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  • 1. Agardh, Johannes
    et al.
    Johansson, Martin
    Pettersson, Mårten
    Designing Future Interaction with Today's Technology1999Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Technology has an increasing part of our lives. In this thesis we will discuss how technology can relate to humans and human activity. We take our standing point in concepts like Calm Technology and Tacit Interaction and examine how these visions and concepts can be used in the process of designing an artifact for a real work practice. We have done work-place studies of truck-drivers and traffic leaders regarding how they find their way to the right addresses and design a truck navigation system that aims to suit the truck drivers work practice.

  • 2. Allahyari, Hiva
    et al.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    User-oriented Assessment of Classification Model Understandability2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews methods for evaluating and analyzing the understandability of classification models in the context of data mining. The motivation for this study is the fact that the majority of previous work has focused on increasing the accuracy of models, ignoring user-oriented properties such as comprehensibility and understandability. Approaches for analyzing the understandability of data mining models have been discussed on two different levels: one is regarding the type of the models’ presentation and the other is considering the structure of the models. In this study, we present a summary of existing assumptions regarding both approaches followed by an empirical work to examine the understandability from the user’s point of view through a survey. The results indicate that decision tree models are more understandable than rule-based models. Using the survey results regarding understandability of a number of models in conjunction with quantitative measurements of the complexity of the models, we are able to establish correlation between complexity and understandability of the models.

  • 3. Andersson, Björn
    et al.
    Rouchy, Philippe
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Natural Seriousness in Learning2001Other (Other academic)
  • 4. Appelquist, Joakim
    et al.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Jila, Florian
    Hallqvist, Klas
    SMILE Revisited2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMILE Revisited beskriver utvecklingen, införandet och avvecklingen av ett system för mobilt stöd för hemtjänsten. Systemet analyseras dels ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv, dels ur ett arbetsvetenskapligt perspektiv.

  • 5.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Moreno, Ana
    Perspectives on Productivity and Delays in Large-Scale Agile Projects2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many large and distributed companies run agile projects in development environments that are inconsistent with the original agile ideas. Problems that result from these inconsistencies can affect the productivity of development projects and the timeliness of releases. To be effective in such contexts, the agile ideas need to be adapted. We take an inductive approach for reaching this aim by basing the design of the development process on observations of how context, practices, challenges, and impacts interact. This paper reports the results of an interview study of five agile development projects in an environment that was unfavorable for agile principles. Grounded theory was used to identify the challenges of these projects and how these challenges affected productivity and delays according to the involved project roles. Productivity and delay-influencing factors were discovered that related to requirements creation and use, collaboration, knowledge management, and the application domain. The practitioners’ explanations about the factors' impacts are, on one hand, a rich empirical source for avoiding and mitigating productivity and delay problems and, on the other hand, a good starting point for further research on flexible large-scale development.

  • 6. Bai, Guohua
    A Sustainable Information System for e-home Services2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-home related home-services (including homecare and home healthcare) in China is urgently needed. The population of aged people over 80 is increasing 5% every year in China, and to year 2050, one fourth of whole population or 0.4 billions people in China are aged staying at home. Meanwhile the government cannot afford with a national elderly care system like most western countries as Sweden. This is because China has had one-child/one-family policy since 1970’s, and this radical policy has made China step in aged society very quickly within only 20 years, while the same process took 40-80 years in western countries. Even worse, China becomes aged society when the country is still poor and under developing with GDP per capita less than 1000$, comparing to western countries with 5000 – 10000 $ when they became aged society. E-home provides China with a unique, and maybe the most effective solution to the problem. By applying effective IT&C at home, elder people are facilitated to manage their own daily life. If needed, they can always call help from their collective service centre that is located in their resident area and the collective service centre can provide with both homecare (cleaning, shopping, reparation, baby care etc.) and home healthcare (legitimate medical care). Elder people can be also monitored (if wished by all partners) both at home and out door by bearing sensors that can send singles directly to related care providers (including their children and relatives if wished). E-home will greatly increase the security of elder people, release great worry from both their children and elder people themselves, and can be afford by most people. However, e-home is more than just a technical problem, and it needs a systemic way and social-psychological study how to design e-home system. In the end, e-home system must provide with needed services to residents. I will introduce IMIS project ´Integrated Mobile Information System for Home Healthcare’ financed by Swedish Agency for Innovative Systems (VINNOVA). This project will continue to 2006, and one of the outputs will be a sustainable software platform which is based on a systemic study of social psychological factors involved in the home healthcare. I will provide with some Swedish experiences and the so called ‘Scandinavia Approach’ in conducting such complex system to my colleagues in China, and I hope the IMIS project will be also developed in China based up on some feasibility and desirability studies with some Chinese colleagues.

  • 7.
    Bai, Guohua
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Activity System Theory Approach to Healthcare Information System2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare information system is a very complex system and has to be approached from systematic perspectives. This paper presents an Activity System Theory (ATS) approach by integrating system thinking and social psychology. First part of the paper, the activity system theory is presented, especially a recursive model of human activity system is introduced. A project ‘Integrated Mobile Information System for Diabetic Healthcare (IMIS)’ is then used to demonstrate a practical application of the Activity System Theory especially in constructing healthcare information system. Our conclusion is that the activity system model can provide the service system designers with a comprehensive and integrated framework for designing healthcare information system in specific, and for designing various kinds of service systems in general.

  • 8. Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    Ryzhkova, Natalia
    Inviting the world to innovate: managerial challenges and practices implementing web innovation tools2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The practices of open innovation have been advocated as an efficient way to accelerate innovation processes and expanding the markets for innovations in turbulent times. One specific way of practicing open innovation is the use of web-based innovation tools whereby, among others, any user and customer in the world may be reached for the spawning ideas, sharing of experiences, testing of products and even designing products themselves. While research has been extensive on the opportunities these tools may provide, the managerial challenges and competences needed to implement and operate these tools have been scarce. The aim of the paper is to develop a framework of managerial challenges and competences related to the implementation of web innovation tools. The framework is based on previous research and a case study of a telecom company’s web innovation site and management of this web site. The research reported in the paper intends to contribute to the research on web innovation tools and the management of web innovation tools.

  • 9. Bergkvist, Viktor
    et al.
    Emilson, Marcus
    Rouchy, Philippe
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Business Administration and Social Science.
    Björgvinsson, Erling Bjarki
    Brandt, Eva
    Hillgren, Per-Anders
    Harden, Sue
    Location in Work Practices. The Social Shaping of a Personal Digital Assistant2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Björgvinsson, Erling Bjarki
    Socio-Material Mediations: Learning, Knowing, and Self-produced Media within Healthcare2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis discusses lessons learned and issues raised when exploring how self-produced rich media can facilitate sharing of meaning between healthcare professionals at an intensive care unit and between healthcare professionals and patients within a hand surgery clinic. Design experiments conducted at the intensive care unit focused on how healthcare professionals could collaboratively produce ‘best practice’ videos displayed on handheld devices and accessed through barcodes placed out in the unit. The making of the videos it is argued can be seen as a temporary convergence of different views when reifying ‘best practice.’ Design experiments conducted at the hand surgery clinic focused on how healthcare professional and patients collaboratively could produce, during consultations, rich media documents that are tailored to the patients’ specific needs. The rich media documents made can be seen as a temporary convergence of two distinct practices; namely that of hand surgery treatment and the practice of everyday life. Making of rich media documents in both projects resulted in developing relational spaces of informal learning, which engendered the making of rich reifications that function well in close relation to participation. To engender the making of the rich media documents demanded the establishment and hardening of a socio-technical infrastructure which can be seen as a temporary convergence between tools and practices where both the tools and practices are changed. In both cases using these videos in turn demanded that the videos, a form of local collaborative hardenings, needed to be translated anew and so to speak “defrosted.” The design consequences are that designers need to acknowledge materiality as an ongoing process which is given meaning through participation over time within and across communities of practice. Materiality and human agency in this instance are not seen as discrete elements, but rather highly intertwined. The second design consequence is that we need to acknowledge the complexity, partiality, and multiplicity of such relational spaces. Methodologically, the consequences are that it is important to consider where the designers position themselves and the artifacts in the network of relations, since different positioning will have different implications for the subsequent spaces of action.

  • 11. Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Burrell, Mark
    Guest, Greg
    An Ethnographic Approach to Design2002In: Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction in Interactive Systems / [ed] Sears, J. Jacko and A., New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12. Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Kensing, Finn
    Participatory Design: Issues and Concerns1998In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 7, no 3-4, 167-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Trigg, Randall
    Constructing Technical Objects: Reconfiguring the sociotechnical divide.2000In: Occasional Papers from the Work Practice Laboratory, ISSN 1404-8760, Vol. 1, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Bolter, Jay David
    et al.
    Engberg, Maria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    MacIntyre, Blair
    Media studies, mobile augmented reality, and interaction design2013In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 20, no 1, 36-45 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    You are walking in the Sweetwater Creek State Park near Atlanta and using the Augmented Reality (AR) Trail Guide, a mobile application designed by Isaac Kulka for the Argon Browser (Figure 1). The application offers two views: a now familiar Google-style map, with points of interest marked on its surface, and an AR view, which shows these points located in space. You see the map view when you hold the screen parallel to the ground; when you turn the phone up to look at the world, you get the AR view with the points of interest floating in space in front of you. This simple gesture of raising the phone changes your relationship to the information. You pass from a fully symbolic form of representation to a form of perceiving symbolic information as part of your visual environment. The AR Trail Guide, developed in the Augmented Environments Lab at Georgia Tech [1], illustrates a new realm in AR design that goes beyond current commercial applications. In this article, we discuss some of these new areas, such as designing for experiences in cultural heritage, personal expression, and entertainment. At the same time, we want to address a larger issue. ACM interactions has often been a place for exploring new paradigms and the relevance for interaction design of unusual approaches from other disciplines. In that spirit, we pose the question: Can the humanistic discipline of media studies play a useful role in interaction design? Media studies looks at the history of media and their relationship to culture, and we will focus here on digital media and their relationship to other media, both present and past. Looking at digital media in a historical context is relevant because of the dynamic relationship between "traditional" media (film, television, radio, print) and their digital remediations. How can media studies be made to contribute to the productive work of interaction design? We believe one answer lies in using the historical understanding gained through media studies to develop a kind of media aesthetics that can guide designers as they explore new forms of digital media such as the mobile augmented reality application described above.

  • 15. Bulling, Andreas
    et al.
    Dachselt, Raimund
    Duchowski, Andrew T.
    Jacob, Robert J.
    Stellmach, Sophie
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With continuous progression away from desktop to post-WIMP applications, including multi-touch, gestural, or tangible interaction, there is high potential for eye gaze as a more natural human-computer interface in numerous contexts. Examples include attention-aware adaptations or the combination of gaze and hand gestures for interaction with distant displays. This SIG meeting provides a discussion venue for researchers and practitioners interested in gaze interaction in the post-WIMP era. We wish to draw attention to this emerging field and eventually formulate fundamental research questions. We will discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interface combinations. Our aims are to promote this research field, foster a larger research community, and establish the basis for a workshop at CHI 2013.

  • 16. Bäcke, Maria
    Avant-Garde and Subversion in an Online 3D World2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3D online world Second Life provides ample opportunities for both role-play and social interaction. Moreover, the relative lack of explicit game-rules (at least initially) on the part of the creator, Linden Lab, provided the gamers with a carte blanche to be anyone they want and give them the freedom to do almost anything. It has become clear, however, that Linden Lab has found reasons for making alterations in their legislative framework. Additionally, local game rules are being developed in many places and there are huge differences in how these rules are maintained and enforced. Using theories of the avant-garde (Greenberg, Poggioli, Bürger) as a stepping stone, as well as Manuel Castells’ four-layered theory of Internet cultures (the techno-meritocratic, the hacker, the virtual communitarian and the entrepreneurial culture), my intention is to explore the actions of, and the attitudes towards, the type of digital avant-garde that is exemplified by gamers/hackers/griefers/deviants. I will look at this both on a "global level" and on a local level, where communities and sim owners use different strategies to control their land and gamers’ behaviour on it. The global data will be taken from the”Incident Management Report” which is issued by the Second Life Governance Team on violation against Linden Lab rules. Additionally, I will carry out interviews with sim owners and community representatives, as well as with some of those who are labelled grievers. I will also look at blogs and articles that address the issue of grievers and disruptive behaviour in an online world.

  • 17. Bäcke, Maria
    Construction of Digital Space: Second Life as a fantasy or a work tool2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon Gaston Bachelard´s The Poetics of Space and Henri Lefebvre´s The Production of Space, I read both private and public digital 3D spaces made available through SL and examine to what extent they are inscribed in or distanced from the underlying ideology of Second Life. I use textual sources - written codes of conduct, covenants written by the land owners, actual buildings and environments created in Second Life, an interview, as well as blogs and articles - to explore how three different categories of space are constructed and maintained: one where SL is primarily seen as a work tool for profit or teaching, another where the main goal is a detailed, homogenuous and highly visual space, and a third category where a homogenuous space is created in order to enable a more organized fantasy and facilitate game-play. Choice of Theme: Expressions of ideology in design and digital technologies

  • 18.
    Davis, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Technoculture, Humanities and Planning.
    Linde, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, The Library.
    Tran, Hoa
    BETEXT: Cross Institutional Cooperation in the Digitalization of Cultural Heritage Documents in XML2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following describes a digitalization and on-line publication project, led by members of Blekinge Institute of Technology, located in the south of Sweden. The project aimed to create the foundation for a regional network of small cultural institutions that would develop, support and utilize on-line full text archives in the service of tourism, marketing and education. Its pilot project, The Chapman Archive, involved the digitalization, encoding with the TEI DTD in XML and web-publication of two rare 18th century texts of both regional and international importance.

  • 19.
    de Petris, Linus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Om glappen vi skapar och de märken som blir – materiell-diskursiva praktiker i kommunkontext2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för min forskning är ett upplevt glapp i IT- och e-förvaltningsutveckling. Policys och strategier har långtgående visioner om hur IT kan och kommer att förändra allt ifrån vårt vardagliga arbete och privatliv till att förändra samhällsstrukturer och maktordningar. För att möta detta görs stora investeringar varje år inom kommunal IT. Ändå är upplevelsen att ”det händer inget”. Syftet med forskningen är att presentera förståelser för abstrakta och komplexa ting som e-förvaltning, innovation (förändringsarbete), design och infrastruktur. Forskningen presenterar olika perspektiv för dessa ting och utmanar normerade förståelser för dem. Ett exempel på detta är hur infrastruktur med en normativ förståelse som abstrakt och passiv också visar sig vara påtagligt konkret och performativt. Målsättningen är sedan att dessa förståelser skall ligga till grund för att praktisera en IT- och e-förvaltningsutveckling, som inte känns ”glappande” eller stagnerad. Den forskning, som presenteras och prövas i denna avhandling, är situerad i en kommunkontext och bygger på deltagande aktionsforskning. Deltagande aktionsforskning innebär, att jag har försökt att reflexivt praktisera forskning i syfte att skapa kunskap och förändring tillsammans med andra och direkt i de samanhang jag har verkat. Aktionsforskningen innebär, att jag inte forskar om utan med olika kommunala praktiker. Denna typ av forskning är inte knuten till en specifik metod utan behöver anpassas och utvecklas i sitt sammanhang. I detta ingår en återkommande utmaning av befintlig verksamhetspraktik och förgivettaganden, inte minst mina egna. Licentiatavhandlingen, som är ”ett steg på vägen”, handlar mer om förståelser än om förklaringar. Avhandlingen är skriven som en form av sammanläggningsavhandling, som bygger på fyra artiklar och en delvis fristående kappa. Mitt skrivande och därmed den text, som utgör avhandlingen är ”essäistisk”. Essäformen har gjort det möjligt för mig att använda avhandlingsskrivandet som en fortsatt prövning av de olika perspektiv, som artiklarna presenterar.

  • 20. Dittrich, Yvonne
    Computeranwendungen und sprachlicher Kontext. Zu den Wechselwirkungen zwischen normaler und formaler Sprache bei Einsatz und Entwicklung von Software1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Menschliche Sprache wird in der traditionellen Softwaretechnik als Problem betrachtet. Sie gilt als ungenuegend zur Spezifikation und Entwicklung von Computeranwendungen. Die Flexibilität und Offenheit normaler Sprache ermöglicht es auf der anderen Seite, ueber immer neue Bereiche auf verschiedenste Art zu kommunizieren und zu reflektieren. Wie kann diese kreative Seite menschlicher Sprache bei Entwicklung und Gestaltung von Software beruecksichtigt werden? Anhand des Begriffs der symbolischen Maschine von Sybille Krämer und der Sprachtheorien Humboldts und Wittgensteins werden die im Kontext der Argumentation wichtigen Eigenschaften formaler und normaler Sprache herausgearbeitet. Ansätze zur Gestaltung von Computeranwendungen, die ihre Einbettung in nrmale Sprache beruecksichtigen, und zur Einbeziehung von normlaer Sprache bei der Softwareentwicklung werden aufgezeigt.

  • 21. Dittrich, Yvonne
    Developing a Language for Participation. Project Language as a Meeting Place for Users and Developers in Participatory Software Development1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During participatory development different professional groups with different professional languages meet. They have to communicate about the future software in a profound way. To enable that, a common way to talk about the future software has to be developed, relating concepts of the use context and concepts of software development. An example of the development of such a project language is given and the relevance of this for design is argued for. To support the development of a project language a toolkit is provided in which methods are compiled that respects the creative side of ordinary language.

  • 22. Dittrich, Yvonne
    How to make Sense of Software. Interpretability as an Issue for Design.1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of CSCW ? especially through ethnomethodological work place studies - the stability of particular work practices and therefore the ability to design software that fits with continually evolving work practices is questioned. This challenge for software development has been called 'design for unanticipated use'. Using the concept of interpretability, I attempt to answer this challenge. A semiotic perspective on computer applications as formal symbol manipulation systems is introduced. A case study involving three alternative ways of using a computer application shows how users make sense of such symbolic machines. Wittgenstein's concept of language games is used as a 'figure of thought' to relate practice, language, and the use of symbolic machines. The development of an interpretation, fitting the implemented symbol manipulation and supporting the specific understanding of the task, remains crucial for competent use. Interpretability is introduced as a quality of computer applications. In order how to support the user in developing her own interpretation, a concept for help systems is described.

  • 23. Dittrich, Yvonne
    Shopping Web-shopping Web-shop Web-selling Selling Teaching Software Development together with Work Practice Studies1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I want to share the experiences of developing an interdisciplinary course which brings together design oriented work practice studies and software development. The development and the teaching of this course took place as part of the study program 'People, Computers, and Work' bringing together human work science and computer science. To relate work practice studies and software development in a fruitful way, we had to change not only the organization of the projects and the layout of the course. It required also relating paradigms and methods on both sides. The teachers had to learn about each other's disciplines, too. An example of one of the projects - a web-shop for stationary - illustrates the way the students worked. Us teachers learned also a lot: Both ethnographic methods to study the workplace and software development methods change if really brought together. The variety of ways of relating work practice studies to software development surprised us. We explored common themes relevant for the interdisciplinary practice. And we learned a lot about how to teach this kind of projects.

  • 24. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Eriksén, Sara
    Hansson, Christina
    Making e-Government Happen. Everyday co-development of services, citizenship and technology.2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a joint research project concerning the use and design of IT in public services, we are using a simple figure of on-going, design-oriented interactions to highlight shifting foci on relationships of codevelopment of services, citzenship and technology. We bring together a number of concrete examples of this on-going everyday co-development, presented from the different perspectives that we, as researchers from different disciplines and traditions, represent in the project. The article explores and discusses wokring relations of technology production and use that we see as central to what is actually making e-government happen - or not happen. The main challenge in this area, as we see it, concerns making visible, and developing supportive infrastructures for, the continuing local adaptation, development and design in use of integrated IT and public services.

  • 25.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science and Media Technology.
    Situated Innovation. Exploring co-operation in innovation and design between researchers and users and providers of ICT2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-operation between research and industry and society, and the notion of innovation systems, are high on the agenda of national as well as international research politics. However, how to make co-operation between researchers and practitioners work, and what kind of research results could come out of such co-operation, is hardly discussed. The article uses evidence from three projects in the areas e-government and telecommunication to reflect on such co-operation. Scientific understanding and practices of design, development and use of ICT challenge and inform each other in these co-operative projects, which we have started to refer to as ‘situated innovation’. The article discusses the role of the researcher in such contexts, the character of the research results, and means to co-ordinate different rhythms and rationales in order to make research and practices of ICT development and use mutually enhancing.

  • 26. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Hansson, Christina
    PD in the Wild; Evolving Practices of Design in Use2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The when and where of participatory design has traditionally been set, primarily, by the software design project. However, modern IT networks with a variety of applications from different software providers, new web-design tools, and the integration of customization processes with on-going version management, are just a few of the developments that are moving participation around IT design issues beyond the traditional software project. Using examples from a research project focusing on existing work practices and IT in use in public service administration, we explore various understandings of design, which challenge some of the assumptions underlying the basic framework of participatory design. If design is seen as continually on-going, and intricately interwoven with use, this raises several important issues for participatory design. It highlights design for change. It points towards the need for reconsidering software design processes. It brings into focus issues of coordination between use, design in use and adaptation and development. Crucially, it raises issues about shop floor IT management, that is, organizational and technical support for local adapting, and continual design and development in use, of IT, and the need for models and methods for sustainable, distributed co-constructive design processes.

  • 27. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Wessels, Bridgette
    From Knowledge Transfer to Situated Innovation2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation systems, triple helix, and similar expressions, are used to conceptualise the growing need for more integrated forms of co-operation between academia and other societal actors, such as governmental agencies and industry, in order to produce knowledge relevant for society. However, there is as yet little reported experience from such recent and on-going co-operative projects of how research changes when it becomes involved in practices it is meant to contribute to. In this paper, the authors report about three different research projects where researchers co-operated with governmental agencies and industry around the development of ICT. Evidence from three domains, namely e-government, telecommunications and welfare services, indicates the need for problematising current mainstream understandings of innovation. Innovation, as we see it, is occurring through configurations of designers, developers and domain experts that form constituencies and where scientific knowledge is confronted by requirements, constraints and possibilities of the specific situation. In this context innovation of, or involving, ICT requires a significant amount of imagination, represents a relatively sharp break with established ways of doing things, and requires artful integration of different professional practices, communities, and technologies. We define these creative processes of co-development of work practices, organisations and technology as situated innovation.

  • 28. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Wessels, Bridgette
    From Knowledge Transfer to Situated Innovation: Cultivating spaces for co-operation in innovation and design between academics, user-groups and ICT providers2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation systems, ‘triple helix’, and similar expressions, are used to conceptualise the growing need for more integrated forms of co-operation between academia and other societal actors, such as governmental agencies and industry, in order to produce knowledge relevant for society. However, there is as yet little reported experience from such recent and on-going co-operative projects of how research changes when it becomes involved in practices it is meant to contribute to. In this paper, the authors report about three different research projects where researchers co-operated with governmental agencies and industry around the development of ICT. Evidence from three domains, namely e-government, telecommunications and welfare services, indicates the need for problematising current mainstream understandings of innovation. Innovation, as we see it, is occurring through configurations of designers, developers and domain experts that form constituencies and where scientific knowledge is confronted by requirements, constraints and possibilities of the specific situation. In this context innovation of, or involving, ICT requires a significant amount of imagination, represents a relatively sharp break with established ways of doing things, and requires artful integration of different professional practices, communities, and technologies. We define these creative processes of co-development of work practices, organisations and technology as ‘situated innovation’.

  • 29. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Wessels, Bridgette
    Learning through Situated Innovation. Why the specific is crucial for Participatory Design Research2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167 , Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific, situated Participatory Design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situat­edness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel­oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implica­tions of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argu­mentation supports the emphasis on ex­ploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD from the spec­ificities, in line with recent debate contributions.

  • 30. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Can Software Development be too Use Oriented? Going Native as an issue in Participatory Design.2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In participatory design there is a risk that the emphasis on the co-operation with future users let the developers forget to step back and reflect on what they learned. In this article we report about a case study of a software project and the resulting system. In spite of a user oriented way of developing the system, problems showed up both when using the software and when the developers later tried to modify it. Part of the reason for the problems was the (lack of) structure in the system. We use the 'going native' - a well discussed methodological issue in ethnography - as a metaphor. The ethnographer have to both 'go native' to be able to understand the culture studied but also step back and reflect. In the same way the software developer has to 'step back' and reflect and form their own conceptual model.

  • 31. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Ludvigsson, Ingela
    Lundberg, Lars
    Wessman, Bengt
    Diestelkamp, Wolfgang
    Tillman, Marie
    Design for Change2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summarises the first year of the research project 'Design for Design in Use of Database Applications'. It focuses on end user tailoring and adaptable systems.

  • 32.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Software Engineering and Computer Science.
    Mörch, Anders
    Wulf, Volker
    Tailoring Co-operation2003Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailoring is an area of research in CSCW that allows interlacing design and use in a radical new way. Tailoring is closely related to end-user programming (e.g. spreadsheet development)and a general term to encompass both endeavours is End-User Development. This workshop address tailorability in context of evolving existing systems and applications to the needs of cooperative work practices and organisations. It includes also the cooperative activates of tailoring itself; i.e. collaboration between end users to accomplish tailoring and indirect collaboration between developers and end users to simplify the understanding of tailorable systems. The goal of the workshop is to compare and relate existing research on tailoring and enduser development in the CSCW community, to explore the challenges and future potentials of these technologies, and to identify further directions for research on end-user development in cooperative settings. The workshop is organised in co-operation with the European network of excellence on End-User development. (http://giove.cnuce.cnr.it/eud-net.htm

  • 33. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Rönkkö, Kari
    Lindeberg, Olle
    Eriksson, Jeanette
    Hansson, Christina
    Co-Operative Method Development revisited2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last five years, we applied a research approach we call 'Co-operative Method Development' formulated on first experience with empirical research focusing especially on the social side of software engineering. This position paper summarizes the experiences and discusses the improvement and further development of this research approach based on our experiences in different research projects in co-operation with industrial partners.

  • 34. Eisele, Per
    et al.
    D’Amato, Alessia
    Psychological climate and its relation to work performance and well-being: the role of general self-efficacy and organizational citizenship behavior2011In: Baltic Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1407-768X, Vol. 12, no 1,2, 4-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Ekelin, Annelie
    Från löfte till handling: lägesrapport om e-demokrati i förvandling2007Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten ger en överblick över senaste årens utveckling av e-demokrati. Rapporten lyfter fram satsningar inom området, initierade av skilda aktörer från olika utgångspunkter i samhället. Rapporten behandlar följande fågor: Vad avses med e-demokrati? I vilka former och i vilken omfattning tillämpas e-demokrati? Vilka länder har kommit långt inom området och i vilken form? Vilket är nuläget när det gäller e-demokrati i Sverige på kommunal- landsting- och statlig/myndighetsnivå? Vilket är nuläget när det gäller e-demokrati ur ett internationellt perspektiv? Vilken är nuvarande regerings syn på e-demokrati och vilka planer finns på departementsnivå?

  • 36.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Human Work Science, Media Technology and Humanities.
    It Takes More than Two to TANGO:Co-constructing Situated Accountability through a Local E-Government Arena2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    E-demokrati, e-government, situerat ansvarstagande, informatik och politik, triple helix, medborgare

  • 37. Ekelin, Annelie
    Mapping out and constructing the needs: a pilot study of on-line public services and citizens involvement2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives a presentation of work in progress, a pilot study concerning the setting up of public services in the local context of the county of Blekinge, South-eastern Sweden. The main aim with this discussion is to support a more reflective and participatory attitude towards design and development of public systems among municipalities and other service producers/providers in the future. The way in which I will do this study is to examine a selection of methods, or types of needs analysis or needs assessments, used by different actors and producers of public services in order to get a picture of various needs among the users. One part of my study is to look at service providers and their use of explicit techniques, such as questionnaires, larger surveys and work carried out with the help of focus groups. A basic question to put forward is what role do these explicit surveys play for the various participating actors - including citizens - and, in the long run, for the design-choices? The mapping work described here is being carried out within the context of a larger on-going research and development project concerning the continuous design and development of IT in use in public service. [1].

  • 38. Ekelin, Annelie
    Situating eParticipation2007In: Understanding eParticipation: Contemporary PhD eParticipation Research in Europe / [ed] Hedström, Anders ;; Rose, Karin ;; Grönlund, Jeremy ;; , Örebro: Örebro: Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics , 2007, 71-84 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    eParticipation is gaining more and more attention in public discourse.The purpose of this chapter is to describe and discuss how reproduction of certain user-values and power relations becomes technologically embedded during a process of customisation of a consultation tool, intended for online participation.The analysis and the discussion in this chapter is based on ethnographic participatory observations and interviews within a R&D project. The aim of the project was to broaden the scope of participation concerning spatial planning in a Swedish municipality. A prototype of the tool was also tested by a group of citizens. The findings of the study are discussed and analysed with the help of concepts derived from situated and relational theories. The overall objective is thus to develop methods for how to handle local processes of setting the stage for eParticipation.

  • 39. Ekelin, Annelie
    The Work to Make eParticipation Work2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    eParticipation is a new research domain focusing the development of ICT-supported participation in processes of government and governance. These processes may concern involvement of practitioners, citizens and politicians in electronic public administration, service delivery, policy-making and decision-making. The overall objective of this thesis is to discuss how eParticipation is enacted and shaped, in and by practice, and thus contribute to development of practice-based conceptualisation as well as development within the differing practices of eParticipation. The study is based on interpretive case studies as well as theoretical perspectives assisting the analysis of the research field as multiple and co-related processes and relations of change and learning. The empirical data has been gathered during participation in several research and development projects, conducted within a local municipality in Southeast Sweden. Several of the projects were also part of national and international collaboration. The methodological approach comprises ethnographic studies, including interviews, participatory observations and document analysis. The approach of ethnomethodology was also inspirational for the close examining of how various actors organised their participation or non-participation in the various settings of preparing for or conducting eParticipation. The theoretical basis is multi-disciplinary, drawing on perspectives from technological and social theories, such as political science, ANT and feminist theories along with IS (information systems) research. The concept of symbolic eParticipation is coined in order to explore how the preconceived ideas of managing participation seem to be constricting and limiting local and situated development. At the same time, symbolic eParticipation is inspiring development of local interpretations and participatory work. The mutual shaping of these activities leads to the formulation of the notion malleability of organisations and citizenship. The findings indicate that activities of for instance customisation of software or evaluation of consultation tools contribute in creating socio-technical mechanisms, of which they are themselves a part. Those mechanisms embed power relations, and thus become a delegated function of opening up or closing for participation. An example of such socio-technical mechanisms is the notion of “active citizenship”, which is given higher legitimate status if it is conducted mainly as an electronically mediated activity. The term “symbolic active citizenship” is suggested as a concept which describes the legitimate active citizenship. The process of becoming active is thoroughly addressed in this thesis, including variations such as pro-activity and active passivity. These are also mediated by processes of learning in communities of practice. Active participants alternate between being active and actively passive in the processes which are supposed to constitute, form and sustain activities of eParticipation. This fluidity of citizenship has implications for future design of technology and for how to perceive participation in these activities. The interplay of symbolic eParticipation and organisational and civic malle¬ability described in this thesis, underscores the significance of providing space for negotiations of situating eParticipation.

  • 40.
    Ekelin, Annelie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    To Be or Not to Be Active: Exploring Practices of eParticipation2006In: Electronic Government, Berlin: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg , 2006, 107-118 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses the interplay of participation and non-participation within institutional and public practices of electronically mediated policy-making in the local public sector. The aim is to contribute to practice-based development of situated theoretical conceptualisation in the research domain. Applying a dialectical analysis, including also examples and processes of dissociation detected in ethnographic studies of actual use and design of these technologies, suggests a re-specification of the conceptual basis of eParticipation.

  • 41. Ekelin, Annelie
    Uncovering the Janus face of eParticipation: A Delayed Introduction2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the same time as eParticipation is culturally pictured as a rich area for exploration, reviving great expectations of possibilities to broaden and deepen the scope and results of democratic decision-making, it must also be acknowledged as having a double function. It is also a way to initiate sociotechnical mechanisms applicable when controlling and steering mediated participation towards uniformity and normalisation, contributing to the formation of a symbolic eParticipation. This means that activities of eParticipation can function in both ways, either open up for participation or prevent participation to take place. This paper describes a local practice of tailoring of a tool for eParticipation and describes how the work practices in the municipality contribute to adjusting the development to what is considered legitimate. These choices are based on established work practices rather than innovative thinking.

  • 42. Ekelin, Annelie
    “What’s Up Over There?” Reflections of development of e-government in the States of California and Washington2005Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some highlights in this report could be summarized as follows: there are several examples of extensive investment of human and economical resources into security improvement and security related planning currently going on in the United States, coupled with a strong focus on implementing best practice frameworks and advanced interoperability. Other important aspects are the ongoing re-engineering of both governmental leadership structures as well as organisational work practice, where technological systems are to be seen both as something that cause issues, but also as an important part when solving those problems in the future. In the US, and particularly in the Seattle area, mobile government is developing fast. The state portal has also got a very prominent “sister portal”, called the Democracy portal with its own local TV-channel, Seattle Channel working actively on promotion of state actions. www.seattlechannel.org/videos/browseVideos.asp?topic=community This initiative is not new, but is nevertheless interesting since it has been developing more and more towards greater interactivity. It is in some sense an extension of the state portal, but also, according to Laurie Kraft, functions well as a ”window to government”, where the public is offered possibilities of interaction and participation in processes of general local decision-making. A working group recently worked out new guidelines on how to expand the interactive web format. New sections such as ”Tell me more” gives the public possibilities to learn more about for example the preparation of the budget estimates or having the opportunity to deepen their argumentation about local issues such as the debate about the local monorail expansion. In another section they are offered suggestions on how to proceed if they want to get involved in different matters, or find an answer to the question: How do I engage? Further developmental work is going to concentrate on how to tackle the occurrence of new digital divides, considering additional opportunities to reach those who rarely participates such as youths, non-native English speakers, and others who feel disenfranchised from the democratic process and the society. A well-thought strategy on ho to stimulate people to broaden their knowledge and take the opportunity to learn more about local decision-making. California is the fifth largest economic engine in the world with a fast expanding economy after a recession. In the annual survey of Digital Counties (2005), conducted by the Centre for Digital Government, a national research and advisory institute on Information technology policies and best practices in state and local government, several Californian counties appear on the list. In the survey, which focuses on how the county governments are deploying information technology to advance their services to citizens, San Diego County occupies the second place in the category of counties with a population of more than 500 000. In the smaller categories, covering less populated counties, California appears as number 10, and in the category of the counties with a population less than 150.000, Nevada County, Napa County and Sutter County cluster themselves in second, third and fourth place.

  • 43. Ekelin, Annelie
    “Who makes an active citizen? Dialogue about re-configuration of roles”.2007Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dialogue about re-configuration of roles”. Invited speaker at the council of Europe’s symposium entitled ‘E-democracy: new opportunities for enhancing civic participation’, theme III ‘The return of the citizen : new forms of social networking’, 23-24th of April, Strasbourg

  • 44. Ekelin, Annelie
    Working with the Fogbow: Design and Reconfiguration of services and Participation in E-Government2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the metaphors of the rainbow and the fogbow, investigations and evaluations, public Internet monitors, writing women, reflections and discussions about politics, design and democracy. It is also about the ongoing re-structuring of participation in service design within the development of E-Government. The aim behind the drive towards E-Government is to modernise administration and make it more efficient. The transformation and modernisation of public services are proclaimed to bring about a change in services based on a 'citizen-centred approach.' In such a process, communication between citizens and public authorities should play an essential role. Themes such as accountability, accessibility and participation all form part of the reconfiguration and at the same time these themes is shaped by the transformation. The papers in this thesis discuss, in different ways, how this reconfiguration is enacted in practice. Theories and methodologies from feminist theories, participatory design and informatics, are used in order to develop broader and more complex understandings of ongoing development within E-Government. Introduction to the papers Paper I Everyday Dialogue and Design for Co-Operative Use: An Evaluation of the Public Internet Monitor Project Accessibility is a central issue in the achievement of democracy, i.e. with respect to the opportunity for and right to 'access' to new technology and information – an argument also used when justifying the Public Internet Monitor Project. 'Access' in this context refers not only to purely physical access to new technology and information, it is also about the opportunity to take part in community business on several different levels. The present sub-report presents the project and its background. The paper also discusses the way in which the Public Internet Monitor Project as a whole has contributed to the development of a social interface or contact surface between citizens and public authorities, as well as how it has stimulated processes of change within public administration and in contacts between public authorities and citizens. Among the questions raised during the evaluation are; how local networks and activities can be stimulated by the citizen monitor and how the user's ideas and experience can be utilised in local adaptations so that they become an essential part of a continuous development of services and technology. The paper also describes the linked chains of responsibility exemplified in the excerpts from the interviews. These also include final users as a means of creating a personalised service adapted to local praxis and user environments. The question is posed "is it possible to talk in terms of interactivity on several different levels, not only in the sense of transmitting information or communicating, but also as a means of creating a relation-based interactivity?" Paper II Reconfiguration of Citizenship: Rights and Duties in Development of Public Services This paper presents the case of the cleaner in the library and some examples of feedback failures. Access to information, technology, and to some degree, participation in development of new services, is a central issue in the prevailing eGovernment discourse. This vision also comprises the idea of the active, contributing citizen and considers the development of local public participation as a process of co-construction of citizenship and services engaging several actors on different levels. At the same time, access must be seen as a contemporaneous process of inclusion and exclusion, a defining and drawing up of the boundaries of a new electronically mediated membership, where access is becoming a prerequisite for activating citizenship, transforming "the right to have access" into a "duty to participate", not just for citizens but for the employees who must manage the reconfiguration of citizenship and relations. The foundations for participation, however, turn out to be relatively restricted in practice. The original title of the paper was: Co-Construction of Citizenship: Rights and duties in development of public services. Paper III Consulting the Citizens – Relationship-based Interaction in the Development of E-Government This paper investigates current practices for involving citizens in the development of web-based services in public administration and tries to track their motives. With respect to democratisation, I argue that there is a large potential in adopting participatory design methods for establishing relation-based interaction between administration and citizens. The paper presents an analysis of E-Government initiatives. More particularly it explores the discourse of the materials surrounding these initiatives, particularly with respect to value systems derived from the marketing perspective contra democratic values. It demonstrates that conventional images of democracy have only a background role to play in such efforts. Paper IV Mapping Out and Constructing Needs in the Development of Online Public Services This paper is based on a study concerning experiences of, access to and requests for public services on-line, within the RISI+ Project. The paper presents a pilot study of the setting up of public services in the local context of the county of Blekinge, in southeast Sweden. The study was conducted as a peer evaluation of a selection of methods, or types of needs analysis, used by different actors and producers of public services in order to gain a picture of various needs among users. One part of this study focuses on the views expressed by service providers about the dialogue between themselves and citizens on the provision of public services. This is compared with the practical use or, in some cases, lack of use, of explicit techniques, such as questionnaires, larger surveys and work carried out with the help of focus groups. A basic question is, 'what role does citizen involvement play in the analysis of needs and services and in the choice of design?'. Parts of this report were presented in a poster display at the NordiCHI 2000 conference, "Design versus design" in Stockholm in October 2000 and, in a different version, as a work-in-progress report at the PDC 2000 (Participatory Design) Conference "Bringing in more voices" , in New York in November. Paper V Making E-Government Happen : Everyday Co-Development of Services, Citizenship and Technology This paper describes the use of a metaphorical figure used in different contexts as part of a discussion of working relationships of the co-development of services, citizenship and technology change. The paper discusses the challenge of developing a supportive infrastructure for the ongoing local adaptation and development of public services as citizens use them. Developing supportive structures for co-operation in the design task involves incorporating ways of including the general public, mapping out networks, developing tailorable software and cultivating shop-floor management. If continuous joint co-development of services is made a central part of the co-development of services, citizenship and technology, this also blurs the boundaries between governmental and municipal authorities, private sector employees and other actors within, for example, the voluntary sector - but above all, continuous joint co-development blurs the boundary between citizens and local authorities. The citizens become key figures in the 'web of connections' that makes up the design, content and use of new technologies. In the discourse on participation in E-Government, few reflections are made concerning the basic issue of the democratic values that could be gained by early involvement of local employees and citizens in developmental work or technology-based changes. Making more deliberate use of participatory design methods for incorporating multi-perspectives in service design as well as technology production and use could be a way to stimulate a broader, more inclusive and sustainable participation in local development of E-Government. Paper VI Discourses and Cracks - A Case Study of Information Technology and Writing Women in a Regional Context This is the first of the papers I wrote, where empirical material from a local IT project is discussed and mirrored against the dominating discourses of information technology. Paper VI discusses information technology as a political and practical discourse, which is in part shaped by the repetition of an exalted rhetoric. This repetitive discursive model can be distinguished in global, regional and local contexts and reflects an optimistic belief in technology as an independent power that automatically furthers democratic development. The second part of the paper presents empirical material and experiences from the Women Writing on the Net-project (this was included in the framework of the DIALOGUE project, which was partially funded by ISPO/EC). The aim of the project was to create a virtual space for women on the Internet, and to explore the writing process in terms of aims, tool and method. The method of approach incorporates reflections and discussions about empowerment, democracy and representation of women. This contributed to a more complex understanding of the values of the predominant IT discourses, and revealed the "cracks" in, and possibilities of feminist redefinitions of, these values.

  • 45. Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Reddy, Kishore
    The Augment Project: Co-Constructive Mapping and Support of Accessibility and Participation2010In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Verlag , 2010, Vol. 6229/2010, 95-103 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ongoing multi-disciplinary research-and development project in which we are exploring emerging methods and practices for participatory design of tools and content of accessibility information in India and Sweden, based on user created content. The initial development of the AUGMENT-Project also includes the production of a prototype for sharing information. The joint set up and unfolding of public digital spaces and co-operative creation of processes and infrastructure for user-driven accessibility information is making use of existing handheld mobile phones which offer the possibility to upload pictures and comments via an application with a map-based interface. The research initiative is exploring and comparing cross-cultural participatory methods for cultivation of shared transformational spaces. The paper discusses both the notion of user-driven content and co-creation of tools and methods, drawing upon the tradition of Scandinavian Systems Design, explicitly arguing for direct user-representation in systems development.

  • 46. Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Elovaara, Pirjo
    Eriksén, Sara
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Hansson, Christina
    Landén, Sölve
    Larsson, Anita
    Olén, Ida
    Winter, Jeff
    KomInDu: A Small Project about Big Issues2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this short paper, we present glimpses from an interdisciplinary research and development project aimed at enhancing local democracy by developing ICT support for the consultation process around the comprehensive plan of a municipality. For the participating researchers, the project offered the opportunity of combining and comparing approaches and methods from two different design traditions that share democratic ideals and ambitions of nurturing citizen/user participation in design processes. This proved to be more challenging than we had originally anticipated. Differences in perspective gave different interpretations of the design context as well as of how participatory the processes actually were.

  • 47. Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Aktiv på egna eller andras villkor – hur blir man delaktig?2010In: Förvaltning och medborgarskap i förändring / [ed] Lindblad-Gidlund, Katarina; Ekelin, Annelie; Eriksén, Sara; Ranerup, Agneta, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 47-65 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ”Om vi ska modernisera offentliga sektorn måste vi vända på perspektivet, riva stuprännor, placera individen i centrum och arbeta utifrån en uttalad kundfokusering.” Känns refrängen igen? Under senare år har den blivit tongivande i debatten om hur offentliga sektorn ska öka sin effektivisering och leva upp till medborgarnas allt högre krav. Att tänka medborgarcentrerat går väl an, men hur är det egentligen möjligt att tänka omvänt, att i grunden förstå att både teknik, medborgarskap och yrkesidentitet är något töjbart och föränderligt? Hur lär vi oss att se dessa fysiska ting och till synes stabila begrepp som en ständigt pågående aktivitet som formuleras i nuet, som kontinuerligt förändras och omskapas utifrån ett plats- och situationsberoende samspel? I detta kapitel diskuteras hur medborgarskap, yrkesroller och delaktighet jämte stödjande teknik på en och samma gång kan tolkas som beständiga och anpassningsbara enheter.Det ges också exempel på hur samspelet mellan stabilitet och elasticitet ömsom öppnar och stänger för deltagande utifrån konkreta exempel hämtade från några utvecklingsprojekt som bedrivits inom offentlig sektor.

  • 48. Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Citizen-Driven Design: Leveraging Participatory Design of E-Government 2.0 Through Local and Global Collaborations.2014In: Case Studies in e-Government 2.0. Changing Citizen Relationships. / [ed] Boughzala, Imed; Janssen, Marijn; Assar, Saïd, Springer , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this paper is to present how citizen-driven design of e-government can be promoted through trans-local cooperation. Our case study consists of the Augment project, which focuses on the design of a mobile service for co-creation of local accessibility. Our approach is action research based in the Scandinavian tradition of Participatory design. Experiences from this project highlight issues concerning how to reconfigure the basis for design of public services. In order to cultivate spaces for citizen-driven design and local innovation, we made iterative use of global collaborations. In the initial phase, influences from R&D cooperation with India provided new spaces for participatory design practices. In the next phase, a proof-of-concept process allowed for broader local stake-holder involvement. In the third phase, the service concept was shared and expanded with partner regions in Europe through exchange of Best Practices. Currently, we are moving towards phase four, the commercialization process. Beyond the iterative design of the mobile service itself, and what trans-local collaboration contributed in this context, we also discuss reconceptualization of innovation as incremental change. We argue that transnational collaboration can be deliberately made use of for leveraging incremental change on a local level and strengthening regional innovation systems and practices.

  • 49. Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Does user participation matter in the design and development of e-participation tools? Experiences from a proof-of-concept project2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experiences from a proof-of-concept project concerning a tool for e-participation, Augment; a map-based mobile accessibility service which relies on user-generated content. Using a Participatory Design approach, the aim has been to include future users in the project from the start, so as to ensure that the resulting service will be a useful and sustainable tool for co-constructing accessibility in everyday life in collaboration among involved stakeholders. The project has been struggling with the complexities of combining academic competencies in Participatory Design and traditional project management and systems development approaches. One of the most difficult issues has been balancing widely differing experienced needs for controlling distributed end-user participation. Our experiences so far raise serious questions about how to combine models of open innovation and increased user-involvement with current mainstream user-centered software and service development models. While user-centered design seems to call for users-on-demand, user-driven innovation of e-participation tools could, we argue, benefit more from developers-on-demand.

  • 50. Ekelin, Annelie
    et al.
    Eriksén, Sara
    Making an exit in research: ethical and practical implications in a society dependent on sustainability2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws upon experiences and involvement in several joint research- and development (R&D) projects, organised as a kind of “micro innovation system”, involving multi-organisational and multi-disciplinary cooperators, mainly within the area of e-government or IT-support for homecare. Each project was organised around development or costumization of a computer application, supporting for instance on-line public services, citizen participation or IT-support for home care within the public sector. However, after realisation of the projects, only a few of the applications are maintained. These projects could be regarded as concrete examples of the ongoing reconfiguration of a cluster in a regional innovation system (Miettinen, 2002, p.17, OECD, 1999), and not just as single, stand-alone projects in an expanding region, but also as vital parts in ongoing enactment and refiguration of an extensive national innovation system. The issue then becomes : what implications does this joint innovative growth-stimulation have for the question of completion of research in a growth-intense region, which is concentrating not solely on quick fixes but also on stabilizing innovation? What are the practical and ethical consequences of “making an exit” in the middle of an ongoing mustering of strength – for instance for the citizens, the researchers and the society? These issues are discussed in relation to empirical material gathered during involvement in the start-up of an e-government arena, within the framework of TANGO (Thematic arenas Nourish Growth Opportunities), a program partly funded through Innovative Actions within the European Regional Development Funding (ERDF). Findings, reflections and insights show tensions and ongoing negotiations concerning different perspectives expressed as process- as well as product-orientation in the development. The large amount of ICT-projects, are seen from another perspective, also contributing to the increasing growth in the region. One of the municipalities was appointed “National Leader in Growth municipality” in the year of 2001. The TANGO project itself may actually also be seen as a result of increased regional growth. But the question still remains: is it ever possible to stabilize innovation?

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