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  • 1.
    Abdeen, Waleed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chen, Xingru
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An approach for performance requirements verification and test environments generation2023In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 117-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based testing (MBT) is a method that supports the design and execution of test cases by models that specify theintended behaviors of a system under test. While systematic literature reviews on MBT in general exist, the state of the arton modeling and testing performance requirements has seen much less attention. Therefore, we conducted a systematic map-ping study on model-based performance testing. Then, we studied natural language software requirements specificationsin order to understand which and how performance requirements are typically specified. Since none of the identified MBTtechniques supported a major benefit of modeling, namely identifying faults in requirements specifications, we developed thePerformance Requirements verificatiOn and Test EnvironmentS generaTion approach (PRO-TEST). Finally, we evaluatedPRO-TEST on 149 requirements specifications. We found and analyzed 57 primary studies from the systematic mappingstudy and extracted 50 performance requirements models. However, those models don’t achieve the goals of MBT, whichare validating requirements, ensuring their testability, and generating the minimum required test cases. We analyzed 77 Soft-ware Requirements Specification (SRS) documents, extracted 149 performance requirements from those SRS, and illustratethat with PRO-TEST we can model performance requirements, find issues in those requirements and detect missing ones.We detected three not-quantifiable requirements, 43 not-quantified requirements, and 180 underspecified parameters in the149 modeled performance requirements. Furthermore, we generated 96 test environments from those models. By modelingperformance requirements with PRO-TEST, we can identify issues in the requirements related to their ambiguity, measur-ability, and completeness. Additionally, it allows to generate parameters for test environments

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  • 2.
    Ambreen, T.
    et al.
    Int Islamic Univ, PAK.
    Ikram, N.
    Riphah Int Univ, PAK.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Niazi, M.
    King Fahd Univ Petr & Minerals, SAU.
    Empirical research in requirements engineering: trends and opportunities2018In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 63-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering (RE) being a foundation of software development has gained a great recognition in the recent era of prevailing software industry. A number of journals and conferences have published a great amount of RE research in terms of various tools, techniques, methods, and frameworks, with a variety of processes applicable in different software development domains. The plethora of empirical RE research needs to be synthesized to identify trends and future research directions. To represent a state-of-the-art of requirements engineering, along with various trends and opportunities of empirical RE research, we conducted a systematic mapping study to synthesize the empirical work done in RE. We used four major databases IEEE, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and ACM and Identified 270 primary studies till the year 2012. An analysis of the data extracted from primary studies shows that the empirical research work in RE is on the increase since the year 2000. The requirements elicitation with 22 % of the total studies, requirements analysis with 19 % and RE process with 17 % are the major focus areas of empirical RE research. Non-functional requirements were found to be the most researched emerging area. The empirical work in the sub-area of requirements validation and verification is little and has a decreasing trend. The majority of the studies (50 %) used a case study research method followed by experiments (28 %), whereas the experience reports are few (6 %). A common trend in almost all RE sub-areas is about proposing new interventions. The leading intervention types are guidelines, techniques and processes. The interest in RE empirical research is on the rise as whole. However, requirements validation and verification area, despite its recognized importance, lacks empirical research at present. Furthermore, requirements evolution and privacy requirements also have little empirical research. These RE sub-areas need the attention of researchers for more empirical research. At present, the focus of empirical RE research is more about proposing new interventions. In future, there is a need to replicate existing studies as well to evaluate the RE interventions in more real contexts and scenarios. The practitioners’ involvement in RE empirical research needs to be increased so that they share their experiences of using different RE interventions and also inform us about the current requirements-related challenges and issues that they face in their work. © 2016 Springer-Verlag London

  • 3.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Is role playing in Requirements Engineering Education increasing learning outcome?2017In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 475-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers and practitioners in recent years. This increasing interest requires academia to provide students with a solid foundation in the subject matter. In Requirements Engineering Education (REE), it is important to cover three fundamental topics: traditional analysis and modeling skills, interviewing skills for requirements elicitation, and writing skills for specifying requirements. REE papers report about using role playing as a pedagogical tool; however, there is a surprising lack of empirical evidence on its utility. In this paper we investigate whether a higher grade in a role playing project have an effect on students’ score in an individual written exam in a Requirements Engineering course. Data are collected from 412 students between the years of 2007 and 2014 at Lund University and Chalmers | University of Gothenburg. The results show that students who received a higher grade in the role playing project scored statistically significant higher in the written exam compared to the students with a lower role playing project grade. © 2016 Springer-Verlag London

  • 4.
    Franch, Xavier
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain.
    Palomares, Cristina
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain.
    Quer, Carme
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Örebro University.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The state-of-practice in requirements specification: an extended interview study at 12 companies2023In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 377-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements specification is a core activity in the requirements engineering phase of a software development project. Researchers have contributed extensively to the field of requirements specification, but the extent to which their proposals have been adopted in practice remains unclear. We gathered evidence about the state of practice in requirements specification by focussing on the artefacts used in this activity, the application of templates or guidelines, how requirements are structured in the specification document, what tools practitioners use to specify requirements, and what challenges they face. We conducted an interview-based survey study involving 24 practitioners from 12 different Swedish IT companies. We recorded the interviews and analysed these recordings, primarily by using qualitative methods. Natural language constitutes the main specification artefact but is usually accompanied by some other type of instrument. Most requirements specifications use templates or guidelines, although they seldom follow any fixed standard. Requirements are always structured in the document according to the main functionalities of the system or to project areas or system parts. Different types of tools, including MS Office tools, are used, either individually or combined, in the compilation of requirements specifications. We also note that challenges related to the use of natural language (dealing with ambiguity, inconsistency, and incompleteness) are the most frequent challenges that practitioners face in the compilation of requirements specifications. These findings are contextualized in terms of demographic factors related to the individual interviewees, the organization they are affiliated with, and the project they selected to discuss during our interviews. A number of our findings have been previously reported in related studies. These findings show that, in spite of the large number of notations, models and tools proposed from academia for improving requirements specification, practitioners still mainly rely on plain natural language and general-purpose tool support. We expect more empirical studies in this area in order to better understand the reason of this low adoption of research results.

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  • 5.
    Frattini, Julian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fischbach, Jannik
    Qualicen GmbH, GER.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Vogelsang, Andreas
    University of Cologne, GER.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Causality in requirements artifacts: prevalence, detection, and impact2023In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 49-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Causal relations in natural language (NL) requirements convey strong, semantic information. Automatically extracting such causal information enables multiple use cases, such as test case generation, but it also requires to reliably detect causal relations in the first place. Currently, this is still a cumbersome task as causality in NL requirements is still barely understood and, thus, barely detectable. In our empirically informed research, we aim at better understanding the notion of causality and supporting the automatic extraction of causal relations in NL requirements. In a first case study, we investigate 14.983 sentences from 53 requirements documents to understand the extent and form in which causality occurs. Second, we present and evaluate a tool-supported approach, called CiRA, for causality detection. We conclude with a second case study where we demonstrate the applicability of our tool and investigate the impact of causality on NL requirements. The first case study shows that causality constitutes around 28 % of all NL requirements sentences. We then demonstrate that our detection tool achieves a macro-F 1 score of 82 % on real-world data and that it outperforms related approaches with an average gain of 11.06 % in macro-Recall and 11.43 % in macro-Precision. Finally, our second case study corroborates the positive correlations of causality with features of NL requirements. The results strengthen our confidence in the eligibility of causal relations for downstream reuse, while our tool and publicly available data constitute a first step in the ongoing endeavors of utilizing causality in RE and beyond. © 2022, The Author(s).

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  • 6.
    Frattini, Julian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Montgomery, Lloyd
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Fischbach, Jannik
    Netlight Consulting GmbH, Germany.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fucci, Davide
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements quality research: a harmonized theory, evaluation, and roadmap2023In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 507-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality requirements minimize the risk of propagating defects to later stages of the software development life cycle. Achieving a sufficient level of quality is a major goal of requirements engineering. This requires a clear definition and understanding of requirements quality. Though recent publications make an effort at disentangling the complex concept of quality, the requirements quality research community lacks identity and clear structure which guides advances and puts new findings into an holistic perspective. In this research commentary, we contribute (1) a harmonized requirements quality theory organizing its core concepts, (2) an evaluation of the current state of requirements quality research, and (3) a research roadmap to guide advancements in the field. We show that requirements quality research focuses on normative rules and mostly fails to connect requirements quality to its impact on subsequent software development activities, impeding the relevance of the research. Adherence to the proposed requirements quality theory and following the outlined roadmap will be a step toward amending this gap. © 2023, The Author(s).

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  • 7.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kurt, Schneider
    University of Hannover, DEU.
    Farnaz, Fotrousi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Christoph, Thuemmler
    Edinburgh Napier University, GBR.
    Workshop Videos for Requirements Communication2016In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 521-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared understanding of requirements between stakeholders and the development team is a critical success factor for requirements engineering. Workshops are an effective means for achieving such shared understanding since stakeholders and team representatives can meet and discuss what a planned software system should be and how it should support achieving stakeholder goals. However, some important intended recipients of the requirements are often not present in such workshops: the developers. Thus, they cannot benefit from the in-depth understanding of the requirements and of the rationales for these requirements that develops during the workshops. The simple handover of a requirements specification hardly compensates the rich requirements understanding that is needed for the development of an acceptable system. To compensate the lack of presence in a requirements workshop, we propose to record that requirements workshop on video. If workshop participants agree to be recorded, a video is relatively simple to create and is able to capture much more aspects about requirements and rationales than a specification document. This paper presents the workshop video technique and a phenomenological evaluation of its use for requirements communication from the perspective of software developers. The results show how the technique was appreciated by observers of the video, present positive and negative feedbacks from the observers, and lead to recommendations for implementing the technique in practice.

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  • 8. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Garre, Per
    Larsson, Stig
    Wohlin, Claes
    Industry Evaluation of the Requirements Abstraction Model2007In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 163-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software requirements are often formulated on different levels and hence they are difficult to compare to each other. To address this issue, a model that allows for placing requirements on different levels has been developed. The model supports both abstraction and refinement of requirements, and hence requirements can both be compared with each other and to product strategies. Comparison between requirements will allow for prioritization of requirements, which in many cases is impossible if the requirements are described on different abstraction levels. Comparison to product strategies will enable early and systematic acceptance or dismissal of requirements, minimizing the risk for overloading. This paper presents an industrial evaluation of the model. It has been evaluated in two different companies, and the experiences and findings are presented. It is concluded that the requirements abstraction model provides helpful improvements to the industrial requirements engineering process.

  • 9. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Requirements Abstraction Model2006In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software requirements arrive in different shapes and forms to development organizations. This is particularly the case in market-driven requirements engineering, where the requirements are on products rather than directed towards projects. This results in challenges related to making different requirements comparable. In particular, this situation was identified in a collaborative effort between academia and industry. A model, with four abstraction levels, was developed as a response to the industrial need. The model allows for placement of requirements on different levels and supports abstraction or break down of requirements to make them comparable to each other. The model was successfully validated in several steps at a company. The results from the industrial validation point to the usefulness of the model. The model will allow companies to ensure comparability between requirements, and hence it generates important input to activities such as prioritization and packaging of requirements before launching a development project.

  • 10.
    Gren, Lucas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology, SWE.
    Is it possible to disregard obsolete requirements? a family of experiments in software effort estimation2021In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, no 3, p. 459-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert judgement is a common method for software effort estimations in practice today. Estimators are often shown extra obsolete requirements together with the real ones to be implemented. Only one previous study has been conducted on if such practices bias the estimations. We conducted six experiments with both students and practitioners to study, and quantify, the effects of obsolete requirements on software estimation. By conducting a family of six experiments using both students and practitioners as research subjects (N= 461), and by using a Bayesian Data Analysis approach, we investigated different aspects of this effect. We also argue for, and show an example of, how we by using a Bayesian approach can be more confident in our results and enable further studies with small sample sizes. We found that the presence of obsolete requirements triggered an overestimation in effort across all experiments. The effect, however, was smaller in a field setting compared to using students as subjects. Still, the over-estimations triggered by the obsolete requirements were systematically around twice the percentage of the included obsolete ones, but with a large 95% credible interval. The results have implications for both research and practice in that the found systematic error should be accounted for in both studies on software estimation and, maybe more importantly, in estimation practices to avoid over-estimations due to this systematic error. We partly explain this error to be stemming from the cognitive bias of anchoring-and-adjustment, i.e. the obsolete requirements anchored a much larger software. However, further studies are needed in order to accurately predict this effect. © 2021, The Author(s).

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  • 11.
    Montgomery, Lloyd
    et al.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Fucci, Davide
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Bouraffa, Abir
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Scholz, Lisa
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Maalej, Walid
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Empirical research on requirements quality: a systematic mapping study2022In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 183-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has repeatedly shown that high-quality requirements are essential for the success of development projects. While the term “quality” is pervasive in the field of requirements engineering and while the body of research on requirements quality is large, there is no meta-study of the field that overviews and compares the concrete quality attributes addressed by the community. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted a systematic mapping study of the scientific literature. We retrieved 6905 articles from six academic databases, which we filtered down to 105 relevant primary studies. The primary studies use empirical research to explicitly define, improve, or evaluate requirements quality. We found that empirical research on requirements quality focuses on improvement techniques, with very few primary studies addressing evidence-based definitions and evaluations of quality attributes. Among the 12 quality attributes identified, the most prominent in the field are ambiguity, completeness, consistency, and correctness. We identified 111 sub-types of quality attributes such as “template conformance” for consistency or “passive voice” for ambiguity. Ambiguity has the largest share of these sub-types. The artefacts being studied are mostly referred to in the broadest sense as “requirements”, while little research targets quality attributes in specific types of requirements such as use cases or user stories. Our findings highlight the need to conduct more empirically grounded research defining requirements quality, using more varied research methods, and addressing a more diverse set of requirements types. © 2022, The Author(s).

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  • 12.
    Oliinyk, Olesia
    et al.
    Capgemini, DEU.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Schoelzke, Manfred
    Adam Opel AG, DEU.
    Becker, Martin
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn, DEU.
    Schneickert, Soeren
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn, DEU.
    Structuring automotive product lines and feature models: an exploratory study at Opel2017In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 22, p. 105-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive systems are highly complex and customized systems containing a vast amount of variability. Feature modeling plays a key role in customization. Empirical evidence through industry application, and in particular methodological guidance of how to structure automotive product lines and their feature models is needed. The overall aim of this work is to provide guidance to practitioners how to structure automotive product lines and their feature models, understanding strengths and weaknesses of alternative structures. The research was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, the context situation was understood using interviews and workshops. In the second phase, possible structures of product lines and feature models were evaluated based on industry feedback collected in workshops. In the third phase, the structures were implemented in the tool GEARS and practitioner feedback was collected. One key challenge was the unavailability of structuring guidelines, which was the focus of this research. The structures considered most suitable for the automotive product line were multiple product lines with modular decomposition. The structures most suitable for the feature model were functional decomposition, using context variability, models corresponding to assets, and feature categories. Other structures have been discarded, and the rationales have been presented. It was possible to support the most suitable structures with the commercial tool GEARS. The implementation in GEARS and the feedback from the practitioners provide early indications for the potential usefulness of the structures and the tool implementation.

  • 13.
    Palomares, Cristina
    et al.
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), ESP.
    Franch, Xavier
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), ESP.
    Quer, Carme
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), ESP.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Örebro University, SWE.
    López, Lidia
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), ESP.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The state-of-practice in requirements elicitation: an extended interview study at 12 companies2021In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 273-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering remains a discipline that is faced with a large number of challenges, including the implementation of a requirements elicitation process in industry. Although several proposals have been suggested by researchers and academics, little is known of the practices that are actually followed in industry. Our objective is to investigate the state-of-practice with respect to requirements elicitation, by closely examining practitioners’ current practices. To this aim, we focus on the techniques that are used in industry, the roles that requirements elicitation involves, and the challenges that the requirements elicitation process is faced with. As method, we conducted an interview-based survey study involving 24 practitioners from 12 different Swedish IT companies, and we recorded the interviews and analyzed these recordings by using quantitative and qualitative methods. Several results emerged from the studies. Group interaction techniques, including meetings and workshops, are the most popular type of elicitation techniques that are employed by the practitioners, except in the case of small projects. Additionally, practitioners tend to use a variety of elicitation techniques in each project. We noted that customers are frequently involved in the elicitation process, except in the case of market-driven organizations. Technical staff (for example, developers and architects) are more frequently involved in the elicitation process compared to the involvement of business or strategic staff. Finally, we identified a number of challenges with respect to stakeholders. These challenges include difficulties in understanding and prioritizing their needs. Further, it was noted that requirements instability (i.e., caused by changing needs or priorities) was a predominant challenge. These observations need to be interpreted in the context of the study. We conclude that the relevant observations regarding the survey participants’ experiences should be of interest to the industry; experiences that should be analyzed in the practitioners’ context. Researchers may find evidence for the use of academic results in practice, thereby inspiring future theoretical work, as well as further empirical studies in the same area. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd. part of Springer Nature.

  • 14.
    Peixoto, Mariana
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), BRA.
    Silva, Carla
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), BRA.
    Araújo, João
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), PRT.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Vasconcelos, Alexandre
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), BRA.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), BRA.
    Evaluating a privacy requirements specification method by using a mixed-method approach: results and lessons learned2023In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 229-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although agile software development (ASD) has been adopted in the industry, requirements approaches for ASD still neglect non-functional requirements. Privacy has become a concern due to new user demands and data protection laws. Hence, privacy needs to be properly specified, but agile requirements engineering techniques do not explicitly represent privacy requirements and, therefore, are not able to proper analyze such requirements. In this context, Privacy Criteria Method (PCM), an approach to specify privacy in requirements activities, was proposed to produce more complete and detailed privacy requirements. By considering PCM a promising approach to be used in ASD and the importance of empirical evaluation of new methods, we have as objectives: 1 evaluate the ability of PCM to support systems analysts in specifying privacy requirements when used in conjunction with some agile specification methods; and 2 show our lessons learned in conducting empirical research based on an mix-method approach defined to empirically evaluate the suitability of a requirements specification in specifying privacy requirements. Mixed-method approach is a controlled experiment as a quantitative evaluation and a feasibility study (questionnaire and task analysis based) study as a qualitative and quantitative evaluation. The requirements specifications following PCM allow to represent privacy aspects, such as user’s personal data and the privacy mechanism that can be used to mitigate a privacy risk scenario. We also observed that some extra time is necessary to specify privacy requirements with PCM, but it does not imply a greater perceived effort. Specifications produced with PCM are of good quality and more privacy detailed. Additionally, we attest to the importance of conducting empirical research to evaluate new methods. PCM assists in specifying more complete and detailed in relation to traditional techniques used in ASD, which facilitates communication between the requirements analysts and developers. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.

  • 15.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Thi Than Loan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Mai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Uni-REPM: Validated and Improved2013In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software products are usually developed for either a specific customer (bespoke) or a broader market (market-driven). Due to their characteristic, bespoke and market-driven development face different challenges, especially concerning requirements engineering. Many challenges are caused by an inadequate requirements engineering process, and hence there is a need for process improvement frameworks based on empirical research and industry needs. In a previous article we introduced Uni-REPM, a lightweight requirements engineering process assessment framework based on a review of empirically motivated practices in market-driven and bespoke requirements engineering literature. In this article, we validate this framework in academia as well as industry, in order to prepare Uni-REPM for widespread industry use. We conduct two validations; a static validation based on interviews with seven academic experts and a dynamic validation where Uni-REPM is applied in four industrial organisations. Uni-REPM is refined according to the feedback obtained in the validations. The study shows that Uni-REPM is a quick, simple, and cost-effective solution to assess the maturity level of the requirements engineering process of projects. Moreover, the assessment method using checklists is highly usable and applicable in various international development environments.

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  • 16.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Thi Than Loan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nguyen, Mai Huong
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Uni-REPM: a framework for requirements engineering process assessment2015In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 91-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown that potential business benefits could be achieved by assessing and improving the requirements engineering (RE) process. However, process assessment models such as CMMI and ISO9000 only cover RE shallowly. Tailored models such as REGPG and REPM, on the other hand, do not cover market-driven requirements engineering. Other attempts such as MDREPM covers market-driven requirements engineering, but correspondingly neglects bespoke requirements engineering. Moreover, the area itself has evolved so practices that once were cutting edge are now commonplace. In this article, we develop and evaluate a unified requirements engineering process maturity model (Uni-REPM) that can be used in a market-driven as well as a bespoke context. This model is based on REPM, but has evolved to reflect contemporary requirements engineering practices. Uni-REPM is primarily created based on a systematic literature review of market-driven requirements engineering practices and a literature review of bespoke practices. Based on the results, Uni-REPM is formulated. The objective of Uni-REPM is twofold. Firstly, it is expected to be applicable for assessing the maturity of RE processes in various scenarios where an organisation would use different development approaches. Secondly, it instructs practitioners about which RE practices to perform and their expected benefits. As an assessment instrument, Uni-REPM provides a simple and low-cost solution for practitioners to identify the status of their RE process. As a guidance tool, Uni-REPM lessens the gap between theoretical and practical worlds by transferring the available RE technologies from research to industry practice.

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  • 17.
    Villamizar, Hugo
    et al.
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, BRA.
    Kalinowski, Marcos
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, BRA.
    Garcia, Alessandro F.
    Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, BRA.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An efficient approach for reviewing security-related aspects in agile requirements specifications of web applications2020In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 439-468, article id Special Issue: SIArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defects in requirement specifications can have severe consequences during the software development life cycle. Some of them may result in poor product quality and/or time and budget overrun due to incorrect or missing quality characteristics, such as security. This characteristic requires special attention in web applications because they have become a target for manipulating sensible data. Several concerns make security difficult to deal with. For instance, security requirements are often misunderstood and improperly specified due to lack of security expertise and emphasis on security during early stages of software development. This often leads to unspecified or ill-defined security-related aspects. These concerns become even more challenging in agile contexts, where lightweight documentation is typically produced. To tackle this problem, we designed an approach for reviewing security-related aspects in agile requirements specifications of web applications. Our proposal considers user stories and security specifications as inputs and relates those user stories to security properties via natural language processing. Based on the related security properties, our approach identifies high-level security requirements from the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) to be verified and generates a reading technique to support reviewers in detecting defects. We evaluate our approach via three experimental trials conducted with 56 novice software engineers, measuring effectiveness, efficiency, usefulness and ease of use. We compare our approach against using: (1) the OWASP high-level security requirements and (2) a perspective-based approach as proposed in contemporary state of the art. The results strengthen our confidence that using our approach has a positive impact (with large effect size) on the performance of inspectors in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. © 2020, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature.

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