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  • 1.
    Alahyari, Hiva
    et al.
    Chalmers; Göteborgs Universitet, SWE.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A study of value in agile software development organizations2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 125, p. 271-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Agile manifesto focuses on the delivery of valuable software. In Lean, the principles emphasise value, where every activity that does not add value is seen as waste. Despite the strong focus on value, and that the primary critical success factor for software intensive product development lies in the value domain, no empirical study has investigated specifically what value is. This paper presents an empirical study that investigates how value is interpreted and prioritised, and how value is assured and measured. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 participants from 14 agile software development organisations. The contribution of this study is fourfold. First, it examines how value is perceived amongst agile software development organisations. Second, it compares the perceptions and priorities of the perceived values by domains and roles. Third, it includes an examination of what practices are used to achieve value in industry, and what hinders the achievement of value. Fourth, it characterises what measurements are used to assure, and evaluate value-creation activities.

  • 2.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    FLOW-assisted value stream mapping in the early phases of large-scale software development2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 111, p. 213-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value stream mapping (VSM) has been successfully applied in the context of software process improvement. However, its current adaptations from Lean manufacturing focus mostly on the flow of artifacts and have taken no account of the essential information flows in software development. A solution specifically targeted toward information flow elicitation and modeling is FLOW. This paper aims to propose and evaluate the combination of VSM and FLOW to identify and alleviate information and communication related challenges in large-scale software development. Using case study research, FLOW-assisted VSM was used for a large product at Ericsson AB, Sweden. Both the process and the outcome of FLOW-assisted VSM have been evaluated from the practitioners’ perspective. It was noted that FLOW helped to systematically identify challenges and improvements related to information flow. Practitioners responded favorably to the use of VSM and FLOW, acknowledged the realistic nature and impact on the improvement on software quality, and found the overview of the entire process using the FLOW notation very useful. The combination of FLOW and VSM presented in this study was successful in systematically uncovering issues and characterizing their solutions, indicating their practical usefulness for waste removal with a focus on information flow related issues.

  • 3.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Claes, Wohlin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kai, Petersen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Component Decision-making: In-house, OSS, COTS or Outsourcing: A Systematic Literature Review2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 121, p. 105-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software systems require decisions on component origins for acquiring components. A component origin is an alternative of where to get a component from. Objective: To identify factors that could influence the decision to choose among different component origins and solutions for decision-making (For example, optimization) in the literature. Method: A systematic review study of peer-reviewed literature has been conducted. Results: In total we included 24 primary studies. The component origins compared were mainly focused on in-house vs. COTS and COTS vs. OSS. We identified 11 factors affecting or influencing the decision to select a component origin. When component origins were compared, there was little evidence on the relative (either positive or negative) effect of a component origin on the factor. Most of the solutions were proposed for in-house vs. COTS selection and time, cost and reliability were the most considered factors in the solutions. Optimization models were the most commonly proposed technique used in the solutions. Conclusion: The topic of choosing component origins is a green field for research, and in great need of empirical comparisons between the component origins, as well of how to decide between different combinations of them.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-01 12:16
  • 4.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-01 12:19
  • 5. Damm, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Wohlin, Claes
    A model for software rework reduction through a combination of anomaly metrics 2008In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 81, no 11, p. 1968-1982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of anomalies reported during testing of a project can tell a lot about how well the processes and products work. Still, organizations rarely use anomaly reports for more than progress tracking although projects commonly spend a significant part of the development time on finding and correcting faults. This paper presents an anomaly metrics model that organizations can use for identifying improvements in the development process, i.e. to reduce the cost and lead-time spent on rework-related activities and to improve the quality of the delivered product. The model is the result of a four year research project performed at Ericsson. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    BAE Systems Hägglunds AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Managing requirements specifications for product lines: An approach and industry case study2009In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 435-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product line development has emerged as a leading approach for software reuse. This paper describes an approach to manage natural-language requirements specifications in a software product line context. Variability in such product line specifications is modeled and managed using a feature model. The proposed approach has been introduced in the Swedish defense industry. We present a multiple-case study covering two different product lines with in total eight product instances. These were compared to experiences from previous projects in the organization employing clone-and-own reuse. We conclude that the proposed product line approach performs better than clone-and-own reuse of requirements specifications in this particular industrial context.

  • 7.
    Felderer, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Holmström Olsson, Helena
    Malmö universtitet, SWE.
    Rabiser, Rick
    Johannes Kepler Universitat, AUT.
    Introduction to the special issue on quality engineering and management of software-intensive systems2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 533-534Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Forsman, Mattias
    et al.
    Glad, Andreas
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Ilie, Dragos
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Algorithms for Automated Live Migration of Virtual Machines2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 101, p. 110-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two strategies to balance the load in a system with multiple virtual machines (VMs) through automated live migration. When the push strategy is used, overloaded hosts try to migrate workload to less loaded nodes. On the other hand, when the pull strategy is employed, the light-loaded hosts take the initiative to offload overloaded nodes. The performance of the proposed strategies was evaluated through simulations. We have discovered that the strategies complement each other, in the sense that each strategy comes out as “best” under different types of workload. For example, the pull strategy is able to quickly re-distribute the load of the system when the load is in the range low-to-medium, while the push strategy is faster when the load is medium-to-high. Our evaluation shows that when adding or removing a large number of virtual machines in the system, the “best” strategy can re-balance the system in 4–15 minutes.

  • 9.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Giray, Görkem
    Independent Researcher, TUR.
    Tüzün, Eray
    Bilkent Üniversitesi, TUR.
    Catal, Cagatay
    Wageningen University and Research Centre, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Aligning software engineering education with industrial needs: A meta-analysis2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, p. 65-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: According to various reports, many software engineering (SE) graduates often face difficulties when beginning their careers, which is mainly due to misalignment of the skills learned in university education with what is needed in the software industry. Objective: Our objective is to perform a meta-analysis to aggregate the results of the studies published in this area to provide a consolidated view on how to align SE education with industry needs, to identify the most important skills and also existing knowledge gaps. Method: To synthesize the body of knowledge, we performed a systematic literature review (SLR), in which we systematically selected a pool of 35 studies and then conducted a meta-analysis using data extracted from those studies. Results: Via a meta-analysis and using data from 13 countries and over 4,000 data points, highlights of the SLR include: (1) software requirements, design, and testing are the most important skills; and (2) the greatest knowledge gaps are in configuration management, SE models and methods, SE process, design (and architecture), as well as in testing. Conclusion: This paper provides implications for both educators and hiring managers by listing the most important SE skills and the knowledge gaps in the industry. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 10.
    Graziotin, Daniel
    et al.
    Universitat Stuttgart, DEU.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wang, Xiaofeng
    Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, ITA.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Jyvaskylan Yliopisto, FIN.
    What happens when software developers are (un)happy2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 140, p. 32-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing literature on affect among software developers mostly reports on the linkage between happiness, software quality, and developer productivity. Understanding happiness and unhappiness in all its components – positive and negative emotions and moods – is an attractive and important endeavor. Scholars in industrial and organizational psychology have suggested that understanding happiness and unhappiness could lead to cost-effective ways of enhancing working conditions, job performance, and to limiting the occurrence of psychological disorders. Our comprehension of the consequences of (un)happiness among developers is still too shallow, being mainly expressed in terms of development productivity and software quality. In this paper, we study what happens when developers are happy and unhappy while developing software. Qualitative data analysis of responses given by 317 questionnaire participants identified 42 consequences of unhappiness and 32 of happiness. We found consequences of happiness and unhappiness that are beneficial and detrimental for developers’ mental well-being, the software development process, and the produced artifacts. Our classification scheme, available as open data enables new happiness research opportunities of cause-effect type, and it can act as a guideline for practitioners for identifying damaging effects of unhappiness and for fostering happiness on the job. © 2018

  • 11.
    Gren, Lucas
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Group development and group maturity when building agile teams: A qualitative and quantitative investigation at eight large companies2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 124, p. 104-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agile approach to projects focuses more on close-knit teams than traditional waterfall projects, which means that aspects of group maturity become even more important. This psychological aspect is not much researched in connection to the building of an “agile team.” The purpose of this study is to investigate how building agile teams is connected to a group development model taken from social psychology. We conducted ten semi-structured interviews with coaches, Scrum Masters, and managers responsible for the agile process from seven different companies, and collected survey data from 66 group-members from four companies (a total of eight different companies). The survey included an agile measurement tool and the one part of the Group Development Questionnaire. The results show that the practitioners define group developmental aspects as key factors to a successful agile transition. Also, the quantitative measurement of agility was significantly correlated to the group maturity measurement. We conclude that adding these psychological aspects to the description of the “agile team” could increase the understanding of agility and partly help define an “agile team.” We propose that future work should develop specific guidelines for how software development teams at different maturity levels might adopt agile principles and practices differently.

  • 12. Hansson, Christina
    et al.
    Dittrich, Yvonne
    Gustavsson, Björn
    Zarnaak, Stefan
    How agile are industrial software development practices?2006In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 79, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Representatives from the agile development movement claim that agile ways of developing software are more fitting to what is actually needed in industrial software development. If this is so, successful industrial software development should already exhibit agile characteristics. This article therefore aims to examine whether that is the case. It presents an analysis of interviews with software developers from five different companies. We asked about concrete projects, both about the project models and the methods used, but also about the real situation in their daily work. Based on the interviews, we describe and then analyze their development practices. The analysis shows that the software providers we interviewed have more agile practices than they might themselves be aware of. However, plans and more formal development models also are well established. The conclusions answer the question posed in the title: It all depends! It depends on which of the different principles you take to judge agility. And it depends on the characteristics not only of the company but also of the individual project.

  • 13. Lassing, Nico
    et al.
    Bengtsson, PerOlof
    Vliet, Hans van
    Bosch, Jan
    Experiences with ALMA: Architecture-level modifiability analysis2002In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 47-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modifiability is an important quality for software systems, because a large part of the costs associated with these systems is spent on modifications. The effort, and therefore cost, that is required for these modifications is largely determined by a system's software architecture. Analysis of software architectures is therefore an important technique to achieve modifiability and reduce maintenance costs. However, few techniques for software architecture analysis currently exist. Based on our experiences with software architecture analysis of modifiability, we have developed ALMA, an architecture-level modifiability analysis method consisting of five steps. In this paper we report on our experiences with ALMA. We illustrate our experiences with examples from two case studies of software architecture analysis of modifiability. These case studies concern a system for mobile positioning at Ericsson Software Technology AB and a system for freight handling at DFDS Fraktarna. Our experiences are related to each step of the analysis process. In addition, we made some observations on software architecture analysis of modifiability in general. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 14. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallgren, Lars Goran
    Behavioral software engineering: A definition and systematic literature review2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 107, p. 15-37Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of software engineering, the human aspects have repeatedly been recognized as important. Even though research that investigates them has been growing in the past decade, these aspects should be more generally considered. The main objective of this study is to clarify the research area concerned with human aspects of software engineering and to create a common platform for future research. In order to meet the objective, we propose a definition of the research area behavioral software engineering (BSE) and present results from a systematic literature review based ori the definition. The result indicates that there are knowledge gaps in the research area of behavioral software engineering and that earlier research has been focused on a few concepts, which have been applied to a limited number of software engineering areas. The individual studies have typically had a narrow perspective focusing on few concepts from a single unit of analysis. Further, the research has rarely been conducted in collaboration by researchers from both software engineering and social science. Altogether, this review can help put a broader set of human aspects higher on the agenda for future software engineering research and practice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Leshob, Abderrahmane
    et al.
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    Mili, Hafedh
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Boubaker, Anis
    University of Quebec at Montreal, CAN.
    A value-oriented approach to business process specialization: Principles, proof-of-concept, and validation2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 127, p. 120-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations build information systems to support their business processes. Precise modeling of an organization's processes is a prerequisite for building information systems that support those processes. Our goal is to help business analysts produce detailed models of the business processes that best reflect the needs of their organizations. To this end, we propose to a) leverage the best practices in terms of a kernel of generic business processes, and b) provide analysts with tools to customize those processes by generating new process variants. We use business patterns from the Resource Event Agent ontology to identify variation points, and to codify the transformations inherent in the generation of the process variants. We developed a prototype process specialization tool using the Eclipse modeling ecosystem. We tested our approach on a set of processes from the Enterprise Resource Planning literature, and a set of variation points to assess the extent to which: 1) the identified variation points made sense, and 2) whether the generated variants made sense, from a business point of view. The results showed that 94.12% of the variation points made sense, and that 80.6% of the generated process variants corresponded to what the business process management specialists expected.

  • 16.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    Lund universitet, SWE.
    Munir, Hussan
    Lund universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mols, Carl Eric
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Motivating the contributions: An Open Innovation perspective on what to share as Open Source Software2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 17-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) ecosystems have reshaped the ways how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to customers. However, firms still need support for strategic product planning in terms of what to develop internally and what to share as OSS. Existing models accurately capture commoditization in software business, but lack operational support to decide what contribution strategy to employ in terms of what and when to contribute. This study proposes a Contribution Acceptance Process (CAP) model from which firms can adopt contribution strategies that align with product strategies and planning. In a design science influenced case study executed at Sony Mobile, the CAP model was iteratively developed in close collaboration with the firm's practitioners. The CAP model helps classify artifacts according to business impact and control complexity so firms may estimate and plan whether an artifact should be contributed or not. Further, an information meta-model is proposed that helps operationalize the CAP model at the organization. The CAP model provides an operational OI perspective on what firms involved in OSS ecosystems should share, by helping them motivate contributions through the creation of contribution strategies. The goal is to help maximize return on investment and sustain needed influence in OSS ecosystems. © 2017

  • 17. Lucas, Gren
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Robert, Feldt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The prospects of a quantitative measurement of agility: A validation study on an agile maturity model2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 107, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile development has now become a well-known approach to collaboration in professional work life. Both researchers and practitioners want validated tools to measure agility. This study sets out to validate an agile maturity measurement model with statistical tests and empirical data. First, a pretest was conducted as a case study including a survey and focus group. Second, the main study was conducted with 45 employees from two SAP customers in the US. We used internal consistency (by a Cronbach’s alpha) as the main measure for reliability and analyzed construct validity by exploratory principal factor analysis (PFA). The results suggest a new categorization of a subset of items existing in the tool and provides empirical support for these new groups of factors. However, we argue that more work is needed to reach the point where a maturity models with quantitative data can be said to validly measure agility, and even then, such a measurement still needs to include some deeper analysis with cultural and contextual items.

  • 18.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Transferring Interactive Search-Based Software Testing to Industry2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 142, p. 156-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Search-Based Software Testing (SBST), and the wider area of Search-Based Software Engineering (SBSE), is the application of optimization algorithms to problems in software testing, and software engineering, respectively. New algorithms, methods, and tools are being developed and validated on benchmark problems. In previous work, we have also implemented and evaluated Interactive Search-Based Software Testing (ISBST) tool prototypes, with a goal to successfully transfer the technique to industry. Objective: While SBST and SBSE solutions are often validated on benchmark problems, there is a need to validate them in an operational setting, and to assess their performance in practice. The present paper discusses the development and deployment of SBST tools for use in industry, and reflects on the transfer of these techniques to industry. Method: In addition to previous work discussing the development and validation of an ISBST prototype, a new version of the prototype ISBST system was evaluated in the laboratory and in industry. This evaluation is based on an industrial System under Test (SUT) and was carried out with industrial practitioners. The Technology Transfer Model is used as a framework to describe the progression of the development and evaluation of the ISBST system, as it progresses through the first five of its seven steps. Results: The paper presents a synthesis of previous work developing and evaluating the ISBST prototype, as well as presenting an evaluation, in both academia and industry, of that prototype's latest version. In addition to the evaluation, the paper also discusses the lessons learned from this transfer. Conclusions: This paper presents an overview of the development and deployment of the ISBST system in an industrial setting, using the framework of the Technology Transfer Model. We conclude that the ISBST system is capable of evolving useful test cases for that setting, though improvements in the means the system uses to communicate that information to the user are still required. In addition, a set of lessons learned from the project are listed and discussed. Our objective is to help other researchers that wish to validate search-based systems in industry, and provide more information about the benefits and drawbacks of these systems.

  • 19.
    Mendes, Emilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Counsell, Steve
    Brunel University London, GBR.
    Baldassare, Maria Teresa
    Università degli Studi di Bari, ITA.
    Special issue on evaluation and assessment in software engineering2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 151, p. 224-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reasoning about Research Quality Alignment in Software EngineeringIn: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Research quality is intended to assess the design and reporting of studies. It comprises a series of concepts such as methodological rigor, practical relevance, and conformance to ethical standards. Depending on the perspective, different views of importance are given to the conceptual dimensions of research quality.

    Objective: We aim to better understand what constitutes research quality from the perspective of the empirical software engineering community. In particular, we intend to assess the level of alignment between researchers with regard to a conceptual model of research quality.

    Method: We conducted a mixed methods approach comprising an internal case study and a complementary focus group. We carried out a hierarchical voting prioritization based on the conceptual model to collect relative values for importance. In the focus group, we also moderate discussions with experts to address potential misalignment.

    Results: We provide levels of alignment with regard to the importance of quality dimensions in the view of the participants. Moreover, the conceptual model fairly expresses the quality of research but has limitations with regards the structure and description of its components.

    Conclusion: Based on the results, we revised the conceptual model and provided an updated version adjusted to the context of empirical software engineering research. We also discussed how to assess quality alignment in research using our approach, and how to use the revised model of quality to characterize an assessment instrument.

  • 21.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The impacts of agile and lean practices on project constraints: A tertiary study2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 119, p. 162-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in Agile and Lean software development is reflected in the increasing number of secondary studies on the benefits and limitations of Agile and Lean processes and practices. The aim of this tertiary study is to consolidate empirical evidence regarding Agile and Lean practices and their respective impacts on project constraints as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK): scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources, communication, and risk. In this tertiary study, 13 secondary studies were included for detailed analysis. Given the heterogeneity of the data, we were unable to perform a rigorous synthesis. Instead, we mapped the identified Agile and Lean practices, and their impacts on the project constraints described in PMBOK. From 13 secondary studies, we identified 13 Agile and Lean practices. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is studied in ten secondary studies, meanwhile other practices are studied in only one or two secondary studies. This tertiary study provides a consolidated view of the impacts of Agile and Lean practices. The result of this tertiary study indicates that TDD has a positive impact on external quality. However, due to insufficient data or contradictory results, we were unable to make inferences on other Agile and Lean practices. Implications for research and practice are further discussed in the paper. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners’ experience2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) suggest that agile practices are introduced in a certain order. However, whether the order of agile practice introduction as suggested in the AMMs is relevant in industry has not been evaluated in an empirical study. Objectives: In this study, we want to investigate: (1) order of agile practice introduction mentioned in AMMs, (2) order of introducing agile practices in industry, and (3) similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We then compared the AMMs’ suggestions to the strategies used by practitioners, which we elicited from a survey and a series of interviews from an earlier study. Results: The literature survey revealed 12 AMMs which provide explicit mappings of agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement on when practices should be introduced. Comparison of the AMMs’ suggestions and the empirical study revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned with industry practice. Conclusion: Currently, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for agile adoption that works better than others. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 23.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 24. Petersson, Håkan
    et al.
    Thelin, Thomas
    Wohlin, Claes
    Capture-Recapture in Software Inspections after 10 Years Research: Theory, Evaluation and Application.2004In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 249-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspection is a method to detect faults in the early phases of the software life cycle. In order to estimate the number of faults not found, capture-recapture was introduced for software inspections in 1992 to estimate remaining faults after an inspection. Since then, several papers have been written in the area, concerning the basic theory, evaluation of models and application of the method. This paper summarizes the work made in capture-recapture for software inspections during these years. Furthermore, and more importantly, the contribution of the papers are classified as theory, evaluation or application, in order to analyse the performed research as well as to highlight the areas of research that need further work. It is concluded that (1) most of the basic theory is investigated within biostatistics, (2) most software engineering research is performed on evaluation, a majority ending up in recommendation of the Mh-JK model, and (3) there is a need for application experiences. In order to support the application, an inspection process is presented with decision points based on capture-recapture estimates.

  • 25.
    Poulding, Simon
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Alexander, R.
    Clark, J. A.
    Hadley, M. J.
    The optimisation of stochastic grammars to enable cost-effective probabilistic structural testing2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 103, p. 296-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of statistical testing, a probabilistic structural testing strategy, depends on the characteristics of the probability distribution from which test inputs are sampled. Metaheuristic search has been shown to be a practical method of optimising the characteristics of such distributions. However, the applicability of the existing search-based algorithm is limited by the requirement that the software's inputs must be a fixed number of ordinal values. In this paper we propose a new algorithm that relaxes this limitation and so permits the derivation of probability distributions for a much wider range of software. The representation used by the new algorithm is based on a stochastic grammar supplemented with two novel features: conditional production weights and the dynamic partitioning of ordinal ranges. We demonstrate empirically that a search algorithm using this representation can optimise probability distributions over complex input domains and thereby enable costeffective statistical testing, and that the use of both conditional production weights and dynamic partitioning can be beneficial to the search process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mårtensson, Frans
    Six Years of Evaluating Software Architectures in Student Projects2007In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 80, no 11, p. 1893-1901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architecture evaluations are an important decision support tool when developing software systems. It is thus important that they are conducted professionally and that the results are of high quality. In order to improve the quality, it is necessary for the participants to gain experience in conducting software architecture evaluations. In this article we present guidelines based on six years of experience in software architecture evaluations. Although we primarily focus on our experiences on software architecture evaluation in student projects, we have also applied the same method in industry with similar experiences.

  • 27.
    Tripathi, Nirnaya
    et al.
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Prikladnicki, Rafael
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Oivo, Markku
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Pompermaier, Leandro Bento
    Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, BRA.
    Kudakacheril, Arun Sojan
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Liukkunen, Kari
    Oulun Yliopisto, M3S Research Group, FIN.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An anatomy of requirements engineering in software startups using multi-vocal literature and case survey2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, p. 130-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software startups aim to develop innovative products, grow rapidly, and thus become important in the development of economy and jobs. Requirements engineering (RE) is a key process area in software development, but its effects on software startups are unclear. Objective: The main objective of this study was to explore how RE (elicitation, documentation, prioritization and validation) is used in software startups. Method: A multi-vocal literature review (MLR) was used to find scientific and gray literature. In addition, a case survey was employed to gather empirical data to reach this study's objective. Results: In the MLR, 36 primary articles were selected out of 28,643 articles. In the case survey, 80 respondents provided information about software startup cases across the globe. Data analysis revealed that during RE processes, internal sources (e.g., for source), analyses of similar products (e.g., elicitation), uses of informal notes (e.g., for documentation), values to customers, products and stakeholders (e.g., for prioritization) and internal reviews/prototypes (e.g., for validation) were the most used techniques. Conclusion: After an analysis of primary literature, it was concluded that research on this topic is still in early stages and more systematic research is needed. Furthermore, few topics were suggested for future research. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

  • 28.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Klotins, Eriks
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Assessing Requirements Engineering and Software Test Alignment - Five Case Studies2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, no C, p. 62-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of large, software-intensive systems is a complex undertaking that we generally tackle by a divide and conquerstrategy. Companies thereby face the challenge of coordinating individual aspects of software development, in particular betweenrequirements engineering (RE) and software testing (ST). A lack of REST alignment can not only lead to wasted effort but alsoto defective software. However, before a company can improve the mechanisms of coordination they need to be understood first.With REST-bench we aim at providing an assessment tool that illustrates the coordination in software development projects andidentify concrete improvement opportunities. We have developed REST-bench on the sound fundamentals of a taxonomy onREST alignment methods and validated the method in five case studies. Following the principles of technical action research, wecollaborated with five companies, applying REST-bench and iteratively improving the method based on the lessons we learned.We applied REST-bench both in Agile and plan-driven environments, in projects lasting from weeks to years, and staffed as largeas 1000 employees. The improvement opportunities we identified and the feedback we received indicate that the assessmentwas effective and efficient. Furthermore, participants confirmed that their understanding on the coordination between RE and STimproved.

  • 29.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Neto, Pedro
    bFederal University of Piaui , BRA.
    Developing and Using Checklists to Improve Software Effort Estimation: a Multi-Case Study2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 146, p. 286-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert judgment based effort estimation techniques are widely used for estimating software effort. In the absence of process support, experts may overlook important factors during estimation, leading to inconsistent estimates. This might cause underestimation, which is a common problem in software projects. This multi-case study aims to improve expert estimation of software development effort. Our goal is two-fold: 1) to propose a process to develop and evolve estimation checklists for agile teams, and 2) to evaluate the usefulness of the checklists in improving expert estimation processes. The use of checklists improved the accuracy of the estimates in two case companies. In particular, the underestimation bias was reduced to a large extent. For the third case, we could not perform a similar analysis, due to the unavailability of historical data. However, when checklist was used in two sprints, the estimates were quite accurate (median Balanced Relative Error (BRE) bias of -0.05 ). The study participants from the case companies observed several benefits of using the checklists during estimation, such as increased confidence in estimates, improved consistency due to help in recalling relevant factors, more objectivity in the process, improved understanding of the tasks being estimated, and reduced chances of missing tasks.

  • 30.
    Vilela, Jéssyka
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Castro, Jaelson
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    Martins, Luiz Eduardo Galvão
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, BRA.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Integration between requirements engineering and safety analysis: A systematic literature review2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 125, p. 68-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) require more sophisticated requirements engineering (RE) approaches as inadequate, incomplete or misunderstood requirements have been recognized as a major cause in many accidents and safety-related catastrophes. Objective: In order to cope with the complexity of specifying SCS by RE, we investigate the approaches proposed to improve the communication or integration between RE and safety engineering in SCS development. We analyze the activities that should be performed by RE during safety analysis, the hazard/safety techniques it could use, the relationships between safety information that it should specify, the tools to support safety analysis as well as integration benefits between these areas. Method: We use a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) as the basis for our work. Results: We developed four taxonomies to help RE during specification of SCS that classify: techniques used in (1) hazard analysis; (2) safety analysis; (3) safety-related information and (4) a detailed set of information regarding hazards specification. Conclusions: This paper is a step towards developing a body of knowledge in safety concerns necessary to RE in the specification of SCS that is derived from a large-scale SLR. We believe the results will benefit both researchers and practitioners.

  • 31.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moe, Nilsbrede
    A general theory of software engineering: Balancing human, social and organizational capitals2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, p. 229-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists no generally accepted theory in software engineering, and at the same time a scientific discipline needs theories. Some laws, hypotheses and conjectures exist, but yet no generally accepted theory. Several researchers and initiatives emphasize the need for theory in the discipline. The objective of this paper is to formulate a theory of software engineering. The theory is generated from empirical observations of industry practice, including several case studies and many years of experience in working closely between academia and industry. The theory captures the balancing of three different intellectual capitals: human, social and organizational capitals, respectively. The theory is formulated using a method for building theories in software engineering. It results in a theory where the relationships between the three different intellectual capitals are explored and explained. The theory is illustrated based on an industrial case study, where it is shown how decisions made in industry practice are explainable with the formulated theory, and the consequences of the decisions are made explicit. Based on the positive results, it is concluded that the theory may have a good explanatory power, although more evaluations are needed. ©2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierInc.ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense.

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