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  • 1.
    Acevedo, Carlos
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för teknik och estetik.
    Developing Inclusive Innovation Processes and Co-Evolutionary University-Society Approaches in Bolivia2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is part of a worldwide debate on inclusive innovation systems in developing

    countries and particularly on the co-evolutionary processes taking place, seen from the

    perspective of a public university. The increasing literature that discusses how innovation

    systems and development can foster more inclusive and sustainable societies has

    inspired this thesis work. Thus, the main problem handled in the research concerns the

    question how socially sensitive research practices and policies at a public university in

    Bolivia can be stimulated within emerging innovation system dynamics. In that vein,

    empirical knowledge is developed at the Universidad Mayor de San SimoÅLn (UMSS),

    Cochabamba as a contribution to experience-based learning in the field. Analysis are

    nourished by a dialogue with the work of prominent Latin American scholars and

    practitioners around the idea of a developmental university and the democratization

    of knowledge. The reader will be able to recognize a recursive transit between theory

    and practice, where a number of relevant concepts are contextualized and connected

    in order to enable keys of critical interpretation and paths of practices amplification

    for social inclusion purposes established. The study shows how, based on a previous

    experience, new competences and capacities for the Technology Transfer Unit (UTT)

    at UMSS were produced, in this case transforming itself into a University Innovation

    Centre. Main lessons gained in that experience came from two pilot cluster development

    (food and leather sectors) and a multidisciplinary researchers network (UMSS

    Innovation Team) where insights found can improve future collaborative relations between

    university and society for inclusive innovation processes within the Bolivian

    context.

  • 2. Acevedo Peña, Carlos Gonzalo
    Developing Inclusive Innovation Processes and Co-Evolutionary Approaches in Bolivia2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of National Innovation Systems (NIS) has been widely adopted in developing countries, particularly in Latin American countries, for the last two decades. The concept is used mainly as an ex-ante framework to organize and increase the dynamics of those institutions linked to science, technology and innovation, for catching-up processes of development. In the particular case of Bolivia, and after several decades of social and economic crisis, the promise of a national innovation system reconciles a framework for collaboration between the university, the government and the socio-productive sectors. Dynamics of collaboration generated within NIS can be a useful tool for the pursuit of inclusive development ambitions.

     

    This thesis is focused on inclusive innovation processes and the generation of co-evolutionary processes between university, government and socio-productive sectors. This is the result of 8 years of participatory action research influenced by Mode 2 knowledge-production and Technoscientific approaches.

     

    The study explores the policy paths the Bolivian government has followed in the last three decades in order to organize science, technology and innovation. It reveals that Bolivia has an emerging national innovation system, where its demand-pulled innovation model presents an inclusive approach. Innovation policy efforts in Bolivia are led by the Vice-Ministry of Science and Technology (VCyT). Moreover, NIS involves relational and collaborative approaches between institutions, which imply structural and organizational challenges, particularly for public universities, as they concentrate most of the research capabilities in the country. These universities are challenged to participate in NIS within contexts of weak demanding sectors. 

     

    This research focuses on the early empirical approaches and transformations at Universidad Mayor de San Simón (UMSS) in Cochabamba. The aim to strengthen internal innovation capabilities of the university and enhance the relevance of research activities in society by supporting socio-economic development in the framework of innovation systems is led by the Technology Transfer Unit (UTT) at UMSS. UTT has become a recognized innovation facilitator unit, inside and outside the university, by proposing pro-active initiatives to support emerging innovation systems. Because of its complexity, the study focuses particularly on cluster development promoted by UTT. Open clusters are based on linking mechanisms between the university research capabilities, the socio-productive actors and government. Cluster development has shown to be a practical mechanism for the university to meet the demanding sector (government and socio-productive actors) and to develop trust-based inclusive innovation processes. The experiences from cluster activities have inspired the development of new research policies at UMSS, with a strong orientation to foster research activities towards an increased focus on socio-economic development. The experiences gained at UMSS are discussed and presented as a “developmental university” approach.

     

    Inclusive innovation processes with co-evolutionary approaches seem to constitute an alternative path supporting achievement of inclusive development ambitions in Bolivia. 

  • 3.
    Akama-kisseh, Jerome
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    EXPLORING COMPUTERIZED TROUBLE TICKETING SYSTEM AND ITS BENEFITS IN VODAFONE GHANA2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Today more than ever, Computerized Trouble Ticketing System is becoming a booming information technology system that makes the difference between staying in business in a competitive global telecommunication arena.

    This quantitative exploratory survey utilised conveniently selected research subjects to explore computerized trouble ticketing system and its inherent benefits in Vodafone Ghana Plc. Cross section of vital data set collected with the aid of structured questionnaires haven been analyzed using descriptive statistics model.

    The study revealed that, effective and efficient usage of computerized trouble ticketing systems benefit the company in terms of its customer satisfaction, competitive advantage and business intelligence in competitive telecom arena. Nevertheless, the smooth realization of these inherent benefits are constantly challenged by complexity in managing volumes of data generated, intense era of competition, high cost of trouble ticketing system, as well as, rapid technological obsolesce in computerized trouble ticketing applications in telecommunication market.

    The study recommended for the quick and effective adoption of differentiation strategy, cost leadership strategy and customer relationship management, which are customer-centric measures that can build sustainable long-term customer relationship that can create value for the company, as well as, for the customers.

  • 4.
    AKTAR, SHAMIMA
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för fysisk planering.
    Urban Public Space: A Case from Developing Country2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities in developing world are inadequately equipped with public spaces. The increasing urbanizations trend is attracting more people to come to the cities without having proper sustainable plan for public spaces. However, this social public place holds the important function for urban well-being and collective recognition. This is the place where human can participate as fully fledged social subjects in complex civic life. Unfortunately, in most cases the provision of public space in these cities is always neglected or poorly integrated in planning legislations. So, in many cases community people make their own ways of social interaction that gives public space a new definition. Khulna, one of the divisional cities of Bangladesh, is going through the similar developing country situation. Lack of fund and space restricts development agencies to make new public spaces in this city. On the other hand management and coordination challenges between multilevel planning authorities also making existing public spaces malfunctioned. Sustainably planned, created and managed public spaces are hence urged for the cities of developing world to get livable and healthy urban environment.

  • 5.
    Andrén, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Sahyouni, Mohamad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Exploring the Impact of the Project Management Office on Project Performance, A Quantitative Study2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the establishment of a Project Management Office and project performance. Particularly, whether or not the establishment of a Project Management Office leads to enhanced project performance in project based organizations.

     

    Framework - The framework developed for the purpose of this study is made out of the different categories of Project Management Office services and functions on the one side and the different dimensions of project performance on the other. The model created tests the individual relationships between the constructs on each side.

     

    Methodology- The study employs a quantitative research design. Project Management Offices in organizations from across the globe and operating in a range of industries and industry segments are investigated. The data for the study is collected using an online questionnaire.

     

    Findings - The findings of this study lead to the belief that the establishment of a Project Management Office and the implementation of a certain set of its services and function will indeed lead to enhanced project performance

     

    Managerial Implications - Managers are made aware of the impact of the Project Management Office on project performance. Moreover, they are given guidelines as to what services and functions to adopt if there were only interested in seeing results on the project level.

    Limitations - The approach to exploring the subject in hand, the choice of participating organizations, the size of the sample tested, and the framework chosen for the evaluation of project performance are all seen as limitations for this study.

  • 6.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Rondini, Alice
    University of Bergamo, ITA.
    Pezzotta, Giuditta
    University of Bergamo, ITA.
    A systematic review of value metrics for PSS design2017Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, 2017, Vol. 64, s. 289-294Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of ‘value’ has become pivotal in the PSS domain, with a plethora of ‘indicators’, ‘drivers’ and ‘measurements’ proposed to guide the assessment of PSS concepts across the design process. This paper presents the results of a systematic literature review that maps existing contributions dealing with metrics for PSS value in early design. The findings reveal the lack of a common taxonomy to define what PSS value is, as well as differences in terms of granularity of the applied metrics, which span from very generic to highly case-study specific. This mapping aims at validating a proposed classification framework for such metrics, which balances customer and provider value perspectives in early stage PSS concept assessment activities. Its goal is to raise the cross-functional design team awareness on the multiple value types impacted by early stage design decisions when working with MADM matrixes; hence to highlight opportunities for improvement, recombination and refinement. 

  • 7.
    Boer, de, Wiebe Douwe
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    Participatory Design Ideals2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish academic discipline Informatics has roots in the Scandinavian design approach Participatory Design (PD). PD’s point of departure is to design ICT and the new environment it becomes part of together with the future users driven by the ideal to bring more democracy to the workplace. PD builds further on the Action Research and industrial democracy tradition already starting in the 1960s in Scandinavia, in which the powerful Scandinavian trade unions have a central role. The aim of the unions is to prepare the workers and have influence on the introduction of new technologies that (are expected to) change the work and work environment of the workers. In the 1970s, when more computers emerge in the work place, this leads to the development of PD. Important difference with AR is that the aim of PD is to actually design new ICT and the new environment it becomes part of.

    During the in PD literature much referred to project UTOPIA in the first half of the 1980s, led by project leader and PD pioneer Pelle Ehn, it is discovered that bringing the different expertise of designers/researchers and workers together in design-by-doing processes also result in more appropriate ICT.

     

    With ICT being ubiquitous nowadays, influencing most aspects of our lives, inside and outside the workplace, and another role of trade unions in (Scandinavian) society, a question is how PD should further develop. PD pioneer Morten Kyng (also a UTOPIA designer/researcher) proposes a framework for next PD practices in a discussion paper. The first element he mentions in the framework is ideals; The designer/researcher should as a first step consider what ideals to pursue as a person and for the project, and then to consider how to discuss the goals of the project partners, for which Kyng does no further suggestions how to approach this.

    This design and research thesis has as aim to design and propose some PD processes to come at the beginning of a PD/design project to shared ideals to pursue, based on a better understanding of the political and philosophical background of PD, including design as a discipline in its own right.

     

    For a better understanding of the political and philosophical roots of PD, and design as a discipline in its own right, Pelle Ehns’s early (PD research) work and (PD) influences and supporting theories are explored, next to Kyng’s discussion paper (framework) and reactions from his debate partners on this. Find out is that politics and what ideals to pursue in PD are sensitive and (still) important subjects in PD, and in a broader sense also for design in general one could argue. In relation to this also related disciplines like Computer Ethics, Value Sensitive Design, and more recent formulated ideals for PD and its relation to ethics are explored. As a result a proposal for a redesigned framework for next PD practices as a design artefact is designed, in which the element ideals is most elaborated.

    Before the understanding of design as a discipline in its own right is further explored by exploring a selection of different models and quotes from related (design) literature, on which is reflected also in relation to PD, and which are used as reminders in a design process to come to a proposal for a model that tries to reframe the relation between design, practice and research.

     

    Finally some methods, processes and techniques used in PD, design, AR and related literature that can contribute to design proposals for design processes that enable the design of ideals using a PD approach, are explored. These are used as reminders in design-by-doing processes, in which suggestions for techniques and processes to design ideals together with participants are tried out in real live situations, reflected on and iteratively further developed. Trying to avoid framing as much as possible, (semi-) anonymity and silence seem to be important ingredients in these processes to stimulate the generation of idea(l)s as much as possible free from bias and dominance patterns. An additional design artefact developed in this context is a template for an annotated portfolio used to describe and reflect on the different processes. 

  • 8.
    Bond, David
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Nyblom, Madelein
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Evaluation of four different virtual locomotion techniques in an interactive environment2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Virtual Reality (VR) devices are becoming more and more common as game systems. Even though modern VR Head Mounted Displays (HMD) allow the user to walk in real life, it still limits the user to the space of the room they are playing in and the player will need virtual locomotion in games where the environment size exceeds that of the real life play area. Evaluations of multiple VR locomotion techniques have already been done, usually evaluating motion sickness or usability. A common theme in many of these is that the task is search based, in an environment with low focus on interaction. Therefore in this thesis, four VR locomotion techniques are evaluated in an environment with focus on interaction, to see if a difference exists and whether one technique is optimal. The VR locomotion techniques are: Arm-Swinging, Point-Tugging, Teleportation, and Trackpad.

    Objectives: A VR environment is created with focus on interaction in this thesis. In this environment the user has to grab and hold onto objects while using a locomotion technique. This study then evaluates which VR locomotion technique is preferred in the environment. This study also evaluates whether there is a difference in preference and motion sickness, in an environment with high focus in interaction compared to one with low focus.

    Methods: A user study was conducted with 15 participants. Every participant performed a task with every VR locomotion technique, which involved interaction. After each technique, the participant answered a simulator sickness questionnaire, and an overall usability questionnaire.

    Results: The results achieved in this thesis indicated that Arm-Swinging was the most enjoyed locomotion technique in the overall usability questionnaire. But it also showed that Teleportation had the best rating in tiredness and overwhelment. Teleportation also did not cause motion sickness, while the rest of the locomotion techniques did.

    Conclusions: As a conclusion, a difference can be seen for VR locomotion techniques between an environment with low focus on interaction, to an environment with high focus. This difference was seen in both the overall usability questionnaire and the motion sickness questionnaire. It was concluded that Arm-Swinging could be the most fitting VR locomotion technique for an interactive environment, however Teleportation could be more optimal for longer sessions.

  • 9.
    Borén, Sven
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Sustainable Personal Road Transport: The Role of Electric Vehicles2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles can play an important role in a future sustainable road transport system and many Swedish politicians would like to see them implemented faster. This is likely desirable to reach the target of a fossil independent vehicle fleet in Sweden by 2030 and a greenhouse gas neutral Swedish society no later than 2050. However, to reach both these targets, and certainly to support the full scope of sustainability, it is important to consider the whole life-cycle of the vehicles and also the interaction between the transport sector and other sectors. So far, there are no plans for transitions towards a sustainable transport system applying a sufficiently wide systems perspective, in Sweden or elsewhere. This implies a great risk for sub-optimizations.

    The overall aim of this work is to elaborate methodological support for development of sustainable personal road transport systems that is informed by a strategic sustainable development perspective.

    The Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) is used as a foundation for the work to ensure a sufficiently wide systems perspective and coordinated collaboration across disciplines and sectors, both in the research and application. Maxwell’s Qualitative Research Design and the Design Research Methodology are used as overall guides for the research approach. Specific research methods and techniques include literature studies, action research seminars, interviews, and measurements of energy use, costs, and noise. Moreover, a case study on the conditions for a breakthrough for vehicles in southeast Sweden has been used as a test and development platform.

    Specific results include a preliminary vision for electrical vehicles in southeast Sweden, framed by the principled sustainability definition of the FSSD, an assessment of the current reality in relation to that vision, and proposed solutions to bridge the gap, organized into a preliminary roadmap. The studies show that electric vehicles have several sustainability advantages even when their whole life-cycle is considered, provided that they are charged with electricity from new renewable sources. Electrical vehicles also imply a low total cost of ownership and could promote new local ‘green jobs’ under certain conditions. Particularly promising results are seen for electric buses in public transport. As a general result, partly based on the experiences from the specific case, a generic community planning process model is proposed and its usefulness for sustainable transport system development is discussed.

    The strategic sustainable development perspective of this thesis broadens the analysis beyond the more common focus on climate change issues and reduces the risk of sub-optimizations in community and transport system development. The generic support for multi-stakeholder collaboration could potentially also promote a more participatory democratic approach to community development, grounded in a scientific foundation. Future research will explore specific decision support systems for sustainable transport development based on the generic planning process model.

  • 10.
    Bowin, Hampus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Scalability of the Bitcoin and Nano protocols: a comparative analysis2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past year cryptocurrencies have gained a lot of attention because of the increase in price. This attention has increased the number of people trading and investing in different cryptocurrencies which has lead to an increased number of transactions flowing through the different networks. This has revealed scalability issues in some of them, especially in the most popular cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. Many people are working on solutions to this problem. One proposed solution replaces the blockchain with a DAG structure. In this report the scalability of Bitcoin’s protocol will be compared to the scalability of the protocol used in the newer cryptocurrency, Nano. The comparison is conducted in terms of throughput and latency. To perform this comparison, an experiment was conducted where tests were run with an increasing number of nodes and each test sent different number of transactions per second from every node. Our results show that Nano’s protocol scales better regarding both throughput and latency, and we argue that the reason for this is that the Bitcoin protocol uses a blockchain as a global data-structure unlike Nano that uses a block-lattice structure where each node has their own local blockchain.

  • 11.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    A framework for strategic sustainable development2017Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, nr Part 1, s. 17-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive and cohesive description of the most recent version of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD), and also to describe and discuss the overall method for developing the FSSD, elaborate on the general rational for and general benefits of a framework of this type, and Validate benefits of the FSSD through examples of its application. The purpose is also to point to pertinent future work. In preparation of this paper, we have reviewed previous publications and other documents related to the FSSD and reflected on the 25-year learning process between scientists and practitioners. We conclude that the FSSD has proven to aid organizations in thoroughly understanding and putting themselves in context of the global sustainability challenge, and to move themselves strategically towards sustainability, i.e., to stepwise reduce their negative impacts on ecological and social systems at large while strengthening the own organization through capturing of innovation opportunities, including new business models, exploration of new markets and winning of new market shares, and through reduced risks and operation costs. Specifically, we conclude that the FSSD aids more effective management of system boundaries and trade-offs, makes it possible to model and assess sustainable potentials for various materials and practices before investments are made, and offers the possibility for more effective collaboration across disciplines and sectors, regions, value-chains and stakeholder groups. We also conclude that the FSSD makes it possible to prevent damages, even from yet unknown problems, and not the least, to guide selection, development and combination of supplementary methods, tools, and other forms of support, which makes it possible to increase their utility for strategic sustainable development. Finally, we have shown that the FSSD is useful for structuring transdisciplinary academic education and research. Several examples of ongoing FSSD related research, as well as ideas for future work, are given. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Bron, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kommunikationssystem.
    Hantering av fysiska säkerhetsrisker – en kunskapsöversikt2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kunna arbeta med systematisk hantering av brotts-, brands- och arbetsmiljörisker är en eftertraktadkompetens. Det syns inte minst i både näringslivets och den offentliga förvaltningensarbetsannonser när man söker chefer, handläggare eller samordnare till säkerhetsavdelningar.Trots det finns mycket lite skrivet på svenska om riskhantering och riskanalys i kontexten skyddmot brott. Ännu ovanligare är litteratur som jämför riskhantering mellan brandskydd, arbetsmiljöoch brottsskydd.Bristen på litteratur påverkar även studier av riskhantering inom fysisk och organisatorisk säkerhet,i synnerhet på akademisk nivå där det i Sverige är ett relativt nytt ämne. Att flytta fram positionernaoch vidga kunskapsfältet är därför angeläget både för ämnet fysisk- och organisatorisk säkerhetsåväl som för näringslivet. Detta kandidatarbete är ett tidigt bidrag till ett ämnesområde som ser utatt växa. Genom att kartlägga engelsspråkiga handböcker och det vetenskapliga kunskapsläget inomnärliggande discipliner har arbetet haft ytterligare ett mål: att nå ut med kunskap till de som arbetarmed riskhantering i praktiken och på så sätt vidga gruppens medvetenhet och yrkeskompetens.Uppsatsens syfte är att redovisa kunskapsläget och samtidigt visa på riskhanteringsprocessensbredd och djup. Mer konkret har det skett genom att identifiera likheter och skillnader i destuderade områdenas begreppsapparater, processbeskrivningar, problem, framgångsfaktorer ochsamtidigt redovisa eventuell kritik som riktas mot riskhantering som fenomen. Resultaten visar attdet finns fler likheter än skillnader mellan både riskhanteringsprocesser som riskanalysmetoder,oavsett om syftet är att skydda mot brott, ohälsa eller brand och olyckor.Arbetet har genomförts som en deskriptiv litteratursstudie och jämförande textanalys. Riskhanteringsprocessenhar beskrivits med utgångspunkt i den generiska ISO-standarden (31000:2009,Riskhantering - Principer och riktlinjer). Tio riskanalysmetoder som täcker samtliga steg i riskbedömningsmomentethar valts ut och beskrivits. Redovisning med tillhörande analys har följtsamma ordningsföljd som standardens processbeskrivning. Materialet har kompletterats ochjämförts med facklitteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar från tre riskhanteringsområden: (1) skyddmot ohälsa i arbetsmiljön, (2) skydd mot brand och olyckor samt (3) skydd mot brott.Uppsatsen ger även exempel på den inkonsekventa begreppsanvändningen som förekommer bådemellan och inom olika discipliner som sysslar med riskhantering. En av uppsatsens slutsatser äratt det sannolikt inte går att skapa en enhetlig begreppsapparat varken inom akademin eller i denpraktiska verksamheten samtidigt som det heller inte är nödvändigt. Istället kan missförstånd undvikasgenom att tydligt och i varje enskilt fall definiera vad man avser med ett visst begrepp.

  • 13.
    Chen, Guo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för fysisk planering.
    Migrating Cities: How to redefine the regional development in China2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid development of the urbanization in China, more and more migrants who are mainly from the relatively poor areas move to big cities in order to obtain the economic benefits. However, rather than living condition of migrants and rural development, people pay more attention to the economic development of the city. Migrants cannot achieve reasonable living condition in the urban context, at the same time, they may lose their land and source of income if they come back hometown although they have devoted themselves to the construction of big cities and economic development of rural areas. I analyze the characters of migrants’ living conditions in the big cities and the transfer of labors in rural areas, claiming that we should consider the situation of migrants scientifically when we are conducting the urban planning and urbanization. To explain the phenomenon of migration intuitively, I choose the Zhejiang village in Beijing and four villages in Henan Province as the example to study and analysis in the following. Firstly, Beijing is the capital of China so that it is the most popular place for migrants to move in. Zhejiang village is the famous historic problem in China and there are a lot of literatures and data collections that can be useful for my thesis. Secondly, Henan Province has the largest population in China and the migration is popular there. After the case study and survey, I analyze the reasons of the problem from different perspective such as government, economic differences, migrants’ education and so on. The paper suggests the solutions to solve the problems from relevant aspects.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Jesper
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola.
    Implementing a Level Design Tool for Calculating and Tuning the Travel Time of Paths in a Digital Game2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 15.
    Fagerberg, Marie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för fysisk planering.
    Vad händer med norra Bohusläns skärgårds- och kustområde?: riksintresse för turism och friluftsliv.2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte har varit att studera hur hanteringen av riksintresset enligt 4:e kap. 1-2 §§ Miljöbalken och motsvarande tidigare regleringar har fungerat över tid i norra Bohuslän, genom att undersöka den faktiska bebyggelseutvecklingen 1976- 2013. Syftet är även att undersöka hur kommunala politiker och tjänstemän samt Länsstyrelsen ser på denna utvecklig och inför framtiden. Detta för att få en indikation om hur området skulle kunna komma vara exploaterat i framtiden. Syftet har besvarats genom följande frågeställningar:

    Hur har bebyggelseutvecklingen skett i kustlandskapet Norra Bohuslän 1976-2013?Hur ser kommunala politiker och tjänstemän samt Länsstyrelsen på denna utveckling?Hur ser kommunala politiker och tjänstemän samt Länsstyrelsen på lagbestämmelserna,4 kap 1-2 § MB, inför framtiden?

    Utgångpunkterna som denna uppsats baseras på är olika förhållningssätt som kunnat urskiljas i den litteratur som studerats.

    Undersökningen i uppsatsen har byggts på två innehållsanalyser, en kvantitativ som baserats dels på kartmaterial från 1976 och 2013 och dels en kvalitativ baserat på intervjuer med utvalda kommunala tjänstemän och politiker samt från Länsstyrelsen.

    I den kvantitativa innehållsanalysen har hela norra Bohusläns kust- och skärgårdsområde omfattandes av ca 60 kartblad av ekonomiska kartan från 1976-1977 studerats och jämförts med fastighetskartan från 2013 för att skapa en bild av hur bebyggelseutvecklingen skett. Resultatet har presenterats generellt utifrån ett helhetsperspektiv för hela kustområdet. I den kvalitativa innehållsanalysen har totalt tio personer intervjuats som antingen i yrket verksamma med fysisk planering inom kustområdet eller har en viktig roll vid beslut kring dem.

    I resultaten av den kvantitativa analysen framkom bl.a. att förhållandevis stor andel av den bebyggelse som tillkommit 1976-2013 har tillkommit på landsbygden, inom ca 1 km från strand- och kustlinje och består i majoritet av bebyggelse för boende. Många av dessa områden består av 4-10 hus, men de färre större områdena med mer än 10 hus, tar ungefär lika mycket mark i anspråk. Av de större områdena som omfattas av bostadsbebyggelsen, består endast ett område i majoritet av helårboende – andelen delårsboende är till stor del övervägande inom kustområdet. Denna huvudsakliga lokalisering nära kust- och strandlinje och på landsbygden stämmer inte med de förespråkande förhållningssätt som kunnat urskiljas. Även om en mindre åtskillnad kan sägas göras idag mellan helår- och delårsboende så påverkar detta kommunernas bostadsplanering, där endast ett område med majoritet helårsboende utgör för liten grund för att slutsatser ska kunna kopplas till förhållande till strand- och kustlinjen. Att mer än hälften av områdena med bebyggelsen för boende har tillkommit i form av mindre omfattande ingrepp stämmer överens med det förhållningssätt som kunnat urskiljas. En förhållandevis liten andel av den bebyggelse som tillkommit på landsbygden är på campingar, tar förhållandevis liten markyta i anspråk, men har ofta tillkommit i attraktiva strandnära lägen som generellt anses ha stort värde för friluftslivet, vilket kan ses som förenligt utifrån det förhållningssätt som kunnat urskiljas, under förutsättning att bebyggelsen används för uthyrning och inte privatiseras. Sammantaget är detta en utveckling inom kustlandskapet som utifrån de förhållningssätt som kunnat urskiljas, en utveckling som kan ses som tveksam, men att kommunerna gör avvägningar mellan olika intressen som enligt planparadigmet är förenligt med intentionerna för riksintressebestämmelserna.

    I resultaten av den kvalitativa analysen framkom bl.a. att kommunala tjänstemän och politiker samt Länsstyrelsen har svårt att bedöma hur utvecklingen skett inom kustlandskapet på landsbygden (utifrån kartstudierna) och hur exploateringen har påverkat helheten och att de uppfattar nuvarande lagbestämmelser (4 kap. 1-2 §§) som vaga, svaga och svårtolkade. Det framkom även att bestämmelserna uppfattas som viktiga men behöver ses över, att förståelsen kring ämnet behöver öka och rutiner ses över.

  • 16. Flood, Petter
    et al.
    Hallin, Emil
    A User Study of the Just Noticeable Difference in Animation Level of Detail Set in a Game Environment2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. A previous study on performance benefits of joint reduction for animations was made by the authors of this thesis. The results of the study showed that a reduction in joint count is highly beneficial for performance. What that study left out was the perception of Level of Detail (LoD) of animations, and what the Just Noticeable Difference (JND) of a percentage decrease on the joint count would be. Thus motivating a study on peoples’ perception of animation quality.

    Objectives. The aim is to study the perception of LoD of animations in a game-like environment whilst doing a simple search-and-click task. Aiming to find the JND between animations with a different number of joints while the players are set with a task that does not involve interacting with the characters performing the animation.

    Methods. A psychophysical experiment was performed using a game implementation in Unity. Unity was chosen because it has easy access to develop scripts and a game environment. Furthermore, it has a marketplace where already made content can be downloaded and reused, which made the user study much easier to create.

    Results. A total of 85.71% did not see any difference between the different qualities used for the animations. The 14.29% that saw a difference in the animations all saw the difference between the lowest and the one next to the lowest quality animation.

    Conclusions. Three out of 21 participants were able to see a difference in the lowest animation quality, whilst no one saw any difference in the other qualities. Thus, people were not able to see a density reduction of up to 62.26% fewer joints for the chosen animation. Due to the low number of positive detections in the quality change of the animations, the JND could not be reliably computed.

  • 17.
    Gould, Rachael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    The individual human side of supporting sustainable design beginners2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting to include sustainability considerations in a design project is a transition requiring a change in how things are done, that is, a change in behaviour. Furthermore, this transition takes place in the midst of the usual pressures of product design. Prior research on sustainable design has mostly explored the so-called technical side – identifying what tasks should be performed, such as specifics of including sustainability criteria when analysing product concepts. However, this has not been enough. These tasks are not being performed to the extent that they could, or that is needed. Recent studies have advocated the consideration of the human nature of the people who are to execute these ‘technical’ tasks. In other words, there is a need to work with the socio-psychological factors in order to help sustainable design beginners to adopt new mindsets and practice (their usual way of doing design).

    My aim was therefore to investigate how to support individual product design team members with the human aspects of transitioning to executing sustainable design. In particular, I focused on supporting good individual decision-making and individual behaviour change. This aim was addressed through multiple research projects with four partner companies working with the early phases of product design. Given a focus to change practice, I followed an action research approach with a particular emphasis on theory building. This action research approach comprised two phases: understanding the challenge and context, and then iteratively developing solutions through a theorise–design-act-observe-reflect cycle.

    Through the research projects, my colleagues and I found that there are challenges related to behaviour change and decision-making that are hindering execution of sustainable design. In order to help organisations to overcome or avoid these challenges, we found that it may be beneficial for those developing sustainable design tools and methods to (i) use techniques to mitigate for cognitive illusions, (ii) provide individuals with the opportunity to implement sustainable design while helping those individuals to increase their motivation and capability to execute sustainable design, and (iii) communicate with these individuals in such a way as to avoid triggering psychological barriers (self-defence mechanisms). I combined these points into two models.

    Together with the partner organisations, we applied the two models to design some actions that we then tested. The actions included integrating behaviour change and decision-making considerations into sustainable design tools as well as stand-alone interventions in the culture.

    Given the findings of these studies, I urge developers of sustainable design tools to see implementation of their tool as a learning journey. The beginning of the journey should comprise small steps supported by handrails, which then increase in size and decrease in support as the journey continues. Especially in the beginning, tool developers will also need to help travellers to avoid the decision-making errors that occur due to being in unfamiliar territory.

     

  • 18.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Bratt, Cecilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Shrinking and scaffolding: supporting behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design2018Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To start to include sustainability in a design project is a transition. This transition requires change in how people do things, that is, behaviour change, and it takes place in the midst of the usual pressures of product design. Prior research on sustainable design has mostly explored the so-called technical side – identifying what tasks should be performed, such as specifics of including sustainability criteria when analysing product concepts. Recent studies have advocated the consideration of the human nature of the people who are to implement these ‘technical’ tasks, to undergo and drive the transition.

    We therefore embarked on an action research project to support behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design in the individual members of design project teams. Our action research partner was a design consultancy who wanted to begin working with sustainable design. Our research question was: How might the partner organisation support individual behaviour change towards implementing sustainable design?

    Firstly, we identified some barriers to behaviour change; these barriers were related to motivation, capability and opportunity to apply sustainable design. Secondly, to investigate how to address the barriers and support individual behaviour change, we integrated concepts on behaviour change, motivation, learning for sustainability and climate communication to form a conceptual system (a theoretical model). In parallel, we undertook a participatory action research project with the consultancy, where we iteratively and collaboratively employed our model to develop ideas for specific actions that the organisation could take. We also tried out some of these actions and observed the outcomes.

    We learnt that it is important to not just define what ‘technical’ tasks project teams should ideally perform, but to also scaffold the journey as a series of simpler steps. Shrinking the ‘technical’ tasks into meaningful steps that are within reach helps individuals to feel confident and competent, which in turn leads to increased intrinsic motivation and behaviour change. Progressively achieving small steps aligned with their values reduces the risk of dissonance and denial, and therefore increases the potential for action.

    In this article, we present our model and our learnings.

  • 19.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Missimer, Merlina
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Lagun Mesquita, Patricia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Using social sustainability principles to analyse activities of the extraction lifecycle phase: Learnings from designing support for concept selection2017Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, nr 1, s. 267-276Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysing product concepts with respect to social sustainability is a contemporary challenge for which there is little support available for product developers. Our aim was to build on previous work to support product developers in a case company with this challenge. We designed a first prototype of support for product developers to use a previously developed definition when analysing the extraction lifecycle activities associated with their product concepts. The prototype instructs users to model the location of the extraction activities and then use existing databases and indicators to analyse the social sustainability performance of each location. The databases and indicators were selected according to their relevance to scientific principles for social sustainability. We then performed initial evaluation of the support, through which we learnt that the approach may make it possible for product developers to analyse extraction activities, but the level of accuracy of analysis that is possible is not good enough for comparing the concepts in the case study decision. We discuss the implications of these challenges and suggest that it may be better to re-design our approach in order to provide learningful support for product developers or support for other decision-making in the company.

  • 20.
    Gould, Rachael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Svensson, Martin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Sustainable product development and tricks on the mind: Formulating conceptual models of cognitive illusions and mitigating actions2018Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Similar to visual illusions playing tricks on your eyes, cognitive illusions cause you to misjudge reality and therefore potentially make biased decisions. You are especially vulnerable when starting to introduce sustainability into concept development decision-making since this setting offers unfamiliarity, and complexity. Given a shortage of theories regarding which cognitive illusions product developers are susceptible to, we formulated a conceptual model. This model is based on the decision-making tasks that product developers undertake when they are developing concepts and the conditions that they experience when integrating sustainability into this decision-making. From decision-making literature, we identified the following cognitive illusions as occurring when undertaking those tasks under those conditions: availability, anchoring and confirmation bias when generating ideas; illusory correlation and validity effect when selecting between ideas; evaluability bias and status quo bias when gate reviewing. Based on the model, we synthesised literature on how to mitigate for the identified illusions and organised this synthesis according to when (during which task type) a product developer should perform the mitigating actions. These mitigating actions vary according to task type and focus on the quality of the decision-making process.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Kevin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Sundstedt, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Automated file extraction in a cloud environment for forensic analysis2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Möjligheten att använda OpenStacks ögonblicks funktion som metod för att säkra bevis har granskats i detta papper. Dessutom har möjligheten att extrahera bevis automatiskt med ett befintligt automatiseringsverktyg undersökts. Användbarheten av ögonblicksbilder i en rättslig utredning undersöktes genom att genomföra en serie tester påbåde ögonblicksbilder och fysiska disk avbilder. Resultaten av testerna jämfördes sedan för att utvärdera användbarheten av ögonblicksbilden. Automatisk utvinning av bevis undersöktes genom att implementera en lösning med Ansible och utvärdera algoritmen baserat påden befintliga standarden ISO 27037. Det drogs slutsatsen att de ögonblicksbilder som skapats av OpenStack beter sig tillräckligt lika en fysisk disk för att avbilderna ska vara användbara vid en råttslig utredning. Den algoritm som föreslås att extrahera bevis automatiskt tycks inte bryta mot standarden.

  • 22.
    Hall, Anton
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för fysisk planering.
    Sundell, Simon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för fysisk planering.
    Innerstaden och externhandeln. En konflikt eller ett planeringsideal?: En komparativ fallstudie över politiska förhållningssätt till stadsplanering och handeln2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handeln har haft en betydande roll för stadens uppkomst och utveckling, idag är stadens många funktioner som karaktärisera staden som attraktiv med ett myllrande gatuliv. Men sedan bilens framfart har handelsområden etableras utanför stadens kärna som har möjliggjort en större kundkrets och ett större utbud. Under 90-talet ändrades Plan- och bygglagen i syfte att främja den fria marknaden och konkurrensen, vilket möjliggjorde etableringen av externhandel som den ser ut idag. Idag står den för en tredjedel av handeln i Sverige och etableringen har även lockat internationella butikskedjor som har pressat priserna och flertalet forskare menar nu att det riskerar att utarma staden på handel och service.

    Under kursen Planering och hållbarhet i programmet Fysisk Planering på Blekinge Tekniska Högskola stötte vi för första gången på allvar på problematiken med externhandeln. Externa köpcentrum lyftes främst som ett miljömässigt problem, men också som en lösning ur ett socialt och ekonomiskt perspektiv. Frustration uppstod inom oss när vi insåg att kommunerna tillsynes krigar om externhandeln och det väckte flera frågor. Kommunpolitiker framställde många av problemen oansenligt och ofullständigt, med godtyckliga lösningar. Underlaget i kursen gav oss känsla av att kommunrepresentanter och politiker inte vågar trotsa nyetableringar av externa handelsområden i rädsla av att ställa sig emot utvecklingen av företagsamhet. Men måste de två stå i motsats till varandra? Eftersom vi under programmet diskuterat externhandel ur ett kritiskt perspektiv har vi följaktligen antagit en mycket kritisk ansats mot handelsfunktionen. Som nämnt ovan uppstod intresset för forskningsområdet ur känslomässig frustration och irritation. Det kan därför vara värdefullt att poängtera möjligheten för en förkonstruerad subjektiv bias mot externhandeln i arbetet.

    Detta kandidatarbete utgör en komparativ fallstudie över två kommuner, Landskrona och Karlskrona, som är för- respektive emot etablering av externhandel, för att studera hur olika planeringsideal påverkar innerstaden. I urvalet av studieobjekt valdes de aktuella kommunerna sådant att de yttre faktorerna, såsom geografisk lokalisering, medianinkomsten i kommunen och befolkningsmängd, är så lika varandra som möjligt så att skillnader i de politiska planeringsidealernas effekter tydliggörs. En dokumentanalys över kommunala dokument har legat till grund för tio attribut för staden, som agerat verktyg för att beskriva påverkan och effekter på innerstaden.

    Fallstudien visade att Landskrona, som opponerat sig mot etablering av externhandel, driver en konkret och strikt planeringspolitik för att göra innerstaden till en attraktiv plats med konkurrenskraft och god ekonomisk tillväxt. Karlskrona, som opponerat sig för etablering av externhandel, driver en nätverkande planeringspolitik, där flera aktörer har möjlighet att driva planeringsfrågor och påverka processer. Resultatet visade att Landskronas innerstad har sämre ekonomisk tillväxt än Karlskrona, trots kommunens omfattande strategier att nå en ekonomiskt stark stadskärna. 

  • 23.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Pigosso, Daniella
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DEN.
    Sustainability integration in a technology readiness assessment framework2017Ingår i: DS87-5 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 5: DESIGN FOR X, DESIGN TO X / [ed] Van der Loos M.,Salustri F.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Kokkolaras M.,Maier A.M.,Skec S.,Kim H., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 5, nr DS87-5, s. 229-238, artikel-id DS87-5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an approach to systematically include sustainability into the Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) is proposed. The aim is to answer the question "how can sustainability provide systematic guidance in technology development and early product development?". Results from a case study illustrate that the suggested approach can support i) the inclusion of sustainability into the early design stages, when only limited data and information is available; ii) the enhancement of the comprehensiveness of sustainability and ease of use in the day-to-day engineering working environment; and iii) simplified sustainability assessments without being too simplistic and/or reducing the sustainability scope. The proposed approach is being co-developed in collaboration with a case company, and tests on an actual technology development project are planned. The next steps are related to the application of the proposed approach in other companies to test its robustness and enhance its generalization for application in diverse contexts.

  • 24.
    Hansson, Kim
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    Hörlin, Erik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    Active learning via Transduction in Regression Forests2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The amount of training data required to build accurate modelsis a common problem in machine learning. Active learning is a techniquethat tries to reduce the amount of required training data by making activechoices of which training data holds the greatest value.Objectives. This thesis aims to design, implement and evaluate the Ran-dom Forests algorithm combined with active learning that is suitable forpredictive tasks with real-value data outcomes where the amount of train-ing data is small. machine learning algorithms traditionally requires largeamounts of training data to create a general model, and training data is inmany cases sparse and expensive or difficult to create.Methods.The research methods used for this thesis is implementation andscientific experiment. An approach to active learning was implementedbased on previous work for classification type problems. The approachuses the Mahalanobis distance to perform active learning via transduction.Evaluation was done using several data sets were the decrease in predictionerror was measured over several iterations. The results of the evaluationwas then analyzed using nonparametric statistical testing.Results. The statistical analysis of the evaluation results failed to detect adifference between our approach and a non active learning approach, eventhough the proposed algorithm showed irregular performance. The evalu-ation of our tree-based traversal method, and the evaluation of the Maha-lanobis distance for transduction both showed that these methods performedbetter than Euclidean distance and complete graph traversal.Conclusions. We conclude that the proposed solution did not decreasethe amount of required training data on a significant level. However, theapproach has potential and future work could lead to a working active learn-ing solution. Further work is needed on key areas of the implementation,such as the choice of instances for active learning through transduction un-certainty as well as choice of method for going from transduction model toinduction model.

  • 25.
    Irshad, Mohsin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Assessing Reusability in Automated Acceptance Tests2018Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Automated acceptance tests have become a core practice of agile software development (e.g. Extreme Programming). These tests are closely tied to requirements specifications and these tests provide a mechanism for continuous validation of software requirements. Software reuse has evolved with the introduction of each new reusable artefact (e.g., reuse of code, reuse of frameworks, tools etc.). In this study, we have investigated the reusability of automated acceptance tests keeping in view their close association with textual requirements.

    Objective: As automated acceptance tests are closely related to software requirements, we have used existing research in software engineering to identify reusability related characteristics of software requirements and used these characteristics for automated acceptance tests.This study attempts to address the following aspects: (i) what important reuse characteristics should be considered when measuring reusability of automated acceptance tests? (ii) how reusability can be measured in automated acceptance tests?, and (iii) how cost avoided through reuse of automated acceptance tests can be calculated?

    Method: We have used a combination of research methods to answer different aspects of our study. We started by identifying reusability related characteristics of software requirements, with help of systematic literature review. Later, we tried to identify the reusability related characteristics of defect reports and the process is documented using an experience report. After identifying the characteristics from the previous two studies, we used these characteristics on two case-studies conducted on Behaviour driven development test cases (i.e., acceptance tests of textual nature). We proposed two approaches that can identify the reuse potential of automated acceptance tests and evaluated these approaches in the industry. Later, to calculate the cost avoided through reuse, we proposed and evaluated a method that is applicable to any reusable artifact.

    Results: The results from the systematic literature review shows that text-based requirements reuse approaches are most commonly used in the industry. Structuring these text-based requirements and identifying the reusable requirements by matching are the two commonly used methods for enabling requirements to reuse. The results from the second study, industrial experience report, indicates that defect reports can be formulated in template and defect triage meeting can be used to identify important test-cases related to defect reports. The results from these two studies, text-based requirements reuse approaches and template based defect reports, were included when identifying approaches to measure reuse potential of BDD test-cases. The two proposed approaches, Normalised Compression Distance (NCD) and Similarity Ratio, for measuring reuse potential were evaluated in the industry. The evaluation indicated that Similarity ratio approach performed better than the NCD approach, however, the results from both approaches were comparable with the results gathered with the help of expert analysis. The cost related aspects of reusable acceptance tests were addressed and evaluated using a method that calculates the cost-avoidance through reuse. The industrial evaluation of the method and guidelines show that the method is an artifact independent method. 

    Conclusions: The evidence from this study shows that the automated acceptance tests are reusable, similar to text-based software requirements and their reuse potential can be calculated as well. The industrial evaluation of the three studies (i.e. approaches to measure reuse potential, calculation of cost avoidance and defect reports in triage meetings) shows that the overall results are applicable to the industry. However, further work is required to evaluate the reuse potential of automated acceptance tests in different contexts. 

  • 26.
    Jaghbeer, Yasmeen
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Motyka, Yvonne
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    A process for designing lean-and sustainable production2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED, The Design Society, 2017, nr DS87-1, s. 51-60, artikel-id DS87-1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's trends such as globalization, increased customer demands, and increased sustainability challenges have caused a paradigm shift, where the importance of designing lean-and sustainable modern manufacturing systems is realized by many companies. This study proposes a process of action steps using Value Stream Mapping method integrated with sustainability life cycle analysis and sustainability compliance index to assist in designing lean-and sustainable production systems. The developed process was validated through a case study to test the adopted tools and how they can capture and improve the lean-and sustainability levels. The current sustainability and lean levels were explored first, followed by analyzing and developing the future improved state. A roadmap of about 40 actions was suggested to the case company distributed on a one year time plan. The key contribution of this study is an applicable and generic process of action steps including several adopted tools from the leanand sustainable product development fields to help manufacturing companies in creating roadmaps for more lean-and sustainable production systems.

  • 27.
    Jagtap, Santosh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Design creativity: refined method for novelty assessment2019Ingår i: International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, Vol. 7, nr 1-2, s. 99-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Novelty is an important characteristic of a creative idea, forming a core component of creativity. Measurement of novelty is therefore essential to assess creativity. We found deficiencies in a frequently cited method of novelty assessment found in the literature. We refine this method by proposing four modifications, supported by drawing on examples of products and ideas. The refined method and the original method are evaluated by benchmarking them against the collective, intuitive assessment of product novelty by experienced designers. The overall achievement of the refined method as presented in this paper is its contribution to a better assessment of product novelty.

  • 28.
    Jagtap, Santosh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Intentions and Inspiration in Shaping Visual Appearance of Products: The Practice of Professional Industrial Designers in India2018Ingår i: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6965, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 85-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eliciting specific intentions and seeking inspiration are important activities in the process of shaping a product’s visual appearance. A survey of the professional industrial designers was conducted to identify intentions (e.g. attributes, emotions) that they attempt to elicit, and also to identify inspiration sources and their media that they prefer not only in generating ideas to realise intentions but also in analysing and communicating intentions. The findings indicate that the designers frequently intend to elicit some specific attributes and emotions. Regarding inspiration sources and media, commonalities as well as differences were observed in the activities - analysing intentions, communicating intentions, and generating ideas to realise intentions.

  • 29.
    Jasarevic, Mirza
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Impact of Weather Phenomena on Object Detection: Testing YOLOv3 In Traffic- And Weather Simulations2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Object detection is gaining more influence in everyday life, various institutions and agencies are utilizing it to help streamline their day-to-day tasks. It helps process large quantities of data and requires less resources, hence making for a promising tool in the future. It still faces many baseline issues, such as weather conditions obstructing the shape or tone of an object and thereby causing misidentifications. This can be as harmless as a toy misidentifying a frown for a smile and reacting happily to your sorrow, or as harmful as a self-driving car misidentifying a dark car. If for instance the darker car’s lights were in disrepair, and it was placed under the shade of a few trees at a crossing, the first car might continue through when it should have slowed down in good time or even stopped to ensure it can prevent an accident. The intent of this research is to delve into those aspects and scenarios where the weather and natural lighting outdoors can affect object detection in traffic from the perspective of a police vehicle’s camera. Evidence of law enforcement attempting implementation of the technology can be readily found on the internet even as far back as 2010, providing the right relevance for this study.

    Realization (Method): The research will be conducted using four common categories of objects encountered in everyday traffic; cars, people, motorbikes and trains. Each category will have three instances in form of images in their relevant setting, on streets for instance, to represent them in the conducted tests. Each test consists of four filters; contrast, blur, noise and resizing. For each filter there will be 20 versions, i.e. every fifth degree will be an option to apply and these will all be combined to make a total of 20^4 combinations for each image, then all combinations will be tested and detections will be registered.

    Objectives: The scope of objectives for this study was to find out which of the four categories was easiest to detect, which of the four filters was most disruptive, and to find out if there are any rules of thumb for what degrees of each filter could be considered a threshold beyond which detection is not guaranteed.

    Results: The results proved cars and people to be easiest to detect, noise to be the most obstructive filter, and contrast to guarantee detection up to 30% of application from the original luminance. Blur and change of size were negligible in impact and thus did not matter, while noise was too complex to give a clear answer in regards to beyond what percentage of noise application stops all further detections.

    Conclusions: What could be concluded from this study is that certain visual effects are harmless, contrast and noise are predominant, and that more research into the disruption of noise should be done. Noise meaning particles or specks of black or white color in the shape of pixels strewn across an image(i.e. “Salt-and-pepper noise”) to simulate things such as snow, rain etc. Object detection has been costly in mistakes even very recently in the public sphere so it needs more optimization. But it has many uses in many fields such as medicine, law enforcement, statistics and the fire departments, and for broader, commercial use, models need more training.

  • 30.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Tatipala, Sravan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Product-Service Systems for Functional Offering of Automotive Fixtures: Using Design Automation as Enabler2017Ingår i: Procedia CIRP: 9th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product/Service-Systems (IPSS), Copenhagen, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, s. 411-416Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In production of automotive components, control-measuring is an important activity to assure that geometries meet expected tolerances. This is done via randomly taking parts out of production for control-measuring in a fixture. This fixture is both a tedious and repetitive product to design and configure. The aim of this paper is therefore to present an approach to adopt a design automation strategy towards supporting the configuration of fixtures and to discuss opportunities for moving towards a Product-Service System-paradigm in this domain. This paper reports on a development of a design automation demonstrator to configure fixtures for control-measuring. The demonstrator has been developed in a commercial CAD-environment and will be deployed through a web-based interface. The paper concludes with a discussion on PSS-opportunities and how to drive this with a Knowledge-Based Engineering-modelling approach. 

  • 31.
    Johansson, Christian
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Maturity of models in a multi-model decision support system2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Salustri F.,Skec S.,Maier A.M.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Van der Loos M., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 6, s. 237-246, artikel-id DS87-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce uncertainty in decisions, engineers experiment with models, such as, exploring what-if scenarios, and thus increase knowledge. Still, because modelling is an idealisation of reality, there is often substantial uncertainty involved, and this decision makers less confident to lean onto models alone when making decisions. The aim of this paper is to conceptualize a design support for improving confidence and validity in models, by communicating uncertainties from modelling and simulation to relevant stakeholders. The paper reports on empirical data from a research profile workshop. The findings illustrate the importance of communicating uncertainties from models between relevant stakeholders in order to drive action. The paper then presents an approach to visualize model maturity levels as well as impact levels in relation to one or several aggregated models. With this approach, focus can move to discuss the knowledge about the knowledge that is created from modelling, and to facilitate discussions on a meta-level about the modelling and simulation. This is exemplified by a test scenario where a multi-disciplinary modelling and simulation of an asphalt roller is presented.

  • 32.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Högpresterande innovationsteam - steg för steg2018 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det bubblar om innovation överallt. Alltfler förstår att innovation är avgörande för fortsatt framgång och överlevnad oavsett typ av organisation. Men nu är det dags att ta nästa steg - att få någonting gjort och dessutom snabbt och effektivt.

     

    I Högpresterande innovationsteam får du veta hur du kan skapa innovationsteam i din organisation, som aktivt arbetar med att utveckla till exempel nya produkter, tjänster och processer mot ett givet mål. I boken finns konkreta tillvägagångssätt, råd och tips på hur du steg-för-steg skapar och etablerar ett högpresterande innovationsteam. Kärnan är att skapa ett team som är skapat utifrån sitt uppdrag – att innovera – som samtidigt inte hamnar i grupprelaterade problem.

     

    Boken vänder sig till dig som är verksam med innovationsfrågor i din organisation, både i ledning och operativt, som utbildar om innovation på universitet och högskola eller som är konsult. Varje kapitel avslutas med reflektionsfrågor som hjälper dig att tänka igenom och konkretisera vägen framåt i skapandet av innovationsteam i din verksamhet.

  • 33.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    The innovation facilitator: characteristics and importance for innovation teams2018Ingår i: Journal of Innovation Management, E-ISSN 2183-0606, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 12-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research develops the understanding of the innovation facilitator’s (facilitator) role in terms of inexperienced innovation teams in an industrial context. Qualitative data was collected from three X-functional innovation teams’ members and their sponsor to identify the requirements for a facilitator. Forty characteristics were identified and charted in an innovation process. Significant findings, contributing to prior research, are that the facilitator’s presence and involvement in the innovation teams was crucial in the pre-phase and first phase of the innovation process due to the very high complexity; in these phases, personal characteristics as well as skills in, for example, facilitating, teaching, coaching, and group dynamics were central. The importance of the pre-phase was unexpected, resulting in an extended innovation process, during which an initial preparation phase has been added to the traditional innovation process. This knowledge is applicable, for example, when creating and educating new innovation teams within an organization. Future research is suggested.

  • 34.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Hyrén, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Problems when creating inter-organisational innovation teams2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to gain knowledge on how inter-organisational collaborative innovation and research projects can be initiated through a systematic workshop series. A series of workshops was planned and executed by an intermediator organisation. Sixteen participants representing academia, industry, and funding institutions were invited with the goal of initiating collaborative innovation or research projects. Data were collected through observations, statement-based questionnaires, and interviews. At the end of the workshop series, no projects were initiated. The problems were identified as the intermediator’s lack of knowledge in selecting and preparing participants for this setting, but also the participants’ lack of knowledge regarding innovation work and collaboration on an inter-organisational basis. Further research is suggested. 

  • 35.
    Johnsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Swenningsson, Kristina
    Crearum AB, SWE.
    Svensson, Ewa
    Crearum AB, SWE.
    Problems when creating innovation teams2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores problems occurring when practitioners use a research-based methodology regarding how to create high-performing innovation teams, namely the CIT-process, which has not been used by practitioners before. The CIT-process is recommended to be used prior to the ideation phase, which otherwise is considered to be the first phase in the innovation process. The CIT-process is a five-step process in which the innovation project kick-off is the final step. Prior steps refer to management commitment and identification and to the preparation of a convener and team members. A consultancy firm was educated and evaluated before organisations were involved, who brought real innovation projects to work on. Three innovation teams were created. Data were collected through observations at team meetings and interviews. Any problems were mainly caused by management that underestimated the value of preparation in innovation work. Scepticism towards the newly developed CIT-process and the practitioners' inexperience with the CIT-process were also addressed as reasons. The need for educational tools was highlighted. Further research is suggested.

  • 36.
    Karlsson, Albin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    Evaluation of the Complexity of Procedurally Generated Maze Algorithms2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Procedural Content Generation (PCG) in Video Games can be used as a tool for efficiently producing large varieties of new content using less manpower, making it ideal for smaller teams of developers who wants to compete with games made by larger teams. One particular facet of PCG is the generation of mazes. Designers that want their game to feature mazes also need to know how to evaluate their maze-complexity, in order to know which maze fits the difficulty curve best.

    Objectives. This project aims to investigate the difference in complexity between the maze generation algorithms recursive backtracker (RecBack), Prim’s algorithm (Prims), and recursive division (RecDiv), in terms completion time, when solved using a depth-first-search (DFS) algorithm. In order to understand which parameters affect completion time/complexity, investigate possible connections between completion time, and the distribution of branching paths, distribution of corridors, and length of the path traversed by DFS.

    Methods. The main methodology was an implementation in the form of a C# application, which randomly generated 100 mazes for each algorithm for five different maze grid resolutions (16x16, 32x32, 64x64, 128x128, 256x256). Each one of the generated mazes was solved using a DFS algorithm, whose traversed nodes, solving path, and completion time was recorded. Additionally, branch distribution and corridor distribution data was gathered for each generated maze.

    Results. The initial results showed that mazes generated by Prims algorithm had the lowest complexity (shortest completion time), the shortest solving path, the lowest amount of traversed nodes, and the lowest proportion of 2-branches, but the highest proportion of all other branch types. Additionally Prims had the highest proportion of 4-6 length paths, but the lowest proportion of 2 and 3 length paths. Later mazes generated by RecDiv had intermediate complexity, intermediate solving path, intermediate traversed nodes, intermediate proportion of all branch types, and the highest proportion of 2-length paths, but the lowest proportion of 4-6 length paths. Finally mazes generated by RecBack had opposite statistics from Prims: the highest complexity, the longest solving path, the highest amount of traversed nodes, the highest proportion of 2-branches, but lowest proportion of all other branch types, and the highest proportion of 3-length paths, but the lowest of 2-length paths.

    Conclusions. Prims algorithm had the lowest complexity, RecDiv intermediate complexity, and RecBack the highest complexity. Increased solving path length, traversed nodes, and increased proportions of 2-branches, seem to correlate with increased complexity. However the corridor distribution results are too small and diverse to identify a pattern affecting completion time. However the corridor distribution results are too diverse to make it possible to discern a pattern affecting completion time by just observing the data.

  • 37.
    Karlsson, Louise
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    A product-oriented Product Service System for tracing materials on autonomous construction sites: A product development for today’s and future construction sites2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den globala befolkningen växer och fler flyttar till städerna än tidigare. Detta skapar ett behov av ökad effektivitet i byggbranschen och möjlighet till arbete i avlägsna miljöer. På dagens byggarbetsplatser är det nödvändigt att kunna organisera platsen på ett bättre sätt. I framtiden kommer de autonoma fordonen få det svårare att lokalisera material på en byggarbetsplats. De autonoma fordonen kan lokalisera sig med kameror och sensorer, men de vet inte hur man lokaliserar material och föremål.

    Rapporten bygger på ett projekt där kunden var Volvo Construction Equipment och projektet utfördes av studenter från Blekinge Tekniska Högskola och Stanford University. Prompten för projektet löd "Från elefanter till myror - från jorden till mars" och som senare tolkades till att finna en lösning för framtiden som kommer att kunna fungera utan mänsklig påverkan.

    Från detta projekt skapades denna rapport. Följande forskningsfrågor skulle besvaras:

    • Hur kan arbetare lokalisera byggmaterial på dagens byggarbetsplatser?

    • Hur kommer autonoma fordon kunna lokalisera material utan mänsklig hjälp på de framtida byggarbetsplatserna?

    För att lösa dessa problem startades en designprocess, med vald ingenjörsmetod. Denna metod valdes på grund av typen av problem. I ingenjörsmetoden identifieras problemet för att skapa en lösning till problemet, jämfört men en vetenskaplig metod, där en fråga besvaras.

    Resultatet från denna rapport är ett produkttjänstesystem (PSS) för ett spårningssystem för att kunna spåra material på dagens och framtida byggarbetsplatser. När denna lösning skapades togs det ingen hänsyn till de ekonomiska aspekterna. Fokus på denna rapport är de första stegen för att gå från dagens byggarbetsplatser mot de framtida byggplatserna där autonomiska fordon kommer att användas.

    Resultatet av forskningen visade att det finns ett stort behov av att organisera de olika byggarbetsplatserna som besöktes under studiebesöken. Arbetarna har idag ett litet förtroende för de autonoma fordonen som är ett resultat av bristande information och kommunikation inom företagen. För att kunna gå till en autonom framtid måste tankesätt och attityd ändras. Den samlade data analyserades och resultatet var ett spårningssystem som gör det möjligt för både människor och maskiner att lokalisera material på dagens och framtida byggarbetsplatser. Med denna lösning kan dagens arbetare enkelt spåra materialet, utan att behöva omstrukturera arbetsplatsen. De autonoma fordonen kommer kunna använda spårningssystem för att kunna lokalisera material när det inte finns några människor till hands.

  • 38.
    Krig, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Sandra, Lindvall
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Business Value Enhancing Factors of Aligning IP Strategy with Corporate Strategy2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 39.
    Kritikos, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Barreiros, Jacinto
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Business model innovation to explore data analytics value; A case study of Caterpillar and Ericsson.2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to identify a roadmap for well-established companies towards business model innovation to explore data analytics value. The business model innovation currently taking place at Caterpillar and Ericsson in order to explore data analytics value is presented to answer the question: “How do established companies explore data analytics to innovate their business models?” Initially, the problem discussion, formulation and purpose are given. Then, the relevant theory is presented covering the importance of data analytics, IT infrastructure challenges due to the increased volume of data created, data analytics methods currently being used, smart connected products and the Internet of Things. The meaning of business model innovation is given, followed by a well-structured business model process which includes the business model canvas for representation purposes. The business areas affected by data analytics value and the barriers of business model innovation are given as well. After that, the theory addressing business model innovation to explore data analytics value is presented and the main industries which are currently on this journey along with the required initial steps and the business models that can come out of this process are identified. The challenges and risks if the option of not following this route is chosen are also shown. The method section follows to explain the case study design, data collection method and way of analysis. The results cover all the information gathered from numerous sources including on-line available information, papers, interviews, videos, end of year reviews and most importantly current Caterpillar and Ericsson mid-level management employee answers to a questionnaire created and distributed by the authors. The business model canvas tool is used to aid the reader understanding Caterpillar’s and Ericsson’s business model innovation. Each company’s business model is given before and after data analytics adoption. Finally, the analysis of the results and the link with the theory is given in order to answer the thesis question.

  • 40.
    Maaruf, Prosha
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Mohamed Abdi, Anab
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Pay per screen: developing Result-oriented PSS in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A case study at a mercury recycling equipment manufacturer2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens företag kämpar med att hantera den konkurrenskraftiga miljön som drivs av resursbrist, teknisk utveckling och efterfrågan av ökat värde och flexibilitet. Av dessa skäl byter företagen fokus från att sälja produkter till att uppfylla behov. Det resultatorienterade produkttjänstesystemet (PSS) är en sorts PSS som ger värde huvudsakligen genom att leverera tjänster med förutsättningen att producenten tar ansvar över hela produktens livscykel. Den framträder i litteraturen som en ny strategisk affärsstrategi som genererar en hög vinst och stabiliserar inkomstflödet. Trots de nya marknadsmöjligheterna i samband med tillhandahållandet av PSS följer komplexitet med det utökade ansvaret. Dessutom nämns mycket lite i PSS-litteraturen om PSS-utveckling i ett verklighetsbaserat fall och hur tjänsteorienterad PSS-koncept påverkar små och medelstora företag.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur resultatorienterade produkttjänstesystem kan skapa nya möjligheter för små och medelstora företag. Det riktar sig till att utforska detta ämne ur ett kostnads- och värdeskapande perspektiv för både företaget och kunden. För att uppnå målet anges en huvudforskningsfråga vilket delvis svaras genom att svara på de två delfrågorna nedan.

    Hur kan ett resultatorienterat produktservice system genomföras i små och medelstora företag?

    1. Vilken resultatorienterad PSS-lösning kan utformas för återvinningsindustrin för att öka värdet för både tillverkaren och kunden?

    2. Vilka är de ekonomiska konsekvenserna av ett resultatorienterat PSS?

    För att utforska svaren på forskningsfrågorna utförs en fallstudie på MRT (Mercury Recovery Technology) System International AB. Det är en liten internationell tillverkare av återvinningsutrustning i Karlskrona. En PSS-utvecklingsprocess som resulterar i ett nytt koncept som kallas "Pay per screen" är utvecklat.

    Utvecklingen och analysen av resultatorienterad PSS visar att det är mer lönsamt för företaget att erbjuda det föreslagna Pay per screen konceptet. För även kunden har det visat sig vara lönsamt samtidigt som ger en rad fördelar så som att slippa ansvara för investerings- och underhållskostnader.

  • 41.
    Maleus Larsson, Hanna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för fysisk planering.
    Vägen från platsvarumärke till det fysiska rummet.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan en tid tillbaka arbetar flera länder, regioner och större städer med platsvarumärke. Detta används till marknadsföring av sin plats men även för att framhäva det som karaktäriserar eller är unikt för platsen. Idag syns platsvarumärken på kommunen och mindre städer. En snabb sökning av platsvarumärke på internet visar att flera kommuner arbetar aktivt med att utveckla sitt platsvarumärke. Tydligt syns det att platsvarumärke idag är ett aktuellt ämne för kommuner och lokalpolitiker att lyfta fram det som karaktäriserar sin plats och sin framtida utveckling. Kommunen kan med platsvarumärket belysa vad man vill utveckla och vad kommunen anser vara betydande för platsen. Detta kan vara lokaliseringen eller det som anses vara kommunens identitet och det man vill framställa sig som.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att få en djupare förståelse för begreppet platsvarumärke för en kommun och hanteras i fallet Lund och Brunnshög. Undersökningen riktar sig till hur platsvarumärket och samhällsplaneringen påverkar varandra i en kommun och om platsvarumärket påverkar utformningen av det fysiska rummet. För att få en förståelse för hur platsvarumärket finns i planeringsdokument har litteraturstudie genomförts med metoden kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I analysen appliceras det teoretiska ramverket och kunskapsöversikten som utgår från platsvarumärke och samhällsplanering. Undersökningsmaterialet har varit Lunds översiktsplan 2010 och fördjupade översiktsplanen för Lund NE/Brunnshög. För att besvara frågeställningen undersöks även två detaljplaner för att finna hur utformningen av det fysiska rummet skett.

    Slutsatserna som kan dras av undersökningen är att det finns inga tydliga kopplingar mellan detaljplanerna och platsvarumärket. Däremot finns kopplingarna mellan platsvarumärket och översiktsplanen och fördjupade översiktsplanen. Vidare frågeställningar har uppkommit i arbetet med uppsatsen om hur påverkan mellan platsvarumärket och den valda utvecklingen av större bebyggelse sker.

  • 42.
    Manjusak, Sejla
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Co-located and Distributed Teams in Software Development Projects: An evaluation of differences in terms of soft factors, performance and cost efficiency in co-located and distributed teams2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background It is evident that due to the globalization, offshoring and cross-national collaboration has become a natural evolution for many companies which have created the virtual world. The virtual world has many advantages, but when this is put into practice it turns out that there are also some disadvantages that affect the teams that are working with different sites. Teams face big challenges in communication and collaboration due to the physical distance, cultural differences and time zones. While believing that the work becomes more efficient, this process is at the same time slowed down due to the challenges that arise that affects the performance which in turn affects the costs. Purpose The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding about whether or not there are differences in globally distributed teams and co-located teams in terms of soft factors, team performance and cost efficiency. The projects that will be studied are global software development projects where the teams are either located in Sweden or in India. Method This study is a case study at Ericsson that operates in many distributed software development projects where team members are located all over the world. 11 projects were selected and compared. Two surveys were made in order to collect data from developers who worked with the different projects that were selected. Furthermore, internal data about the performance for each project were collected and used in the statistical tests together with data from the survey in SPSS. The performance data was also used in order to calculate the performance deviations from the expected performance and in order to calculate the associated costs. Results There is a statistically significant difference in communication efficiency, shared identity, trust and cultural clashes between co-located and distributed teams. These soft factors are strongly related to the team performance. The co-located teams perform better than expected while distributed teams perform worse than expected which also increase the extra costs in the project. Conclusion The communication efficiency, shared identity and trust are higher in co-located teams, and the values of cultural clashes are lower than in distributed teams. Co-located teams perform better than distributed teams and the performance in co-located teams leads to cost savings while the performance in distributed teams leads to cost losses.

  • 43.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Effect of Filtering Function on User Search Cost and How to Enable the Creation of this Function2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been noticed that one of the main challenges for e-commerce sites is providing the users with an efficient search function. It has also been noticed that the search function is one of the things the user is valuing the most when evaluating an e-commerce. The information technology enables the possibility to consume almost anything one could wish for. The challenge is in how to find this specific item. It is hence of interest to examine how to improve the search tool and what effect the updated search tool results in.

    The objective of this research is twofold. The objective motivated by economic factors is to examine how a user’s ability to find relevant items is affected by being able to refine a search result by selecting relevant attribute values. The other objective has a more technical character and is to examine how the rule based method performs in terms of extracting attribute values for enable the creation of the filtering function.

    The examinations for this research is conducted at a Swedish online auction company that due to the structure of its e-catalogue provides a suitable setup for the examinations. Because of the examinations being conducted in the environment of the auction company’s system this limits the result to only being representative for data with the same characteristics as the auction company’s.

    For answering the questions stated in the objective two methods are applied. One for examining the economic part and one for examining the technical part. The economic question is answered after analysing the result of an A/B-test conducted at the auction company. For answering the technical examination an information extraction technique is evaluated.

    The result of the economical examination is that a significant increase in conversion rate can be concluded for the system version with filtering enabled. The result of the technical examination shows that the rule based method can be used for information extraction in some cases. However, the obtained accuracy will be affected by the characteristics of the data the information extraction is performed on. 

  • 44.
    Micael, Frideros
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för industriell ekonomi.
    Artificial Intelligence: Progress in business and society2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the progress of corporate implementations of Artificial Intelligence and discusses the effects that this might have on the corporate sector as well as some implications on a societal level. The analysis is based on data from surveys conducted by Accenture, Bain & Company, Capgemini Digital Transformation Institute, Deloitte, Gartner Inc., McKinsey Global Institute and MIT Sloan Management Review & Boston Consulting Group.

    Over the last 3 years the adoptions of Artificial Intelligence have increased 2-3 times and the trend is expected to continue in the coming years as well, since 40-55 % of the surveyed companies are in the initial stages of AI adoption. Further, the growth rate in AI investments has been even more radical and increased 15-20 times over the last 7 years.

    Companies who have implemented AI report significant benefits and companies with a proactive strategy for Artificial Intelligence report higher profit margins than their industry competitors. Further the data indicates that companies that are successful in implementing AI have better general organizational capabilities, higher data & skills readiness and more AI focus in leadership and strategic planning.

    Another result in the study is that most managers in companies implementing AI expect that the technology will enable them to enter new markets and also that new competitors will enter their market. This will probably lead to increased competition and the results from other technology transitions indicate that this might force more companies to adopt AI to stay competitive.

    Regarding competence strategy some theorists have argued that companies without AI experience should compensate by acquiring a high tech start-up with the needed technology and competence. However, the data indicates that the most limiting factors for companies without AI experience are related to leadership and technical capabilities, not access to competence. It is only in later stages of the adoption process that access to competence becomes the primary limiting factor.

    The data gives mixed indications on AI consequences on employment. Half of the companies implementing AI expect job losses in the organization in the coming 3 years, while almost a third expects AI to lead to new jobs. However, the data also suggests that existing employees will need to change their skill sets. Therefor both the public and private sector will need to adapt and find ways to support employees that need to re-educate themselves.

  • 45.
    Molin, R.D.
    et al.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Fabrin, A.C.F.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Sperotto, P.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Alves, D.I.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Bayer, F.M.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Machado, Renato
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dammert, P.
    Saab AB, SWE.
    Hellsten, H.
    Saab AB, SWE.
    Ulander, L
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, SWE.
    Iterative Change Detection Algorithm for Low-Frequency UWB SAR2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 46.
    Månsson, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    Perception of Colors in Games as it Applies to Good and Evil2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Color can be used to convey allot of information but in particularly when it comes to tellingwho is good and who is evil. The most common color to use when displaying good and evil is blue forgood and red for evil.

    Objectives. This study will take a look at what colors people automatically associated with good andevil respectively.

    Methods. The two methods that are used in this paper is a survey in the form of a questionnaire andthe second method is a statistical hypothesis testing that was done on the data collected in the survey.The statistical hypothesis testing was done in the form of a chi-square test. From the chi-square testyou get a chi-square value and a p-value.

    Results. The result of the survey was that most participants thought of green, white and blue as goodcolors, while black and red where thought of as evil. The statistical hypothesis testing revealed thatthere where a significant statistical difference when comparing two colors in all but two cases. Thosecases where white vs. blue and orange vs. purple.

    Conclusions. The conclusions that can be drawn are that there is a significant statistical differencebetween how a color is perceived as good or evil. The perceived convention for what a good charactershould have, as a color is that it should be green and the perceived convention for an evil character isthat it should be either red or black.

  • 47.
    Napieralla, Jonah
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    Comparing Graphical Projection Methods at High Degrees of Field of View2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Graphical projection methods define how virtual 3D environments are depicted on 2D monitors. No projection method provides a flawless reproduction, and the look of the resulting projections vary considerably. Field of view is a parameter of these projection methods, it determines the breadth of vision of the virtual camera used in the projection process. Field of view is represented by a degree, that defines the angle from the left to the right extent of the projection, as seen from the camera.

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceived quality of high degrees of field of view, using different graphical projection methods. The Perspective, the Panini, and the Stereographic projection methods were evaluated at 110, 140, and 170 degrees of field of view.

    Methods. To evaluate the perceived quality of the three projection methods at varying degrees of field of view; a user study was conducted in which 24 participants rated 81 tests each. This study was held in a conference room where the participants sat undisturbed, and could experience the tests under consistent conditions. The tests took three different usage scenarios into account, presenting scenes in which the camera was still, where it moved, and where the participants could control it. Each test was rated separately, one at a time, using every combination of projection method and degree of field of view.

    Results. The perceived quality of each projection method dropped at an exponential rate, relative to the increase in the degree of field of view. The Perspective projection method was always rated the most favorably at 110 degrees of field of view, but unlike the other projections, it would be rated much more poorly at higher degrees. The Panini and the Stereographic projections received favorable ratings at up to 140-170 degrees, but the perceived quality of these projection methods varied significantly, depending on the usage scenario and the virtual environment displayed.

    Conclusions. The study concludes that the Perspective projection method is optimal for use at up to 110 degrees of field of view. At higher degrees of field of view, no consistently optimal choice remains, as the perceived quality of the Panini and the Stereographic projection method vary significantly, depending on the usage scenario. As such, the perceived quality becomes a function of the graphical projection method, the degree of field of view, the usage scenario, and the virtual environment displayed.

  • 48.
    Olofsdotter Bergström, Annika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för teknik och estetik.
    To design with strings for playability in cities2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST / [ed] Brooks A.L.,Brooks E.,Sylla C., Springer Netherlands, 2018, Vol. 265, s. 256-265Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how Donna Haraway’s “String Figuration” together with Maria Puig de la Bellacasa’s concept of “touch” as a design method have worked in the process of an augmented reality (AR) play called Play/ce. The aim of this paper is to propose that designers of playful cities are creating the conditions for playability to show how players can try out and play with responses in a city by different acts of touch. I suggest that responding, which comes from the act of relaying, is part of designing ‘games as a social technologies’, a concept from Mary Flanagan. I will develop this concept since I think it is especially interesting to take into account when it comes to using cities as playgrounds and turn people into full body players to explore what touch means.

  • 49.
    Olsson, Anna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    Evaluating Immersion in Video Games Through Graphical User Interfaces2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The feeling of immersion in a video game is something most game developers try to achieve. Immersion makes the player feeling like they are a part of the game they are playing, and causes them to lose track of time and space. Immersion can be achieved in many ways, one of them being through different kinds of Graphical User Interfaces. An integrated interface might help players to get more immersed.

    Objectives. The objective of this thesis is to find out whether an integrated or "diegetic" interface improves the feeling of immersion in players.To fullfil this objective, a prototype must be made and then tested using participants who then can answer questions about their level of immersion.

    Methods. The prototype was built using Unity, a free game engine. The participants of the study played two different levels with two different interfaces and then answered a number of questions in a questionnaire. The questions were then analysed using the students t-test.

    Results. The results of the study showed there were no difference in terms of immersion in the two different interfaces.

    Conclusions. These results suggest there is no improvement of immersion when using a diegetic interface, compared to using a non diegetic one.

  • 50.
    OLUMUYIWA DELE, OLANIYAN
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för kreativa teknologier.
    AN ANALYSIS OF  FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SUCCESS OF SOCIAL NETWORKING WEBSITES2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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