between level of detail and the proposals communicative intent.

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    BTH2018Nilsson
  • 19.
    Olofsdotter Bergström, Annika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Är tekniken en man?2015In: Om Sverige i framtiden: – en antologi om digitaliseringens möjligheter, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2015, 65, p. 273-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är mycket nedslående att leva i en tid där det är lättare att spränga en atom än en fördom, Einstein.

    Efter en genomlysning av rapporter, forskning, analyser, artiklar och ett försök till en bred blick i detta kapitel återstår egentligen bara frågor. Varför heter det Informationsteknik (it) eller Information, kommunikation och teknik (IKT) och inte något bredare som öppnar upp för fler tolkningar och möjligheter för vad denna tek-nik kan stå för, göra med oss, skapas av oss och förändra på djupet så att inte kvinnor behöver exkluderas ur denna sfär?Jag undrar ofta varför det görs skillnad på Datorspel och it? Är teknisk utveckling och nöje oförenliga för att det ena anses mindre seriöst än det andra?Varför är inte programmering obligatoriskt på grundskolorna så att eleverna kan börja tillämpa matte på ett mer pragmatiskt sätt, och göra roliga experimentella spel, robotar, appar och konst? Får vi inte ha roligt när vi lär oss? Varför ses inte teknik som en kulturskapande process, en mänsklig förståelse, en livsnjutande självklarhet? Varför utgår vi inte oftare från ordets grekiska ursprung techne som står för konst, skicklighet, hantverk? Varför ska vi hela tiden definiera och avgränsa betydelsen av teknik och därmed inkludera eller exkludera människor i den innersta kretsen? Skulle inte genuskunskap och intersektionalitet kunna vara ett obligatoriskt ämne i grundskolan som sedan också genomsyrar högskolevärlden? Behöver vi inte mer kunskap och förståelse för hur vi relaterar till varandra och till omvärlden?

  • 20.
    Ramsberg, Elias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Edlund, Erik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Hjärnstimulans för lärande i VR - en inblick i framtiden för lärande i VR2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By analyzing past attempts at streamlined digital teaching and learning, and the problems therewith, we speculate as to the future of this field and the path of its development. We simulate the experience of studying and learning in a real classroom, under real circumstances, virtually. Participants have been given the opportunity to, with the help of a VR-headset and the application developed for the purpose of this research, look at two separate videos. The application allows you to watch and listen to a lesson or a video in a room simulating a real classroom, and it combines the digital functionality of recording, pausing and jumping in the timeline of the content, while simultaneously being offered the physical medium of doodling. Results show that participants have had a better recollection of the content during which they were doodling than that during which they were not, regardless of the content of the doodling or what it depicts.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Hjärnstimulans för lärande i VR - en inblick i framtiden för lärande i VR
  • 21.
    Ulrich, Luca
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Marcolin, Federica
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Vezzetti, Enrico
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Nonis, Francesca
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Mograbi, Daniel
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Scurati, Giulia Wally
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Dozio, Nicolo
    Politecnico di Milano, ITA.
    Ferrise, Francesco
    Politecnico di Milano, ITA.
    CalD3r and MenD3s: Spontaneous 3D Facial Expression Databases2023In: Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, ISSN 1047-3203, E-ISSN 1095-9076, Vol. 98, article id 104033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last couple of decades, the research on 3D facial expression recognition has been fostered by the creation of tailored databases containing prototypical expressions of different individuals and by the advances in cost effective acquisition technologies. Though, most of the currently available databases consist of exaggerated facial expressions, due to the imitation principle which they rely on. This makes these databases only partially employable for real world applications such as human-computer interaction for smart products and environments, health, and industry 4.0, as algorithms learn on these ‘inflated’ data which do not respond to ecological validity requirements. In this work, we present two novel 2D+3D spontaneous facial expression databases of young adults with different geographical origin, in which emotions have been evoked thanks to affective images of the acknowledged IAPS and GAPED databases, and verified with participants’ self-reports. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first three-dimensional facial databases with emotions elicited by validated affective stimuli.

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