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  • 1.
    Alkhabbas, Fahed
    et al.
    Malmö University, SWE.
    Alsadi, Mohammed
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NOR.
    Alawadi, Sadi
    Uppsala University, SWE.
    Awaysheh, Feras M.
    University of Tartu, EST.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Moghaddam, Mahyar T.
    University of Southern Denmark, DEN.
    ASSERT: A Blockchain-Based Architectural Approach for Engineering Secure Self-Adaptive IoT Systems2022In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 18, article id 6842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) systems are complex systems that can manage mission-critical, costly operations or the collection, storage, and processing of sensitive data. Therefore, security represents a primary concern that should be considered when engineering IoT systems. Additionally, several challenges need to be addressed, including the following ones. IoT systems’ environments are dynamic and uncertain. For instance, IoT devices can be mobile or might run out of batteries, so they can become suddenly unavailable. To cope with such environments, IoT systems can be engineered as goal-driven and self-adaptive systems. A goal-driven IoT system is composed of a dynamic set of IoT devices and services that temporarily connect and cooperate to achieve a specific goal. Several approaches have been proposed to engineer goal-driven and self-adaptive IoT systems. However, none of the existing approaches enable goal-driven IoT systems to automatically detect security threats and autonomously adapt to mitigate them. Toward bridging these gaps, this paper proposes a distributed architectural Approach for engineering goal-driven IoT Systems that can autonomously SElf-adapt to secuRity Threats in their environments (ASSERT). ASSERT exploits techniques and adopts notions, such as agents, federated learning, feedback loops, and blockchain, for maintaining the systems’ security and enhancing the trustworthiness of the adaptations they perform. The results of the experiments that we conducted to validate the approach’s feasibility show that it performs and scales well when detecting security threats, performing autonomous security adaptations to mitigate the threats and enabling systems’ constituents to learn about security threats in their environments collaboratively. © 2022 by the authors.

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  • 2.
    Al-Saedi, Ahmed Abbas Mohsin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Casalicchio, Emiliano
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Exner, Peter
    Sony, R&D Center Europe, SWE.
    Context-Aware Edge-Based AI Models for Wireless Sensor Networks-An Overview2022In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 15, article id 5544Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in sensor technology are expected to lead to a greater use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in industry, logistics, healthcare, etc. On the other hand, advances in artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) are becoming dominant solutions for processing large amounts of data from edge-synthesized heterogeneous sensors and drawing accurate conclusions with better understanding of the situation. Integration of the two areas WSN and AI has resulted in more accurate measurements, context-aware analysis and prediction useful for smart sensing applications. In this paper, a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in context-aware intelligent systems using sensor technology is provided. In addition, it also discusses the areas in which they are used, related challenges, motivations for adopting AI solutions, focusing on edge computing, i.e., sensor and AI techniques, along with analysis of existing research gaps. Another contribution of this study is the use of a semantic-aware approach to extract survey-relevant subjects. The latter specifically identifies eleven main research topics supported by the articles included in the work. These are analyzed from various angles to answer five main research questions. Finally, potential future research directions are also discussed.

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  • 3.
    Araujo, Gustavo F.
    et al.
    Aeronautics Institute of Technology, BRA.
    Machado, Renato
    Aeronautics Institute of Technology, BRA.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Non-Cooperative SAR Automatic Target Recognition Based on Scattering Centers Models2022In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 3, article id 1293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes an Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) algorithm to classify non-cooperative targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images. The scarcity or nonexistence of measured SAR data demands that classification algorithms rely only on synthetic data for training purposes. Based on a model represented by the set of scattering centers extracted from purely synthetic data, the proposed algorithm generates hypotheses for the set of scattering centers extracted from the target under test belonging to each class. A Goodness of Fit test is considered to verify each hypothesis, where the Likelihood Ratio Test is modified by a scattering center-weighting function common to both the model and target. Some algorithm variations are assessed for scattering center extraction and hypothesis generation and verification. The proposed solution is the first model-based classification algorithm to address the recently released Synthetic and Measured Paired Labeled Experiment (SAMPLE) dataset on a 100% synthetic training data basis. As a result, an accuracy of 91.30% in a 10-target test within a class experiment under Standard Operating Conditions (SOCs) was obtained. The algorithm was also pioneered in testing the SAMPLE dataset in Extend Operating Conditions (EOCs), assuming noise contamination and different target configurations. The proposed algorithm was shown to be robust for SNRs greater than −5 dB. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 4.
    Dahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Javadi, Mohammad Saleh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Analytical Modeling for a Video-Based Vehicle Speed Measurement Framework2020In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Traffic analyses, particularly speed measurements, are highly valuable in terms of road safety and traffic management. In this paper, an analytical model is presented to measure the speed of a moving vehicle using an off-the-shelf video camera. The method utilizes the temporal sampling rate of the camera and several intrusion lines in order to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of a vehicle’s speed. The proposed model provides not only an accurate estimate of the speed, but also the possibility of being able to study the performance boundaries with respect to the camera framerate as well as the placement and number of intrusion lines in advance. This analytical modelis verified by comparing its PDF outputs with the results obtained via a simulation of the corresponding movements. In addition,as aproof-of-concept, the proposed model is implemented for avideo-based vehicle speed measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the model’s capability in terms of taking accurate measurements of the speed via a consideration of the temporal sampling rate and lowering the deviation by utilizing more intrusion lines. The analytical model is highly versatile and can be used as the core of various video-based speed measurement systems in transportation and surveillance applications.

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  • 5.
    Devagiri, Vishnu Manasa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Abghari, Shahrooz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Basiri, Fahrad
    iquest AB, SWE.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Multi-view data analysis techniques for monitoring smart building systems2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 20, article id 6775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In smart buildings, many different systems work in coordination to accomplish their tasks. In this process, the sensors associated with these systems collect large amounts of data generated in a streaming fashion, which is prone to concept drift. Such data are heterogeneous due to the wide range of sensors collecting information about different characteristics of the monitored systems. All these make the monitoring task very challenging. Traditional clustering algorithms are not well equipped to address the mentioned challenges. In this work, we study the use of MV Multi-Instance Clustering algorithm for multi-view analysis and mining of smart building systems’ sensor data. It is demonstrated how this algorithm can be used to perform contextual as well as integrated analysis of the systems. Various scenarios in which the algorithm can be used to analyze the data generated by the systems of a smart building are examined and discussed in this study. In addition, it is also shown how the extracted knowledge can be visualized to detect trends in the systems’ behavior and how it can aid domain experts in the systems’ maintenance. In the experiments conducted, the proposed approach was able to successfully detect the deviating behaviors known to have previously occurred and was also able to identify some new deviations during the monitored period. Based on the results obtained from the experiments, it can be concluded that the proposed algorithm has the ability to be used for monitoring, analysis, and detecting deviating behaviors of the systems in a smart building domain. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 6.
    El-Fouly, Fatma H.
    et al.
    Higher Institute of Engineering, El-Shorouk Academy, EGY.
    Khedr, Ahmed Y.
    University of Ha’il, SAU.
    Sharif, Md. Haidar
    University of Ha’il, SAU.
    Alreshidi, Eissa Jaber
    University of Ha’il, SAU.
    Yadav, Kusum
    University of Ha’il, SAU.
    Kusetogullari, Hüseyin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ramadan, Rabie A.
    University of Ha’il, SAU.
    ERCP: Energy-Efficient and Reliable-Aware Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks2022In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 22, article id 8950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been around for over a decade and have been used in many important applications. Energy and reliability are two of the major problems with these kinds of applications. Reliable data delivery is an important issue in WSNs because it is a key part of how well data are sent. At the same time, energy consumption in battery-based sensors is another challenge. Therefore, efficient clustering and routing are techniques that can be used to save sensors energy and guarantee reliable message delivery. With this in mind, this paper develops an energy-efficient and reliable clustering protocol (ERCP) for WSNs. First, an efficient clustering technique is proposed for sensor nodes’ energy savings considering different clustering parameters, including the link quality metric, the energy, the distance to neighbors, the distance to the sink node, and the cluster load metric. The proposed routing protocol works based on the concept of a reliable inter-cluster routing technique that saves energy. The routing decisions are made based on different parameters, such as the energy balance metric, the distance to the sink node, and the wireless link quality. Many experiments and analyses are examined to determine how well the ERCP performs. The experiment results showed that the ECRP protocol performs much better than some of the recent algorithms in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. © 2022 by the authors.

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  • 7.
    Gradolewski, Dawid
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Bioseco Sp. z. o. o, POL.
    Dziak, Damian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kaniecki, Damian
    Bioseco Sp. z. o. o, POL.
    Jaworski, Adam
    Bioseco Sp. z. o. o, POL.
    Skakuj, Michal
    Ekoaviation, POL.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    A runway safety system based on vertically oriented stereovision2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1-25, article id 1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2020, over 10,000 bird strikes were reported in the USA, with average repair costs exceeding $200 million annually, rising to $1.2 billion worldwide. These collisions of avifauna with airplanes pose a significant threat to human safety and wildlife. This article presents a system dedicated to monitoring the space over an airport and is used to localize and identify moving objects. The solution is a stereovision based real-time bird protection system, which uses IoT and distributed computing concepts together with advanced HMI to provide the setup’s flexibility and usability. To create a high degree of customization, a modified stereovision system with freely oriented optical axes is proposed. To provide a market tailored solution affordable for small and medium size airports, a user-driven design methodology is used. The mathematical model is implemented and optimized in MATLAB. The implemented system prototype is verified in a real environment. The quantitative validation of the system performance is carried out using fixed-wing drones with GPS recorders. The results obtained prove the system’s high efficiency for detection and size classification in real-time, as well as a high degree of localization certainty. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 8.
    Gradolewski, Dawid
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Bioseco Sp. z. o. o., POL.
    Dziak, Damian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Bioseco Sp. z. o. o., POL.
    Martynow, Milosz
    Bioseco Sp. z. o. o., POL.
    Kaniecki, Damian
    Bioseco Sp. z. o. o., POL.
    Szurlej-Kielanska, Aleksandra
    University of Gdansk, POL.
    Jaworski, Adam
    Bioseco Sp. z. o. o., POL.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Comprehensive bird preservation at wind farms2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 1-35, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind as a clean and renewable energy source has been used by humans for centuries. However, in recent years with the increase in the number and size of wind turbines, their impact on avifauna has become worrisome. Researchers estimated that in the U.S. up to 500,000 birds die annually due to collisions with wind turbines. This article proposes a system for mitigating bird mortality around wind farms. The solution is based on a stereo-vision system embedded in distributed computing and IoT paradigms. After a bird’s detection in a defined zone, the decision-making system activates a collision avoidance routine composed of light and sound deterrents and the turbine stopping procedure. The development process applies a User-Driven Design approach along with the process of component selection and heuristic adjustment. This proposal includes a bird detection method and localization procedure. The bird identification is carried out using artificial intelligence algorithms. Validation tests with a fixed-wing drone and verifying observations by ornithologists proved the system’s desired reliability of detecting a bird with wingspan over 1.5 m from at least 300 m. Moreover, the suitability of the system to classify the size of the detected bird into one of three wingspan categories, small, medium and large, was confirmed. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 9.
    Gradolewski, Dawid
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Magenes, Giovanni
    Univ Pavia, ITA.
    Johansson, Sven
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    A Wavelet Transform-Based Neural Network Denoising Algorithm for Mobile Phonocardiography2019In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 4, article id 957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular pathologies cause 23.5% of human deaths, worldwide. An auto-diagnostic system monitoring heart activity, which can identify the early symptoms of cardiac illnesses, might reduce the death rate caused by these problems. Phonocardiography (PCG) is one of the possible techniques able to detect heart problems. Nevertheless, acoustic signal enhancement is required since it is exposed to various disturbances coming from different sources. The most common denoising enhancement is based on the Wavelet Transform (WT). However, the WT is highly susceptible to variations in the noise frequency distribution. This paper proposes a new adaptive denoising algorithm, which combines WT and Time Delay Neural Networks (TDNN). The acquired signal is decomposed by means of the WT using the coif five-wavelet basis at the tenth decomposition level and then provided as input to the TDNN. Besides the advantage of adaptive thresholding, the reason for using TDNNs is their capacity of estimating the Inverse Wavelet Transform (IWT). The best parameters of the TDNN were found for a NN consisting of 25 neurons in the first and 15 in the second layer and the delay block of 12 samples. The method was evaluated on several pathological heart sounds and on signals recorded in a noisy environment. The performance of the developed system with respect to other wavelet-based denoising approaches was validated by the online questionnaire.

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  • 10.
    Ivanenko, Yevhen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Batra, Aman
    Univ Duisburg Essen, DEU.
    Kaiser, Thomas
    Univ Duisburg Essen, DEU.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Interpolation Methods with Phase Control for Backprojection of Complex-Valued SAR Data†2022In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 13, article id 4941Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-domain backprojection algorithms are widely used in state-of-the-art synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems that are designed for applications where motion error compensation is required. These algorithms include an interpolation procedure, under which an unknown SAR range-compressed data parameter is estimated based on complex-valued SAR data samples and backprojected into a defined image plane. However, the phase of complex-valued SAR parameters estimated based on existing interpolators does not contain correct information about the range distance between the SAR imaging system and the given point of space in a defined image plane, which affects the quality of reconstructed SAR scenes. Thus, a phase-control procedure is required. This paper introduces extensions of existing linear, cubic, and sinc interpolation algorithms to interpolate complex-valued SAR data, where the phase of the interpolated SAR data value is controlled through the assigned a priori known range time that is needed for a signal to reach the given point of the defined image plane and return back. The efficiency of the extended algorithms is tested at the Nyquist rate on simulated and real data at THz frequencies and compared with existing algorithms. In comparison to the widely used nearest-neighbor interpolation algorithm, the proposed extended algorithms are beneficial from the lower computational complexity perspective, which is directly related to the offering of smaller memory requirements for SAR image reconstruction at THz frequencies. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 11.
    Jachimczyk, Bartosz
    et al.
    BetterSolutions S.A., POL.
    Dziak, Damian
    Politechnika Gdanska, POL.
    Czapla, Jacek
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Damps, Pawel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    IoT on-board system for driving style assessment2018In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of skills is essential and desirable in areas such as medicine, security, and other professions where mental, physical, and manual skills are crucial. However, often such assessments are performed by people called “experts” who may be subjective and are able to consider a limited number of factors and indicators. This article addresses the problem of the objective assessment of driving style independent of circumstances. The proposed objective assessment of driving style is based on eight indicators, which are associated with the vehicle’s speed, acceleration, jerk, engine rotational speed and driving time. These indicators are used to estimate three driving style criteria: safety, economy, and comfort. The presented solution is based on the embedded system designed according to the Internet of Things concept. The useful data are acquired from the car diagnostic port—OBD-II—and from an additional accelerometer sensor and GPS module. The proposed driving skills assessment method has been implemented and experimentally validated on a group of drivers. The obtained results prove the system’s ability to quantitatively distinguish different driving styles. The system was verified on long-route tests for analysis and could then improve the driver’s behavior behind the wheel. Moreover, the spider diagram approach that was used established a convenient visualization platform for multidimensional comparison of the result and comprehensive assessment in an intelligible manner. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 12.
    Jachimczyk, Bartosz
    et al.
    BetterSolutions, POL.
    Dziak, Damian
    Politechnika Gdanska, POL.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Customization of UWB 3D-RTLS based on the new uncertainty model of the AoA ranging technique2017In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 2, article id 227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased potential and effectiveness of Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) substantially influence their application spectrum. They are widely used, inter alia, in the industrial sector, healthcare, home care, and in logistic and security applications. The research aims to develop an analytical method to customize UWB-based RTLS, in order to improve their localization performance in terms of accuracy and precision. The analytical uncertainty model of Angle of Arrival (AoA) localization in a 3D indoor space, which is the foundation of the customization concept, is established in a working environment. Additionally, a suitable angular-based 3D localization algorithm is introduced. The paper investigates the following issues: the influence of the proposed correction vector on the localization accuracy; the impact of the system’s configuration and LS’s relative deployment on the localization precision distribution map. The advantages of the method are verified by comparing them with a reference commercial RTLS localization engine. The results of simulations and physical experiments prove the value of the proposed customization method. The research confirms that the analytical uncertainty model is the valid representation of RTLS’ localization uncertainty in terms of accuracy and precision and can be useful for its performance improvement. The research shows, that the Angle of Arrival localization in a 3D indoor space applying the simple angular-based localization algorithm and correction vector improves of localization accuracy and precision in a way that the system challenges the reference hardware advanced localization engine. Moreover, the research guides the deployment of location sensors to enhance the localization precision.

  • 13. Jachimczyk, Bartosz
    et al.
    Dziak, Damian
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Applied Signal Processing.
    Using the fingerprinting method to customize RTLS based on the AoA ranging technique2016In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 16, no 6, article id 876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time Locating Systems (RTLSs) have the ability to precisely locate the position of things and people in real time. They are needed for security and emergency applications, but also for healthcare and home care appliances. The research aims for developing an analytical method to customize RTLSs, in order to improve localization performance in terms of precision. The proposed method is based on Angle of Arrival (AoA), a ranging technique and fingerprinting method along with an analytically defined uncertainty of AoA, and a localization uncertainty map. The presented solution includes three main concerns: geometry of indoor space, RTLS arrangement, and a statistical approach to localization precision of a pair of location sensors using an AoA signal. An evaluation of the implementation of the customized RTLS validates the analytical model of the fingerprinting map. The results of simulations and physical experiments verify the proposed method. The research confirms that the analytically established fingerprint map is the valid representation of RTLS’ performance in terms of precision. Furthermore, the research demonstrates an impact of workspace geometry and workspace layout onto the RTLS’ performance. Moreover, the studies show how the size and shape of a workspace and the placement of the calibration point affect the fingerprint map. Withal, the performance investigation defines the most effective arrangement of location sensors and its influence on localization precision. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 14.
    Kebande, Victor R.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Awaysheh, Feras M.
    Tartu University, EST.
    Ikuesan, Richard A.
    Community College Qatar, QAT.
    Alawadi, Sadi A.
    Uppsala University, SWE.
    Alshehri, Mohammad Dahman
    Taif University, SAU.
    A blockchain-based multi-factor authentication model for a cloud-enabled internet of vehicles2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 18, article id 6018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous and emerging advances in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have enabled Internet-of-Things (IoT)-to-Cloud applications to be induced by data pipelines and Edge Intelligence-based architectures. Advanced vehicular networks greatly benefit from these architectures due to the implicit functionalities that are focused on realizing the Internet of Vehicle (IoV) vision. However, IoV is susceptible to attacks, where adversaries can easily exploit existing vulnerabilities. Several attacks may succeed due to inadequate or ineffective authentication techniques. Hence, there is a timely need for hardening the authentication process through cutting-edge access control mechanisms. This paper proposes a Blockchain-based Multi-Factor authentication model that uses an embedded Digital Signature (MFBC_eDS) for vehicular clouds and Cloud-enabled IoV. Our proposed MFBC_eDS model consists of a scheme that integrates the Security Assertion Mark-up Language (SAML) to the Single Sign-On (SSO) capabilities for a connected edge to cloud ecosystem. MFBC_eDS draws an essential comparison with the baseline authentication scheme suggested by Karla and Sood. Based on the foundations of Karla and Sood’s scheme, an embedded Probabilistic Polynomial-Time Algorithm (ePPTA) and an additional Hash function for the Pi generated during Karla and Sood’s authentication were proposed and discussed. The preliminary analysis of the proposition shows that the approach is more suitable to counter major adversarial attacks in an IoV-centered environment based on the Dolev–Yao adversarial model while satisfying aspects of the Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) triad. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 15.
    Palm, Bruna G
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Alves, Dimas
    Universidade Federal do Pampa, BRA; .
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Machado, Renato
    Aeronautics Institute of Technology (ITA), BRA.
    Cintra, Renato J
    University of Calgary, CAN.
    Bayer, Fabio M
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, BRA.
    Dämmert, Patrik B. G.
    Saab Electronic Defence Systems, SWE.
    Hellsten, Hans
    Saab Electronic Defence Systems, SWE.
    Wavelength-Resolution SAR Ground Scene Prediction Based on Image Stack2020In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 7, article id 2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents five different statistical methods for ground scene prediction (GSP) in wavelength-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The GSP image can be used as a reference image in a change detection algorithm yielding a high probability of detection and low false alarm rate. The predictions are based on image stacks, which are composed of images from the same scene acquired at different instants with the same flight geometry. The considered methods for obtaining the ground scene prediction include (i) autoregressive models; (ii) trimmed mean; (iii) median; (iv) intensity mean; and (v) mean. It is expected that the predicted image presents the true ground scene without change and preserves the ground backscattering pattern. The study indicates that the the median method provided the most accurate representation of the true ground. To show the applicability of the GSP, a change detection algorithm was considered using the median ground scene as a reference image. As a result, the median method displayed the probability of detection of 97 % and a false alarm rate of 0 . 11 / km 2 , when considering military vehicles concealed in a forest.

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    Wavelength-Resolution SAR Ground Scene Prediction Based on Image Stack
  • 16.
    Peng, Cong
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Meaningful Integration of Data from Heterogeneous Health Services and Home Environment Based on Ontology2019In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 8, article id 1747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of electronic health records, wearable devices, health applications and Internet of Things (IoT)-empowered smart homes is promoting various applications. It also makes health self-management much more feasible, which can partially mitigate one of the challenges that the current healthcare system is facing. Effective and convenient self-management of health requires the collaborative use of health data and home environment data from different services, devices, and even open data on the Web. Although health data interoperability standards including HL7 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) and IoT ontology including Semantic Sensor Network (SSN) have been developed and promoted, it is impossible for all the different categories of services to adopt the same standard in the near future. This study presents a method that applies Semantic Web technologies to integrate the health data and home environment data from heterogeneously built services and devices. We propose a Web Ontology Language (OWL)-based integration ontology that models health data from HL7 FHIR standard implemented services, normal Web services and Web of Things (WoT) services and Linked Data together with home environment data from formal ontology-described WoT services. It works on the resource integration layer of the layered integration architecture. An example use case with a prototype implementation shows that the proposed method successfully integrates the health data and home environment data into a resource graph. The integrated data are annotated with semantics and ontological links, which make them machine-understandable and cross-system reusable.

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  • 17.
    Singh, Shailesh Pratap
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Smart and Adaptive Architecture for a Dedicated Internet of Things Network Comprised of Diverse Entities: A Proposal and Evaluation2022In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 22, no 8, article id 3017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in 5G and the Internet of Things (IoT) have to cater to the diverse and varying needs of different stakeholders, devices, sensors, applications, networks, and access technologies that come together for a dedicated IoT network for a synergistic purpose. Therefore, there is a need for a solution that can assimilate the various requirements and policies to dynamically and intelligently orchestrate them in the dedicated IoT network. Thus we identify and describe a representative industry-relevant use case for such a smart and adaptive environment through interviews with experts from a leading telecommunication vendor. We further propose and evaluate candidate architectures to achieve dynamic and intelligent orchestration in such a smart environment using a systematic approach for architecture design and by engaging six senior domain and IoT experts. The candidate architecture with an adaptive and intelligent element (“Smart AAA agent”) was found superior for modifiability, scalability, and performance in the assessments. This architecture also explores the enhanced role of authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) and makes the base for complete orchestration. The results indicate that the proposed architecture can meet the requirements for a dedicated IoT network, which may be used in further research or as a reference for industry solutions. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 18.
    Wen, Wei
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Khatibi, Siamak
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    The impact of curviness on four different image sensor forms and structures2018In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 2, article id 429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arrangement and form of the image sensor have a fundamental effect on any further image processing operation and image visualization. In this paper, we present a software-based method to change the arrangement and form of pixel sensors that generate hexagonal pixel forms on a hexagonal grid. We evaluate four different image sensor forms and structures, including the proposed method. A set of 23 pairs of images; randomly chosen, from a database of 280 pairs of images are used in the evaluation. Each pair of images have the same semantic meaning and general appearance, the major difference between them being the sharp transitions in their contours. The curviness variation is estimated by effect of the first and second order gradient operations, Hessian matrix and critical points detection on the generated images; having different grid structures, different pixel forms and virtual increased of fill factor as three major properties of sensor characteristics. The results show that the grid structure and pixel form are the first and second most important properties. Several dissimilarity parameters are presented for curviness quantification in which using extremum point showed to achieve distinctive results. The results also show that the hexagonal image is the best image type for distinguishing the contours in the images. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 19.
    Wen, Wei
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Khatibi, Siamak
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Virtual deformable image sensors: Towards to a general framework for image sensors with flexible grids and forms2018In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 6, article id 1856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our vision system has a combination of different sensor arrangements from hexagonal to elliptical ones. Inspired from this variation in type of arrangements we propose a general framework by which it becomes feasible to create virtual deformable sensor arrangements. In the framework for a certain sensor arrangement a configuration of three optional variables are used which includes the structure of arrangement, the pixel form and the gap factor. We show that the histogram of gradient orientations of a certain sensor arrangement has a specific distribution (called ANCHOR) which is obtained by using at least two generated images of the configuration. The results showed that ANCHORs change their patterns by the change of arrangement structure. In this relation pixel size changes have 10-fold more impact on ANCHORs than gap factor changes. A set of 23 images; randomly chosen from a database of 1805 images, are used in the evaluation where each image generates twenty-five different images based on the sensor configuration. The robustness of ANCHORs properties is verified by computing ANCHORs for totally 575 images with different sensor configurations. We believe by using the framework and ANCHOR it becomes feasible to plan a sensor arrangement in the relation to a specific application and its requirements where the sensor arrangement can be planed even as combination of different ANCHORs. © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 20.
    Wen, Wei
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Khatibi, Siamak
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Kajínek, Ondřej
    Czech Technical University, CZE.
    Chadzitaskos, Goce
    Czech Technical University, CZE.
    A Common Assessment Space for Different Sensor Structures2019In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 3, article id 568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of the evolution process of our visual system indicates the existence of variational spatial arrangement; from densely hexagonal in the fovea to a sparse circular structure in the peripheral retina. Today’s sensor spatial arrangement is inspired by our visual system. However, we have not come further than rigid rectangular and, on a minor scale, hexagonal sensor arrangements. Even in this situation, there is a need for directly assessing differences between the rectangular and hexagonal sensor arrangements, i.e., without the conversion of one arrangement to another. In this paper, we propose a method to create a common space for addressing any spatial arrangements and assessing the differences among them, e.g., between the rectangular and hexagonal. Such a space is created by implementing a continuous extension of discrete Weyl Group orbit function transform which extends a discrete arrangement to a continuous one. The implementation of the space is demonstrated by comparing two types of generated hexagonal images from each rectangular image with two different methods of the half-pixel shifting method and virtual hexagonal method. In the experiment, a group of ten texture images were generated with variational curviness content using ten different Perlin noise patterns, adding to an initial 2D Gaussian distribution pattern image. Then, the common space was obtained from each of the discrete images to assess the differences between the original rectangular image and its corresponding hexagonal image. The results show that the space facilitates a usage friendly tool to address an arrangement and assess the changes between different spatial arrangements by which, in the experiment, the hexagonal images show richer intensity variation, nonlinear behavior, and larger dynamic range in comparison to the rectangular images.

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  • 21.
    Wen, Wei
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Siamak, Khatibi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Estimation of Image Sensor Fill Factor Using a Single Arbitrary Image2017In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 620-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a high fill factor is a bottleneck problem for capturing high-quality images. There are hardware and software solutions to overcome this problem. In the solutions, the fill factor is known. However, this is an industrial secrecy by most image sensor manufacturers due to its direct effect on the assessment of the sensor quality. In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the fill factor of a camera sensor from an arbitrary single image. The virtual response function of the imaging process and sensor irradiance are estimated from the generation of virtual images. Then the global intensity values of the virtual images are obtained, which are the result of fusing the virtual images into a single, high dynamic range radiance map. A non-linear function is inferred from the original and global intensity values of the virtual images. The fill factor is estimated by the conditional minimum of the inferred function. The method is verified using images of two datasets. The results show that our method estimates the fill factor correctly with significant stability and accuracy from one single arbitrary image according to the low standard deviation of the estimated fill factors from each of images and for each camera.

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