A simple mechanical system containing a low-frequency vibration mode and set of high-frequency acoustic modes is considered. The frequency response is calculated. Nonlinear behaviour and interaction between modes is described by system of functional equations. Two types of nonlinearities are taken into account. The first one is caused by the finite displacement of a movable boundary, and the second one is the volume nonlinearity of gas. New mathematical models based on nonlinear equations are suggested. Some examples of nonlinear phenomena are discussed on the base of derived solutions.

The Laplace invariants pertain to linear hyperbolic differential equations with two independent variables. They were discovered by Laplace in 1773 and used in his integration theory of hyperbolic equations. Cotton extended the Laplace invariants to elliptic equations in 1900. Cotton's invariants can be obtained from the Laplace invariants merely by the complex change of variables relating the elliptic and hyperbolic equations. To the best of my knowledge, the invariants for parabolic equations were not found thus far. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by considering what will be called Laplace type invariants (or seminvariants), i.e. the quantities that remain unaltered under the linear transformation of the dependent variable. Laplace type invariants are calculated here for all hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic equations using the unified infinitesimal method. A new invariant is found for parabolic equations.

Classical Lie group theory provides a universal tool for calculating symmetry groups for systems of differential equations. However Lie's method is not as much effective in the case of integral or integro-differential equations as well as in the case of infinite systems of differential equations. This paper is aimed to survey the modern approaches to symmetries of integro-differential equations. As an illustration, an infinite symmetry Lie algebra is calculated for a system of integro-differential equations, namely the well-known Benny equations. The crucial idea is to look for symmetry generators in the form of canonical Lie-Backlund operators.

S. Lie found in 1883 the general form of all second-order ordinary differential equations transformable to the linear equation by a change of variables and proved that their solution reduces to integration of a linear third-order ordinary differential equation. He showed that the linearizable equations are at most cubic in the first-order derivative and described a general procedure for constructing linearizing transformations by using an over-determined system of four equations. We present here a simple geometric proof of the theorem, known as Lie's linearization test, stating that the compatibility of Lie's four auxiliary equations furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for linearization.

It is well known that the maximal order of Lie-Backlund symmetries for any nth-order ordinary differential equation is equal to n-1, and that the whole set of such symmetries forms an infinite-dimensional Lie algebra. Symmetries of the order pless than or equal ton - 2 span a linear subspace (but not a subalgebra) in this algebra. We call them symmetries of submaximal order. The purpose of the article is to prove that for n less than or equal to 4 this subspace is finite-dimensional and it's dimension cannot be greater than 35 for n=4, 10 for n=3 and 3 for n=2. In the case n=3 this statement follows immediately from Lie's result on contact symmetries of third-order ordinary differential equations. The maximal values of dimensions are reached, e.g., on the simplest equations y((n))=0.

7.

Rudenko, Oleg

et al.

Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Hedberg, Claes

Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Science. Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Telecommunications and Mathematics.

A new kind of nonlinearity of inertial type caused by accelerated motion of interacting particles is described. The model deals with an ensemble of grains immersed into a vibrating fluid. First, the nonlinear vibration of two connected grains is studied. The temporal behaviours of displacement and velocity, as well as spectrum of vibration, are analysed. Numerical simulations are performed. Then an infinite chain of grains is considered and the corresponding differential-difference equation is derived. For the continuum limit the inhomogeneous nonlinear wave equation is solved and temporal profiles are calculated. A new resonant phenomenon is described and the resonant curves are constructed.