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  • 1.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cruzes, Daniella
    SINTEF Digital, NOR.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e1921Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Onboarding is the process of supporting new employees regarding their social and performance adjustment to their new job. Software companies have faced challenges with recruitment and onboarding of new team members and there is no study that investigates it in a holistic way. In this paper, we conducted a multi-case study to investigate the onboarding of software developers/teams, associated challenges, and areas for further improvement in three globally distributed legacy projects. We employed Bauer's model for onboarding to identify the current state of the onboarding strategies employed in each case. We learned that the employed strategies are semi-formalized. Besides, in projects with multiple sites, some functions are executed locally and the onboarding outcomes may be hard to control. We also learned that onboarding in legacy projects is especially challenging and that decisions to distribute such projects across multiple locations shall be approached carefully. In our cases, the challenges to learn legacy code were further amplified by the project scale and the distance to the original sources of knowledge. Finally, we identified practices that can be used by companies to increase the chances of being successful when onboarding software developers and teams in globally distributed legacy projects.

  • 2.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A method for investigating the quality of evolving object-oriented software using defects in global software development projects2016In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 622-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Global software development (GSD) projects can have distributed teams that work independently in different locations or team members that are dispersed. The various development settings in GSD can influence quality during product evolution. When evaluating quality using defects as a proxy, the development settings have to be taken into consideration. Objective: The aim is to provide a systematic method for supporting investigations of the implication of GSD contexts on defect data as a proxy for quality. Method: A method engineering approach was used to incrementally develop the proposed method. This was done through applying the method in multiple industrial contexts and then using lessons learned to refine and improve the method after application. Results: A measurement instrument and visualization was proposed incorporating an understanding of the release history and understanding of GSD contexts. Conclusion: The method can help with making accurate inferences about development settings because it includes details on collecting and aggregating data at a level that matches the development setting in a GSD context and involves practitioners at various phases of the investigation. Finally, the information that is produced from following the method can help practitioners make informed decisions when planning to develop software in comparable circumstances. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 3.
    Jabbari, Ramtin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tanveer, Binish
    Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering IESE, DEU.
    Towards a benefits dependency network for DevOps based on a systematic literature review2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 11, article id e1957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DevOps as a new way of thinking for software development and operations has received much attention in the industry, while it has not been thoroughly investigated in academia yet. The objective of this study is to characterize DevOps by exploring its central components in terms of principles, practices and their relations to the principles, challenges of DevOps adoption, and benefits reported in the peer-reviewed literature. As a key objective, we also aim to realize the relations between DevOps practices and benefits in a systematic manner. A systematic literature review was conducted. Also, we used the concept of benefits dependency network to synthesize the findings, in particular, to specify dependencies between DevOps practices and link the practices to benefits. We found that in many cases, DevOps characteristics, ie, principles, practices, benefits, and challenges, were not sufficiently defined in detail in the peer-reviewed literature. In addition, only a few empirical studies are available, which can be attributed to the nascency of DevOps research. Also, an initial version of the DevOps benefits dependency network has been derived. The definition of DevOps principles and practices should be emphasized given the novelty of the concept. Further empirical studies are needed to improve the benefits dependency network presented in this study. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 4.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Masood, Sohaib
    UIIT PMAS Arid Agriculture University, PAK.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Nadeem, Aamer
    Capital University of Science and Technology, PAK.
    A Systematic Mapping of Test Case Generation Techniques Using UML Interaction Diagrams2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing plays a vital role for assuring software quality. Among the activities performed during testing process, test cases generation is a challenging and labor intensive task. Test case generation techniques based on UML models are getting the attention of researchers and practitioners. This study provides a systematic mapping of test case generation techniques based on interaction diagrams. The study compares the test case generation techniques, regarding their capabilities and limitations, and it also assesses the reporting quality of the primary studies. It has been revealed that UML interaction diagrams based techniques are mainly used for integration testing. The majority of the techniques are using sequence diagrams as input models, while some are using collaboration. A notable number of techniques are using interaction diagram along with some other UML diagram for test case generation. These techniques are mainly focusing on interaction, scenario, operational, concurrency, synchronization and deadlock related faults.

    From the results of this study, we can conclude that the studies presenting test case generation techniques using UML interaction diagrams failed to illustrate the use of rigorous methodology, and these techniques did not demonstrate the empirical evaluation in an industrial context. Our study revealed the need for tool support to facilitate the transfer of solutions to industry.

  • 5.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 9, article id e1937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software developing organizations strive to achieve flexibility to maintain a competitive advantage. There is no common understanding of what characterize flexibility for a software organization beyond the scope of the software product. Without a common understanding, it is difficult to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of software development approaches. The aim of this literature review is to collect attributes that characterize flexibility. The collected attributes are consolidated into a flexibility framework with 3 main attributes: properties of change, flexibility perspectives, and flexibility enablers. The resulting flexibility framework is then used to evaluate Agile and Lean practices. The evaluation shows that Agile and Lean practices address many flexibility attributes. However, some attributes are not addressed, such as infrastructure flexibility and strategic flexibility. On the basis of our evaluation, the classifications of flexibility attributes that we present in this paper could be used to aid software organization flexibility evaluation.

  • 6.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A model for assessing and re-assessing the value of software reuse2017In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 29, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software reuse is often seen as a cost avoidance rather than a gained value. This results in a rather one-sided debate where issues such a resource control, release schedule, quality, or reuse in more than one release are neglected. Aims: We propose a reuse value assessment framework, intended to provide a more nuanced view of the value and costs associated with different reuse candidates. Method: This framework is constructed based on findings from an interview study at a large software development company. Results: The framework considers the functionality, compliance to standards, provided quality, and provided support of a reuse candidate, thus enabling an informed comparison between different reuse candidates. Furthermore, the framework provides means for tracking the value of the reused asset throughout subsequent releases. Conclusions: The reuse value assessment framework is a tool to assist in the selection between different reuse candidates. The framework also provides a means to assess the current value of a reusable asset in a product, which can be used to indicate where maintenance efforts would increase the utilized potential of the reusable asset.

  • 7.
    Tanveer, Binish
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn IESE, DEU.
    Vollmer, Anna Maria
    Fraunhofer Inst Expt Software Engn IESE, DEU.
    Braun, Stefan
    Insiders Technol GmBH, DEU.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An evaluation of effort estimation supported by change impact analysis in agile software development2019In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 31, no 5, article id e2165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In agile software development, functionality is added to the system in an incremental and iterative manner. Practitioners often rely on expert judgment to estimate the effort in this context. However, the impact of a change on the existing system can provide objective information to practitioners to arrive at an informed estimate. In this regard, we have developed a hybrid method, that utilizes change impact analysis information for improving effort estimation. We also developed an estimation model based on gradient boosted trees (GBT). In this study, we evaluate the performance and usefulness of our hybrid method with tool support and the GBT model in a live iteration at Insiders Technologies GmbH, a German software company. Additionally, the solution was also assessed for perceived usefulness and understandability in a study with graduate and post-graduate students. The results from the industrial evaluation show that the proposed method produces more accurate estimates than only expert-based or only model-based estimates. Furthermore, both students and practitioners perceived the usefulness and understandability of the method positively.

  • 8. Ulziit, B.a
    et al.
    Warraich, Z.A.b
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A conceptual framework of challenges and solutions for managing global software maintenance2015In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 763-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Software maintenance process in globally distributed settings brings significant management challenges to software organizations. Objectives Investigate the factors specific to managing software maintenance process in globally distributed settings and best practices in software organizations. Method A systematic literature review and interviews with industry practitioners were conducted. For analysis and synthesis, the grounded theory method was used. Results We identified a number of management challenges and mitigation strategies and then classified them under people, process, product, and technology factors. Overall, a structure of challenges and solutions, the conceptual framework, has been developed that may be used to understand and classify global maintenance challenges. Conclusions Distributed software maintenance process has specific management challenges in relation to process, people, product, and technology. Therefore, companies performing maintenance in distributed settings should consider these factors, which are not present in the general global software development literature, although many lessons apply to both. © 2015 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  • 9.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kabbedijk, J.c
    Brinkkemper, S.c
    Regnell, B.b
    Callele, D.d
    Exploring factors affecting decision outcome and lead time in large-scale requirements engineering2015In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 647-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing decision lead time and outcome is important for successful product management. This work identifies decision lead time and outcome factors in large-scale requirements engineering. Our investigation brings supporting evidence that complex changes have longer lead time and that important customers more likely get what they request. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. Lead time, defined as the duration between the moment a request was filed and the moment the decision was made, is an important aspect of decision making in market-driven requirements engineering. Minimizing lead time allows software companies to focus their resources on the most profitable functionality and enables them to remain competitive within the quickly changing software market. Achieving and sustaining low decision lead time and the resulting high decision efficiency require a better understanding of factors that may affect both decision lead time and outcome. In order to identify possible factors, we conducted an exploratory two-stage case study that combines the statistical analysis of seven possible relationships among decision characteristics at a large company with a survey of industry participants. Our results show that the number of products affected by a decision increases the time needed to make a decision. Practitioners should take this aspect into consideration when planning for efficient decision making and possibly reducing the complexity of decisions. Our results also show that when a change request originates from an important customer, the request is more often accepted. The results provide input into the discussion of whether a large company should focus on only a few of its large customers and disregard its significantly larger group of small customers. The results provide valuable insights for researchers, who can use them to plan research of decision-making processes and methods, and for practitioners, who can use them to optimize their decision-making processes. In future work, we plan to investigate other decision characteristics, such as the number of stakeholders involved in the discussion about the potential change or the number of dependencies between software components. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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