Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 64
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    A systematic review of search-based testing for non-functional system properties2009In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 957-976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing is the application of metaheuristic search techniques to generate software tests. The test adequacy criterion is transformed into a fitness function and a set of solutions in the search space are evaluated with respect to the fitness function using a metaheuristic search technique. The application of metaheuristic search techniques for testing is promising due to the fact that exhaustive testing is infeasible considering the size and complexity of software under test. Search-based software testing has been applied across the spectrum of test case design methods; this includes white-box (structural), black-box (functional) and grey-box (combination of structural and functional) testing. In addition, metaheuristic search techniques have also been applied to test non-functional properties. The overall objective of undertaking this systematic review is to examine existing work into non-functional search-based software testing (NFSBST). We are interested in types of non-functional testing targeted using metaheuristic search techniques, different fitness functions used in different types of search-based non-functional testing and challenges in the application of these techniques. The systematic review is based on a comprehensive set of 35 articles obtained after a multi-stage selection process and have been published in the time span 1996-2007. The results of the review show that metaheuristic search techniques have been applied for non-functional testing of execution time, quality of service, security, usability and safety. A variety of metaheuristic search techniques are found to be applicable for non-functional testing including simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms, ant colony methods, grammatical evolution, genetic programming (and its variants including linear genetic programming) and swarm intelligence methods. The review reports on different fitness functions used to guide the search for each of the categories of execution time, safety, usability, quality of service and security; along with a discussion of possible challenges in the application of metaheuristic search techniques.

  • 2.
    Alahyari, Hiva
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An exploratory study of waste in software development organizations using agile or lean approaches: A multiple case study at 14 organizations2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 107, p. 78-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The principal focus of lean is the identification and elimination of waste from the process with respect to maximizing customer value. Similarly, the purpose of agile is to maximize customer value and minimize unnecessary work and time delays. In both cases the concept of waste is important. Through an empirical study, we explore how waste is approached in agile software development organizations. Objective: This paper explores the concept of waste in agile/lean software development organizations and how it is defined, used, prioritized, reduced, or eliminated in practice Method: The data were collected using semi-structured open-interviews. 23 practitioners from 14 embedded software development organizations were interviewed representing two core roles in each organization. Results: Various wastes, categorized in 10 different categories, were identified by the respondents. From the mentioned wastes, not all were necessarily waste per se but could be symptoms caused by wastes. From the seven wastes of lean, Task-switching was ranked as the most important, and Extra-features, as the least important wastes according to the respondents’ opinion. However, most companies do not have their own or use an established definition of waste, more importantly, very few actively identify or try to eliminate waste in their organizations beyond local initiatives on project level. Conclusion: In order to identify, recognize and eliminate waste, a common understanding, and a joint and holistic view of the concept is needed. It is also important to optimize the whole organization and the whole product, as waste on one level can be important on another, thus sub-optimization should be avoided. Furthermore, to achieve a sustainable and effective waste handling, both the short-term and the long-term perspectives need to be considered. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 3. Alegroth, Emil
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kolstrom, Pirjo
    Maintenance of automated test suites in industry: An empirical study on Visual GUI Testing2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Verification and validation (V&V) activities make up 20-50% of the total development costs of a software system in practice. Test automation is proposed to lower these V&V costs but available research only provides limited empirical data from industrial practice about the maintenance costs of automated tests and what factors affect these costs. In particular, these costs and factors are unknown for automated GUI-based testing. Objective: This paper addresses this lack of knowledge through analysis of the costs and factors associated with the maintenance of automated GUI-based tests in industrial practice. Method: An empirical study at two companies, Siemens and Saab, is reported where interviews about, and empirical work with, Visual GUI Testing is performed to acquire data about the technique's maintenance costs and feasibility. Results: 13 factors are observed that affect maintenance, e.g. tester knowledge/experience and test case complexity. Further, statistical analysis shows that developing new test scripts is costlier than maintenance but also that frequent maintenance is less costly than infrequent, big bang maintenance. In addition a cost model, based on previous work, is presented that estimates the time to positive return on investment (ROI) of test automation compared to manual testing. Conclusions: It is concluded that test automation can lower overall software development costs of a project while also having positive effects on software quality. However, maintenance costs can still be considerable and the less time a company currently spends on manual testing, the more time is required before positive, economic, ROI is reached after automation. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A critical appraisal tool for systematic literature reviews in software engineering2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 48-50Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Methodological research on systematic literature reviews (SLRs)in Software Engineering (SE)has so far focused on developing and evaluating guidelines for conducting systematic reviews. However, the support for quality assessment of completed SLRs has not received the same level of attention. Objective: To raise awareness of the need for a critical appraisal tool (CAT)for assessing the quality of SLRs in SE. To initiate a community-based effort towards the development of such a tool. Method: We reviewed the literature on the quality assessment of SLRs to identify the frequently used CATs in SE and other fields. Results: We identified that the CATs currently used is SE were borrowed from medicine, but have not kept pace with substantial advancements in the field of medicine. Conclusion: In this paper, we have argued the need for a CAT for quality appraisal of SLRs in SE. We have also identified a tool that has the potential for application in SE. Furthermore, we have presented our approach for adapting this state-of-the-art CAT for assessing SLRs in SE. © 2019 The Authors

  • 5.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usman, Muhammad
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Reliability of search in systematic reviews: Towards a quality assessment framework for the automated-search strategy2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, ISSN 0950-5849, Vol. 99, p. 133-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The trust in systematic literature reviews (SLRs) to provide credible recommendations is critical for establishing evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) practice. The reliability of SLR as a method is not a given and largely depends on the rigor of the attempt to identify, appraise and aggregate evidence. Previous research, by comparing SLRs on the same topic, has identified search as one of the reasons for discrepancies in the included primary studies. This affects the reliability of an SLR, as the papers identified and included in it are likely to influence its conclusions. Objective: We aim to propose a comprehensive evaluation checklist to assess the reliability of an automated-search strategy used in an SLR. Method: Using a literature review, we identified guidelines for designing and reporting automated-search as a primary search strategy. Using the aggregated design, reporting and evaluation guidelines, we formulated a comprehensive evaluation checklist. The value of this checklist was demonstrated by assessing the reliability of search in 27 recent SLRs. Results: Using the proposed evaluation checklist, several additional issues (not captured by the current evaluation checklist) related to the reliability of search in recent SLRs were identified. These issues severely limit the coverage of literature by the search and also the possibility to replicate it. Conclusion: Instead of solely relying on expensive replications to assess the reliability of SLRs, this work provides means to objectively assess the likely reliability of a search-strategy used in an SLR. It highlights the often-assumed aspect of repeatability of search when using automated-search. Furthermore, by explicitly considering repeatability and consistency as sub-characteristics of a reliable search, it provides a more comprehensive evaluation checklist than the ones currently used in EBSE. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 6. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    The Fundamental Nature of Requirements Engineering Activities as a Decision-Making Process2003In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 45, no 14, p. 945-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements engineering (RE) process is a decision-rich complex problem solving activity. This paper examines the elements of organization-oriented macro decisions as well as process-oriented micro decisions in the RE process and illustrates how to integrate classical decision-making models with RE process models. This integration helps in formulating a common vocabulary and model to improve the manageability of the RE process, and contributes towards the learning process by validating and verifying the consistency of decision-making in RE activities.

  • 7.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Mohankumar, Varun
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Software quality across borders: Three case studies on company internal alignment2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 20-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software quality issues are commonly reported when offshoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Objective: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholder groups within a company on the priority given to aspects of software quality developed as part of an offshoring relationship. Furthermore, the study aims to identify factors impacting the levels of alignment identified. Method: Three case studies were conducted, with representatives of key stakeholder groups ranking aspects of software quality in a hierarchical cumulative exercise. The results are analysed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients and inertia. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding of the issues impacting alignment. Results: Various levels of alignment were found between the various groups. The reasons for misalignment were found to include cultural factors, control of quality in the development process, short-term versus long-term orientations, understanding of cost-benefits of quality improvements, communication and coordination. Conclusions: The factors that negatively affect alignment can vary greatly between different cases. The work emphasises the need for greater support to align company internal success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when offshoring software development.

  • 8.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybueke
    Barney, Hamish
    Software quality trade-offs: A systematic map2012In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 651-662Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality is complex with over investment, under investment and the interplay between aspects often being overlooked as many researchers aim to advance individual aspects of software quality. Aim: This paper aims to provide a consolidated overview the literature that addresses trade-offs between aspects of software product quality. Method: A systematic literature map is employed to provide an overview of software quality trade-off literature in general. Specific analysis is also done of empirical literature addressing the topic. Results: The results show a wide range of solution proposals being considered. However, there is insufficient empirical evidence to adequately evaluate and compare these proposals. Further a very large vocabulary has been found to describe software quality. Conclusion: Greater empirical research is required to sufficiently evaluate and compare the wide range of solution proposals. This will allow researchers to focus on the proposals showing greater signs of success and better support industrial practitioners.

  • 9.
    Bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Nicolau de Franca, Breno Bernard
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, ESE Grp, PESC COPPE, BR-68511 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Evaluation of simulation-assisted value stream mapping for software product development: Two industrial cases2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 68, p. 45-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Value stream mapping (VSM) as a tool for lean development has led to significant improvements in different industries. In a few studies, it has been successfully applied in a software engineering context. However, some shortcomings have been observed in particular failing to capture the dynamic nature of the software process to evaluate improvements i.e. such improvements and target values are based on idealistic situations. Objective: To overcome the shortcomings of VSM by combining it with software process simulation modeling, and to provide reflections on the process of conducting VSM with simulation. Method: Using case study research, VSM was used for two products at Ericsson AB, Sweden. Ten workshops were conducted in this regard. Simulation in this study was used as a tool to support discussions instead of as a prediction tool. The results have been evaluated from the perspective of the participating practitioners, an external observer, and reflections of the researchers conducting the simulation that was elicited by the external observer. Results: Significant constraints hindering the product development from reaching the stated improvement goals for shorter lead time were identified. The use of simulation was particularly helpful in having more insightful discussions and to challenge assumptions about the likely impact of improvements. However, simulation results alone were found insufficient to emphasize the importance of reducing waiting times and variations in the process. Conclusion: The framework to assist VSM with simulation presented in this study was successfully applied in two cases. The involvement of various stakeholders, consensus building steps, emphasis on flow (through waiting time and variance analysis) and the use of simulation proposed in the framework led to realistic improvements with a high likelihood of implementation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Borg, Markus
    Engström, Emelie
    A Multi-Case Study of Agile Requirements Engineering and the Use of Test Cases as Requirements2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 77, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context] It is an enigma that agile projects can succeed ‘without requirements’ when weak requirementsengineering is a known cause for project failures. While agile development projects often manage well withoutextensive requirements test cases are commonly viewed as requirements and detailed requirements are documented astest cases.[Objective] We have investigated this agile practice of using test cases as requirements to understand how test casescan support the main requirements activities, and how this practice varies.[Method] We performed an iterative case study at three companies and collected data through 14 interviews and 2focus groups.[Results] The use of test cases as requirements poses both benefits and challenges when eliciting, validating,verifying, and managing requirements, and when used as a documented agreement. We have identified five variants ofthe test-cases-as-requirements practice, namely de facto, behaviour-driven, story-test driven, stand-alone strict andstand-alone manual for which the application of the practice varies concerning the time frame of requirementsdocumentation, the requirements format, the extent to which the test cases are a machine executable specification andthe use of tools which provide specific support for the practice of using test cases as requirements.[Conclusions] The findings provide empirical insight into how agile development projects manage andcommunicate requirements. The identified variants of the practice of using test cases as requirements can be used toperform in-depth investigations into agile requirements engineering. Practitioners can use the providedrecommendations as a guide in designing and improving their agile requirements practices based on projectcharacteristics such as number of stakeholders and rate of change.

  • 11.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    iZettle, SWE.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components. Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking. © 2019

  • 12.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Learning and Performance Evolution of Immature Remote Teams in Large-ScaleSoftware Projects: An Industrial Case StudyIn: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount ofcomplex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges, and the diculty to acquire knowledgeabout large amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. Thismay lead to extended periods of low performance.Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the learning processes and performance evolutions (teamproductivity and team autonomy) of remote software development teams added late to a large-scale legacy softwareproduct development, and to propose recommendations to support the learning of remote teams.Method: We conducted a case study in Ericsson, collecting data through archival research, semi-structured interviews,and workshops. We analyzed the collected data using descriptive, inferential and graphical statistics and softqualitative analysis.Results: The results show that the productivity and autonomy of immature remote teams are on average 3.67 and2.27 times lower than the ones of mature teams, respectively. Furthermore, their performance had a steady increaseduring almost the entire first year and dropped (productivity) or got stagnated (autonomy) for a great part of the secondyear. In addition to these results, we also identified four challenges that aected the learning process and performanceevolution of immature remote teams: complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source ofproduct knowledge, lack of team stability, and training expectation misalignment.Conclusion: The results indicate that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make learning more dicultand demand a long period to achieve high performance. To support the learning of remote teams, we put forward fiverecommendations. We believe that our quantitative analysis, as well as the identified factors and recommendationscan help other companies to onboard new remote teams in large-scale legacy product development projects.

  • 13. Dittrich, Yvonne
    et al.
    Lindeberg, Olle
    How use-oriented development can take place2004In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 603-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Usability is still a problem for software development. As the introduced software changes the use context, use qualities cannot be fully anticipated. Close co-operation between users and developers during development has been proposed as a remedy. Others fear such involvement of users as it might jeopardize planning and control. Based on the observation of an industrial project, we show how user participation and control can be achieved at the same time. The present article discusses the specific measures that allowed for co-operation between users and developers in an industrial context. It indicates measures to improve software development by focusing on use-orientation, i.e. allowing for user-developer co-operation.

  • 14.
    Felderer, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Pfahl, Dietmar
    University of Tartu, EST.
    Special Section: Automation and Analytics for Greener Software Engineering2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 95, p. 106-107Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Karapıçak, Çağrı Murat
    Middle East Technical, University (METU), Ankara, TUR.
    Yılmaz, Uğur
    Hacettepe University, Ankara, TUR.
    Testing embedded software: A survey of the literature2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 104, p. 14-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Embedded systems have overwhelming penetration around the world. Innovations are increasingly triggered by software embedded in automotive, transportation, medical-equipment, communication, energy, and many other types of systems. To test embedded software in an effective and efficient manner, a large number of test techniques, approaches, tools and frameworks have been proposed by both practitioners and researchers in the last several decades. Objective: However, reviewing and getting an overview of the entire state-of-the-art and the practice in this area is challenging for a practitioner or a (new) researcher. Also unfortunately, as a result, we often see that many companies reinvent the wheel (by designing a test approach new to them, but existing in the domain) due to not having an adequate overview of what already exists in this area. Method: To address the above need, we conducted and report in this paper a systematic literature review (SLR) in the form of a systematic literature mapping (SLM) in this area. After compiling an initial pool of 588 papers, a systematic voting about inclusion/exclusion of the papers was conducted among the authors, and our final pool included 312 technical papers. Results: Among the various aspects that we aim at covering, our review covers the types of testing topics studied, types of testing activity, types of test artifacts generated (e.g., test inputs or test code), and the types of industries in which studies have focused on, e.g., automotive and home appliances. Furthermore, we assess the benefits of this review by asking several active test engineers in the Turkish embedded software industry to review its findings and provide feedbacks as to how this review has benefitted them. Conclusion: The results of this review paper have already benefitted several of our industry partners in choosing the right test techniques / approaches for their embedded software testing challenges. We believe that it will also be useful for the large world-wide community of software engineers and testers in the embedded software industry, by serving as an "index" to the vast body of knowledge in this important area. Our results will also benefit researchers in observing the latest trends in this area and for identifying the topics which need further investigations.

  • 16.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Information Technology Group, Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mäntylä, Mika
    M3S, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, FIN.
    Guidelines for including grey literature and conducting multivocal literature reviews in software engineering2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 106, p. 101-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A Multivocal Literature Review (MLR) is a form of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) which includes the grey literature (e.g., blog posts, videos and white papers) in addition to the published (formal) literature (e.g., journal and conference papers). MLRs are useful for both researchers and practitioners since they provide summaries both the state-of-the art and –practice in a given area. MLRs are popular in other fields and have recently started to appear in software engineering (SE). As more MLR studies are conducted and reported, it is important to have a set of guidelines to ensure high quality of MLR processes and their results. Objective: There are several guidelines to conduct SLR studies in SE. However, several phases of MLRs differ from those of traditional SLRs, for instance with respect to the search process and source quality assessment. Therefore, SLR guidelines are only partially useful for conducting MLR studies. Our goal in this paper is to present guidelines on how to conduct MLR studies in SE. Method: To develop the MLR guidelines, we benefit from several inputs: (1) existing SLR guidelines in SE, (2), a literature survey of MLR guidelines and experience papers in other fields, and (3) our own experiences in conducting several MLRs in SE. We took the popular SLR guidelines of Kitchenham and Charters as the baseline and extended/adopted them to conduct MLR studies in SE. All derived guidelines are discussed in the context of an already-published MLR in SE as the running example. Results: The resulting guidelines cover all phases of conducting and reporting MLRs in SE from the planning phase, over conducting the review to the final reporting of the review. In particular, we believe that incorporating and adopting a vast set of experience-based recommendations from MLR guidelines and experience papers in other fields have enabled us to propose a set of guidelines with solid foundations. Conclusion: Having been developed on the basis of several types of experience and evidence, the provided MLR guidelines will support researchers to effectively and efficiently conduct new MLRs in any area of SE. The authors recommend the researchers to utilize these guidelines in their MLR studies and then share their lessons learned and experiences. © 2018

  • 17.
    Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Wageningen University, NLD.
    Felderer, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Nur Kılıçaslan, Feyza Nur
    Hacettepe Üniversitesi, TUR.
    A survey on software testability2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 108, p. 35-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software testability is the degree to which a software system or a unit under test supports its own testing. To predict and improve software testability, a large number of techniques and metrics have been proposed by both practitioners and researchers in the last several decades. Reviewing and getting an overview of the entire state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice in this area is often challenging for a practitioner or a new researcher. Objective: Our objective is to summarize the body of knowledge in this area and to benefit the readers (both practitioners and researchers) in preparing, measuring and improving software testability. Method: To address the above need, the authors conducted a survey in the form of a systematic literature mapping (classification) to find out what we as a community know about this topic. After compiling an initial pool of 303 papers, and applying a set of inclusion/exclusion criteria, our final pool included 208 papers (published between 1982 and 2017). Results: The area of software testability has been comprehensively studied by researchers and practitioners. Approaches for measurement of testability and improvement of testability are the most-frequently addressed in the papers. The two most often mentioned factors affecting testability are observability and controllability. Common ways to improve testability are testability transformation, improving observability, adding assertions, and improving controllability.Conclusion: This paper serves for both researchers and practitioners as an "index" to the vast body of knowledge in the area of testability. The results could help practitioners measure and improve software testability in their projects. To assess potential benefits of this review paper, we shared its draft version with two of our industrial collaborators. They stated that they found the review useful and beneficial in their testing activities. Our results can also benefit researchers in observing the trends in this area and identify the topics that require further investigation.

  • 18. Garousi, Vahid
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ozkan, Baris
    Challenges and best practices in industry-academia collaborations in software engineering: A systematic literature review2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 79, p. 106-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The global software industry and the software engineering (SE) academia are two large communities. However, unfortunately, the level of joint industry-academia collaborations in SE is still relatively very low, compared to the amount of activity in each of the two communities. It seems that the two ’camps’ show only limited interest/motivation to collaborate with one other. Many researchers and practitioners have written about the challenges, success patterns (what to do, i.e., how to collaborate) and anti-patterns (what not do do) for industry-academia collaborations. Objective: To identify (a) the challenges to avoid risks to the collaboration by being aware of the challenges, (b) the best practices to provide an inventory of practices (patterns) allowing for an informed choice of practices to use when planning and conducting collaborative projects. Method: A systematic review has been conducted. Synthesis has been done using grounded-theory based coding procedures. Results: Through thematic analysis we identified 10 challenge themes and 17 best practice themes. A key outcome was the inventory of best practices, the most common ones recommended in different contexts were to hold regular workshops and seminars with industry, assure continuous learning from industry and academic sides, ensure management engagement, the need for a champion, basing research on real-world problems, showing explicit benefits to the industry partner, be agile during the collaboration, and the co-location of the researcher on the industry side. Conclusion: Given the importance of industry-academia collaboration to conduct research of high practical relevance we provide a synthesis of challenges and best practices, which can be used by researchers and practitioners to make informed decisions on how to structure their collaborations.

  • 19. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Davis, Alan
    Requirements Engineering: In Search of the Dependent Variables2008In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 50, no 1-2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When software development teams modify their requirements engineering process as an independent variable, they often examine the implications of these process changes by assessing the quality of the products of the requirements engineering process, e.g., a software requirements specification (SRS). Using the quality of the SRS as the dependent variable is flawed. As an alternative, this paper presents a framework of dependent variables that serves as a full range for requirements engineering quality assessment. In this framework, the quality of the SRS itself is just the first level. Other higher, and more significant levels, include whether the project was successful and whether the resulting product was successful. And still higher levels include whether or not the company was successful and whether there was a positive or negative impact on society as a whole. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Holt, Nina Elisabeth
    et al.
    Briand, Lionel
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Empirical evaluations on the cost-effectiveness of state-based testing: An industrial case study2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 890-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Test models describe the expected behavior of the software under test and provide the basis for test case and oracle generation. When test models are expressed as UML state machines, this is typically referred to as state-based testing (SBT). Despite the importance of being systematic while testing, all testing activities are limited by resource constraints. Thus, reducing the cost of testing while ensuring sufficient fault detection is a common goal in software development. No rigorous industrial case studies of SBT have yet been published. Objective In this paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SBT on actual control software by studying the combined influence of four testing aspects: coverage criterion, test oracle, test model and unspecified behavior (sneak paths). Method An industrial case study was used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of SBT. To enable the evaluation of SBT techniques, a model-based testing tool was configured and used to automatically generate test suites. The test suites were evaluated using 26 real faults collected in a field study. Results Results show that the more detailed and rigorous the test model and oracle, the higher the fault-detection ability of SBT. A less precise oracle achieved 67% fault detection, but the overall cost reduction of 13% was not enough to make the loss an acceptable trade-off. Removing details from the test model significantly reduced the cost by 85%. Interestingly, only a 24–37% reduction in fault detection was observed. Testing for sneak paths killed the remaining eleven mutants that could not be killed by the conformance test strategies. Conclusions Each of the studied testing aspects influences cost-effectiveness and must be carefully considered in context when selecting strategies. Regardless of these choices, sneak-path testing is a necessary step in SBT since sneak paths are common while also undetectable by conformance testing.

  • 21.
    Irshad, Mohsin
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A systematic literature review of software requirements reuse approaches2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 93, no Jan, p. 223-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Early software reuse is considered as the most beneficial form of software reuse. Hence, previous research has focused on supporting the reuse of software requirements. Objective: This study aims to identify and investigate the current state of the art with respect to (a) what requirement reuse approaches have been proposed, (b) the methods used to evaluate the approaches, (c) the characteristics of the approaches, and (d) the quality of empirical studies on requirements reuse with respect to rigor and relevance. Method: We conducted a systematic review and a combination of snowball sampling and database search have been used to identify the studies. The rigor and relevance scoring rubric has been used to assess the quality of the empirical studies. Multiple researchers have been involved in each step to increase the reliability of the study. Results: Sixty-nine studies were identified that describe requirements reuse approaches. The majority of the approaches used structuring and matching of requirements as a method to support requirements reuse and text-based artefacts were commonly used as an input to these approaches. Further evaluation of the studies revealed that the majority of the approaches are not validated in the industry. The subset of empirical studies (22 in total) was analyzed for rigor and relevance and two studies achieved the maximum score for rigor and relevance based on the rubric. It was found that mostly text-based requirements reuse approaches were validated in the industry. Conclusion: From the review, it was found that a number of approaches already exist in literature, but many approaches are not validated in industry. The evaluation of rigor and relevance of empirical studies show that these do not contain details of context, validity threats, and the industrial settings, thus highlighting the need for the industrial evaluation of the approaches. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 22.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Lero / Regulated Software Research Centre.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hessbo, Emil
    Distributed Software Development in an Offshore Outsourcing Project: A Case Study of Source Code Evolution and Quality2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 72, p. 125-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Offshore outsourcing collaborations can result in distributed development, which has been linked to quality-related concerns. However, there are few studies that focus on the implication of distributed development on quality, and they report inconsistent findings using different proxies for quality. Thus, there is a need for more studies, as well as to identify useful proxies for certain distributed contexts. The presented empirical study was performed in a context that involved offshore outsourcing vendors in a multisite distributed development setting.

    Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate how quality changes during evolution in a distributed development environment that incurs organizational changes in terms of number of companies involved.

    Method: A case study approach is followed in the investigation. Only post-release defects are used as a proxy for external quality due to unreliable defect data found pre-release such as those reported during integration. Focus group meetings were also held with practitioners.

    Results: The results suggest that practices that can be grouped into product, people, and process categories can help ensure post-release quality. However, post-release defects are insufficient for showing a conclusive impact on quality of the development setting. This is because the development teams worked independently as isolated distributed teams, and integration defects would help to better reflect on the impact on quality of the development setting.

    Conclusions: The mitigation practices identified can be useful information to practitioners that are planning to engage in similar globally distributed development projects. Finally, it is important to take into consideration the arrangement of distributed development teams in global projects, and to use the context to identify appropriate proxies for quality in order to draw correct conclusions about the implications of the context. This would help with providing practitioners with well-founded findings about the impact on quality of globally distributed development settings.

  • 23. Kasoju, Abhinaya
    et al.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Mäntylä, Mika V.
    Analyzing an automotive testing process with evidence-based software engineering2013In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 1237-1259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) provides a process for solving practical problems based on a rigorous research approach. The primary focus so far was on mapping and aggregating evidence through systematic reviews. Objectives: We extend existing work on evidence-based software engineering by using the EBSE process in an industrial case to help an organization to improve its automotive testing process. With this we contribute in (1) providing experiences on using evidence based processes to analyze a real world automotive test process and (2) provide evidence of challenges and related solutions for automotive software testing processes. Methods: In this study we perform an in-depth investigation of an automotive test process using an extended EBSE process including case study research (gain an understanding of practical questions to define a research scope), systematic literature review (identify solutions through systematic literature), and value stream mapping (map out an improved automotive test process based on the current situation and improvement suggestions identified). These are followed by reflections on the EBSE process used. Results: In the first step of the EBSE process we identified 10 challenge areas with a total of 26 individual challenges. For 15 out of those 26 challenges our domain specific systematic literature review identified solutions. Based on the input from the challenges and the solutions, we created a value stream map of the current and future process. Conclusions: Overall, we found that the evidence-based process as presented in this study helps in technology transfer of research results to industry, but at the same time some challenges lie ahead (e.g. scoping systematic reviews to focus more on concrete industry problems, and understanding strategies of conducting EBSE with respect to effort and quality of the evidence).

  • 24. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Contextual Nature of Innovation: An Empirical Investigation of Three Software Intensive Products2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 57, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: New products create significant opportunities for differentiation and competitive advantage. To increase the chances of new product success, a universal set of critical activities and determinants have been recommended. Some researchers believe, however, that these factors are not universal, but are contextual. Objective: This paper reports innovation processes followed to develop three software intensive products for understanding how and why innovation practice is dependent on innovation context. Method: This paper reports innovation processes and practices with an in-depth multi-case study of three software product innovations from Ericsson, IBM, and Rorotika. It describes the actual innovation processes followed in the three cases and discusses the observed innovation practice and relates it to state-of-the-art. Results: The cases point to a set of contextual factors that influence the choice of innovation activities and determinants for developing successful product innovations. The cases provide evidence that innovation practice cannot be standardized, but is contextual in nature. Conclusion: The rich description of the interaction between context and innovation practice enables future investigations into contextual elements that influence innovation practice, and calls for the creation of frameworks enabling activity and determinant selection for a given context – since one size does not fit all.

  • 25. Kosti, Makrina Viola
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Personality, emotional intelligence and work preferences in software engineering: An empirical study2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 8, p. 973-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: There is an increasing awareness among Software Engineering (SE) researchers and practitioners that more focus is needed on understanding the engineers developing software. Previous studies show significant associations between the personalities of software engineers and their work preferences. Objective: Various studies on personality in SE have found large, small or no effects and there is no consensus on the importance of psychometric measurements in SE. There is also a lack of studies employing other psychometric instruments or using larger datasets. We aim to evaluate our results in a larger sample, with software engineers in an earlier state of their career, using advanced statistics. Method: An operational replication study where extensive psychometric data from 279 master level students have been collected in a SE program at a Swedish University. Personality data based on the Five-Factor Model, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and Self-compassion have been collected. Statistical analysis investigated associations between psychometrics and work preferences and the results were compared to our previous findings from 47 SE professionals. Results: Analysis confirms existence of two main clusters of software engineers; one with more "intense" personalities than the other. This corroborates our earlier results on SE professionals. The student data also show similar associations between personalities and work preferences. However, for other associations there are differences due to the different population of subjects. We also found connections between the emotional intelligence and work preferences, while no associations were found for self-compassion. Conclusion: The associations can help managers to predict and adapt projects and tasks to available staff. The results also show that the Emotional Intelligence instrument can be predictive. The research methods and analytical tools we employ can detect subtle associations and reflect differences between different groups and populations and thus can be important tools for future research as well as industrial practice.

  • 26. Kuzniarz, Ludwik
    et al.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Empirical extension of a classification framework for addressing consistency in model based development2011In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 214-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Consistency constitutes an important aspect in practical realization of modeling ideas in the process of software development and in the related research which is diverse. A classification framework has been developed, in order to aid the model based software construction by categorizing research problems related to consistency. However, the framework does not include information on the importance of classification elements. Objective: The aim was to extend the classification framework with information about the relative importance of the elements constituting the classification. The research question was how to express and obtain this information. Method: A survey was conducted on a sample of 24 stakeholders from academia and industry, with different roles, who answered a quantitative questionnaire. Specifically, the respondents prioritized perspectives and issues using an extended hierarchical voting scheme based on the hundred dollar test. The numerical data obtained were first weighted and normalized and then they were analyzed by descriptive statistics and bar charts. Results: The detailed analysis of the data revealed the relative importance of consistency perspectives and issues under different views, allowing for the desired extension of the classification framework with empirical information. The most highly valued issues come from the pragmatics perspective. These issues are the most important for tool builders and practitioners from industry, while for the responders from academia theory group some issues from the concepts perspective are equally important. Conclusion: The method of using empirical data from a hierarchical cumulative voting scheme for extending existing research classification framework is useful for including information regarding the importance of the classification elements.

  • 27. Lokan, Chris
    et al.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Investigating the use of duration-based moving windows to improve software effort prediction: A replicated study2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 1063-1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Most research in software effort estimation has not considered chronology when selecting projects for training and testing sets. A chronological split represents the use of a projects starting and completion dates, such that any model that estimates effort for a new project p only uses as training data projects that were completed prior to p's start. Four recent studies investigated the use of chronological splits, using moving windows wherein only the most recent projects completed prior to a projects starting date were used as training data. The first three studies (S1-S3) found some evidence in favor of using windows; they all defined window sizes as being fixed numbers of recent projects. In practice, we suggest that estimators think in terms of elapsed time rather than the size of the data set, when deciding which projects to include in a training set. In the fourth study (S4) we showed that the use of windows based on duration can also improve estimation accuracy. Objective: This papers contribution is to extend S4 using an additional dataset, and to also investigate the effect on accuracy when using moving windows of various durations. Method: Stepwise multivariate regression was used to build prediction models, using all available training data, and also using windows of various durations to select training data. Accuracy was compared based on absolute residuals and MREs; the Wilcoxon test was used to check statistical significances between results. Accuracy was also compared against estimates derived from windows containing fixed numbers of projects. Results: Neither fixed size nor fixed duration windows provided superior estimation accuracy in the new data set. Conclusions: Contrary to intuition, our results suggest that it is not always beneficial to exclude old data when estimating effort for new projects. When windows are helpful, windows based on duration are effective.

  • 28.
    Madeyski, Lech
    et al.
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, POL.
    Kitchenham, Barbara Ann
    Keele University, GBR.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Introduction to the special section on Enhancing Credibility of Empirical Software Engineering2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 99, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Tester interactivity makes a difference in search-based software testing: A controlled experiment2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 78, p. 66-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Search-based software testing promises to provide users with the ability to generate high quality test cases, and hence increase product quality, with a minimal increase in the time and effort required. The development of the Interactive Search-Based Software Testing (ISBST) system was motivated by a previous study to investigate the application of search-based software testing (SBST) in an industrial setting. ISBST allows users to interact with the underlying SBST system, guiding the search and assessing the results. An industrial evaluation indicated that the ISBST system could find test cases that are not created by testers employing manual techniques. The validity of the evaluation was threatened, however, by the low number of participants. Objective: This paper presents a follow-up study, to provide a more rigorous evaluation of the ISBST system. Method: To assess the ISBST system a two-way crossover controlled experiment was conducted with 58 students taking a Verification and Validation course. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is used to assess the workload experienced by the participants in the experiment. Results:The experimental results validated the hypothesis that the ISBST system generates test cases that are not found by the same participants employing manual testing techniques. A follow-up laboratory experiment also investigates the importance of interaction in obtaining the results. In addition to this main result, the subjective workload was assessed for each participant by means of the NASA-TLX tool. The evaluation showed that, while the ISBST system required more effort from the participants, they achieved the same performance. Conclusions: The paper provides evidence that the ISBST system develops test cases that are not found by manual techniques, and that interaction plays an important role in achieving that result. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 30. Martins, Luiz Eduardo G.
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements engineering for safety-critical systems: A systematic literature review2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 75, p. 71-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) are becoming increasingly present in our society. A considerable amount of research effort has been invested into improving the SCS requirements engineering process as it is critical to the successful development of SCS and, in particular, the engineering of safety aspects. Objective: This article aims to investigate which approaches have been proposed to elicit, model, specify and validate safety requirements in the context of SCS, as well as to what extent such approaches have been validated in industrial settings. The paper will also investigate how the usability and usefulness of the reported approaches have been explored, and to what extent they enable requirements communication among the development project/team actors in the development of SCS. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review by selecting 151 papers published between 1983 and 2014. The research methodology to conduct the SLR was based on the guidelines proposed by Kitchenham and Biolchini. Results: The results of this systematic review should encourage further research into the design of studies to improve the requirements engineering for SCS, particularly to enable the communication of the safety requirements among the project team actors, and the adoption of other models for hazard and accident models. The presented results point to the need for more industry-oriented studies, particularly with more participation of practitioners in the validation of new approaches. Conclusion: The most relevant findings from this review and their implications for further research are as follows: integration between requirements engineering and safety engineering areas; dominance of the traditional approaches; early mortality of new approaches; need for industry validation; lack of evidence for the usefulness and usability of most approaches; and the lack of studies that investigate how to improve the communication process throughout the lifecycle. Based on the findings, we suggest a research agenda to the community of researchers and advices to SCS practitioners. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An Empirically Evaluated Checklist for Surveys in Software EngineeringIn: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Over the past decade Software Engineering research has seen a steady increase in survey-based studies, and there are several guidelines providing support for those willing to carry out surveys. The need for auditing survey research has been raised in the literature. Checklists have been used to assess different types of empirical studies, such as experiments and case studies.

    Objective: This paper proposes a checklist to support the design and assessment of survey-based research in software engineering grounded in existing guidelines for survey research. We further evaluated the checklist in the research practice context.

    Method: To construct the checklist, we systematically aggregated knowledge from 12 methodological studies supporting survey-based research in software engineering. We identified the key stages of the survey process and its recommended practices through thematic analysis and vote counting. To improve our initially designed checklist we evaluated it using a mixed evaluation approach involving experienced researchers.

    Results: The evaluation provided insights regarding the limitations of the checklist in relation to its understanding and objectivity. In particular, 19 of the 38 checklist items were improved according to the feedback received from its evaluation. Finally, a discussion on how to use the checklist and what its implications are for research practice is also provided.

    Conclusion: The proposed checklist is an instrument suitable for auditing survey reports as well as a support tool to guide ongoing research with regard to the survey design process.

  • 32.
    Molléri, Jefferson Seide
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    CERSE - Catalog for empirical research in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 105, p. 117-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Empirical research in software engineering contributes towards developing scientific knowledge in this field, which in turn is relevant to inform decision-making in industry. A number of empirical studies have been carried out to date in software engineering, and the need for guidelines for conducting and evaluating such research has been stressed. Objective: The main goal of this mapping study is to identify and summarize the body of knowledge on research guidelines, assessment instruments and knowledge organization systems on how to conduct and evaluate empirical research in software engineering. Method: A systematic mapping study employing manual search and snowballing techniques was carried out to identify the suitable papers. To build up the catalog, we extracted and categorized information provided by the identified papers. Results: The mapping study comprises a list of 341 methodological papers, classified according to research methods, research phases covered, and type of instrument provided. Later, we derived a brief explanatory review of the instruments provided for each of the research methods. Conclusion: We provide: an aggregated body of knowledge on the state of the art relating to guidelines, assessment instruments and knowledge organization systems for carrying out empirical software engineering research; an exemplary usage scenario that can be used to guide those carrying out such studies is also provided. Finally, we discuss the catalog's implications for research practice and the needs for further research. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 33.
    Munir, Husan
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A theory of openness for software engineering tools in software organizations2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 97, p. 26-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The increased use of Open Source Software (OSS) affects how software-intensive product development organizations (SIPDO) innovate and compete, moving them towards Open Innovation (OI). Specifically, software engineering tools have the potential for OI, but require better understanding regarding what to develop internally and what to acquire from outside the organization, and how to cooperate with potential competitors. Aim: This paper aims at synthesizing a theory of openness for software engineering tools in SIPDOs, that can be utilized by managers in defining more efficient strategies towards OSS communities. Method: We synthesize empirical evidence from a systematic mapping study, a case study, and a survey, using a narrative method. The synthesis method entails four steps: (1) Developing a preliminary synthesis, (2) Exploring the relationship between studies, (3) Assessing the validity of the synthesis, and (4) Theory formation. Result: We present a theory of openness for OSS tools in software engineering in relation to four constructs: (1) Strategy, (2) Triggers, (3) Outcomes, and (4) Level of openness. Conclusion: The theory reasons that openness provides opportunities to reduce the development cost and development time. Furthermore, OI positively impacts on the process and product innovation, but it requires investment by organizations in OSS communities. By betting on openness, organizations may be able to significantly increase their competitiveness. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 34. Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Moayyed, Misagh
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Considering rigor and relevance when evaluating test driven development: A systematic review2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 375-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Test driven development (TDD) has been extensively researched and compared to traditional approaches (test last development, TLD). Existing literature reviews show varying results for TDD. Objective This study investigates how the conclusions of existing literature reviews change when taking two study quality dimension into account, namely rigor and relevance. Method In this study a systematic literature review has been conducted and the results of the identified primary studies have been analyzed with respect to rigor and relevance scores using the assessment rubric proposed by Ivarsson and Gorschek 2011. Rigor and relevance are rated on a scale, which is explained in this paper. Four categories of studies were defined based on high/low rigor and relevance. Results We found that studies in the four categories come to different conclusions. In particular, studies with a high rigor and relevance scores show clear results for improvement in external quality, which seem to come with a loss of productivity. At the same time high rigor and relevance studies only investigate a small set of variables. Other categories contain many studies showing no difference, hence biasing the results negatively for the overall set of primary studies. Given the classification differences to previous literature reviews could be highlighted. Conclusion Strong indications are obtained that external quality is positively influenced, which has to be further substantiated by industry experiments and longitudinal case studies. Future studies in the high rigor and relevance category would contribute largely by focusing on a wider set of outcome variables (e.g. internal code quality). We also conclude that considering rigor and relevance in TDD evaluation is important given the differences in results between categories and in comparison to previous reviews.

  • 35.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    The GRADE taxonomy for supporting decision making asset selection in software-intensive system development2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 100, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The development of software-intensive systems includes many decisions involving various stakeholders with often conflicting interests and viewpoints. Objective: Decisions are rarely systematically documented and sporadically explored. This limits the opportunity for learning and improving on important decisions made in the development of software-intensive systems. Method: In this work, we enable support for the systematic documentation of decisions, improve their traceability and contribute to potentially improved decision-making in strategic, tactical and operational contexts. Results: We constructed a taxonomy for documentation supporting decision-making, called GRADE. GRADE was developed in a research project that required composition of a common dedicated language to make feasible the identification of new opportunities for better decision support and evaluation of multiple decision alternatives. The use of the taxonomy has been validated through thirty three decision cases from industry. Conclusion: This paper occupies this important yet greatly unexplored research gap by developing the GRADE taxonomy that serves as a common vocabulary to describe and classify decision-making with respect to architectural assets. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

  • 36. Paternoster, Nicolò
    et al.
    Giardino, Carmine
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Pekka
    Software Development in Startup Companies: A Systematic Mapping Study2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 1200-1218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software startups are newly created companies with no operating history and fast in producing cutting-edge technologies. These companies develop software under highly uncertain conditions, tackling fast-growing markets under severe lack of resources. Therefore, software startups present an unique combination of characteristics which pose several challenges to software development activities. Objective: This study aims to structure and analyze the literature on software development in startup companies, determining thereby the potential for technology transfer and identifying software development work practices reported by practitioners and researchers. Method: We conducted a systematic mapping study, developing a classification schema, ranking the selected primary studies according their rigor and relevance, and analyzing reported software development work practices in startups. Results: A total of 43 primary studies were identified and mapped, synthesizing the available evidence on software development in startups. Only 16 studies are entirely dedicated to software development in startups, of which 10 result in a weak contribution (advice and implications (6); lesson learned (3); tool (1)). Nineteen studies focus on managerial and organizational factors. Moreover, only 9 studies exhibit high scientific rigor and relevance. From the reviewed primary studies, 213 software engineering work practices were extracted, categorized and analyzed. Conclusion: This mapping study provides the first systematic exploration of the state-of-art on software startup research. The existing body of knowledge is limited to a few high quality studies. Furthermore, the results indicate that software engineering work practices are chosen opportunistically, adapted and configured to provide value under the constrains imposed by the startup context.

  • 37.
    Pernstål, Joakim
    et al.
    Volvo Car Corp, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Florén, Dan
    Volvo Car Corp, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Requirements communication and balancing in large-scale software-intensive product development2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 67, p. 44-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Several industries developing products on a large-scale are facing major challenges as their products are becoming more and more software-intensive. Whereas software was once considered a detail to be bundled, it has since become an intricate and interdependent part of most products. The advancement of software increases the uncertainty and the interdependencies between development tasks and artifacts. A key success factor is good requirements engineering (RE), and in particular, the challenges of effectively and efficiently coordinating and communicating requirements. Objective: In this work we present a lightweight RE framework and demonstrate and evaluate its industrial applicability in response to the needs of a Swedish automotive company for improving specific problems in inter-departmental requirements coordination and communication in large-scale development of software-intensive systems. Method: A case study approach and a dynamic validation were used to develop and evaluate the framework in close collaboration with our industrial partner, involving three real-life cases in an ongoing car project. Experience and feedback were collected through observations when applying the framework and from 10 senior industry professionals in a questionnaire and in-depth follow-up interviews. Results: The experience and feedback about using the framework revealed that it is relevant and applicable for the industry as well as a useful and efficient way to resolve real problems in coordinating and communicating requirements identified at the case company. However, other concerns, such as accessibility to necessary resources and competences in the early development phases, were identified when using the method, which allowed for earlier pre-emptive action to be taken. Conclusion: Overall, the experience from using the framework and the positive feedback from industry professionals indicated a feasible framework that is applicable in the industry for improving problems related to coordination and communication of requirements. Based on the promising results, our industrial partner has decided upon further validations of the framework in a large-scale pilot program. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 38. Petersen, Kai
    Measuring and Predicting Software Productivity: A Systematic Map and Review2011In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 317-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software productivity measurement is essential in order to control and improve the performance of software development. For example, by identifying role models (e.g. projects, individuals, tasks) when comparing productivity data. The prediction is of relevance to determine whether corrective actions are needed, and to discover which alternative improvement action would yield the best results. Objectives: In this study we identify studies for software productivity prediction and measurement. Based on the identified studies we first create a classification scheme and map the studies into the scheme (systematic map). Thereafter, a detailed analysis and synthesis of the studies is conducted. Method: As a research method for systematically identifying and aggregating the evidence of productivity measurement and prediction approaches systematic mapping and systematic review have been used. Results: In total 38 studies have been identified, resulting in a classification scheme for empirical research on software productivity. The mapping allowed to identify the rigor of the evidence with respect to the different productivity approaches. In the detailed analysis the results were tabulated and synthesized to provide recommendations to practitioners. Conclusions: Risks with simple ratio-based measurement approaches were shown. In response to the problems data envelopment analysis seems to be a strong approach to capture multivariate productivity measures, and allows to identify reference projects to which inefficient projects should be compared. Regarding simulation no general prediction model can be identified. Simulation and statistical process control are promising methods for software productivity prediction. Overall, further evidence is needed to make stronger claims and recommendations. In particular, the discussion of validity threats should become standard, and models need to be compared with each other.

  • 39.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Khurum, Mahvish
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Reasons for bottlenecks in very large-scale system of systems development2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 1403-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: System of systems (SOS) is a set or arrangement of systems that results when independent and useful systems are to be incorporated into a larger system that delivers unique capabilities. Our investigation showed that the development life cycle (i.e. the activities transforming requirements into design, code, test cases, and releases) in SoS is more prone to bottlenecks in comparison to single systems. Objective: The objective of the research is to identify reasons for bottlenecks in SoS, prioritize their significance according to their effect on bottlenecks, and compare them with respect to different roles and different perspectives, i.e. SoS view (concerned with integration of systems), and systems view (concerned with system development and delivery). Method: The research method used is a case study at Ericsson AB. Results: Results show that the most significant reasons for bottlenecks are related to requirements engineering. All the different roles agree on the significance of requirements related factors. However, there are also disagreements between the roles, in particular with respect to quality related reasons. Quality related hinders are primarily observed and highly prioritized by quality assurance responsibles. Furthermore, SoS view and system view perceive different hinders, and prioritize them differently. Conclusion: We conclude that solutions for requirements engineering in SoS context are needed, quality awareness in the organization has to be achieved end to end, and views between SoS and system view need to be aligned to avoid sub optimization in improvements.

  • 40.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Vakkalanka, Sairam
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kuzniarz, Ludwik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Guidelines for conducting systematic mapping studies in software engineering: An update2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 64, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Systematic mapping studies are used to structure a research area, while systematic reviews are focused on gathering and synthesizing evidence. The most recent guidelines for systematic mapping are from 2008. Since that time, many suggestions have been made of how to improve systematic literature reviews (SLRs). There is a need to evaluate how researchers conduct the process of systematic mapping and identify how the guidelines should be updated based on the lessons learned from the existing systematic maps and SLR guidelines. Objective To identify how the systematic mapping process is conducted (including search, study selection, analysis and presentation of data, etc.); to identify improvement potentials in conducting the systematic mapping process and updating the guidelines accordingly. Method We conducted a systematic mapping study of systematic maps, considering some practices of systematic review guidelines as well (in particular in relation to defining the search and to conduct a quality assessment). Results In a large number of studies multiple guidelines are used and combined, which leads to different ways in conducting mapping studies. The reason for combining guidelines was that they differed in the recommendations given. Conclusion The most frequently followed guidelines are not sufficient alone. Hence, there was a need to provide an update of how to conduct systematic mapping studies. New guidelines have been proposed consolidating existing findings. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  • 41. Radjenović, Danijel
    et al.
    Heričko, Marjan
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Živkovič, Aleš
    Software fault prediction metrics: A systematic literature review2013In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1397-1418Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software metrics may be used in fault prediction models to improve software quality by predicting fault location. Objective: This paper aims to identify software metrics and to assess their applicability in software fault prediction. We investigated the influence of context on metrics' selection and performance. Method: This systematic literature review includes 106 papers published between 1991 and 2011. The selected papers are classified according to metrics and context properties. Results: Object-oriented metrics (49%) were used nearly twice as often compared to traditional source code metrics (27%) or process metrics (24%). Chidamber and Kemerer's (CK) object-oriented metrics were most frequently used. According to the selected studies there are significant differences between the metrics used in fault prediction performance. Object-oriented and process metrics have been reported to be more successful in finding faults compared to traditional size and complexity metrics. Process metrics seem to be better at predicting post-release faults compared to any static code metrics. Conclusion: More studies should be performed on large industrial software systems to find metrics more relevant for the industry and to answer the question as to which metrics should be used in a given context.

  • 42. Riņķevič, Kaspars
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Equality in cumulative voting: A systematic review with an improvement proposal2013In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 267-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Prioritization is an essential part of requirements engineering, software release planning and many other software engineering disciplines. Cumulative Voting (CV) is known as a relatively simple method for prioritizing requirements on a ratio scale. Historically, CV has been applied in decision-making in government elections, corporate governance, and forestry. However, CV prioritization results are of a special type of data-compositional data. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to aid decision-making by collecting knowledge on the empirical use of CV and develop a method for detecting prioritization items with equal priority. Methods: We present a systematic literature review of CV and CV analysis methods. The review is based on searching electronic databases and snowball sampling of the found primary studies. Relevant studies are selected based on titles, abstracts, and full text inspection. Additionally, we propose Equality of Cumulative Votes (ECVs)-a CV result analysis method that identifies prioritization items with equal priority. Results: CV has been used in not only requirements prioritization and release planning but also in e.g. software process improvement, change impact analysis and model driven software development. The review presents a collection of state of the practice studies and CV result analysis methods. In the end, ECV was applied to 27 prioritization cases from 14 studies and identified nine groups of equal items in three studies. Conclusions: We believe that the analysis of the collected studies and the CV result analysis methods can help in the adoption of CV prioritization method. The evaluation of ECV indicates that it is able to detect prioritization items with equal priority and thus provide the practitioner with a more fine-grained analysis.

  • 43. Rogstad, Erik
    et al.
    Briand, Lionel
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Test Case Selection for Black-Box Regression Testing of Database Applications2013In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 1781-1795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: This paper presents an approach for selecting regression test cases in the context of large-scale, database applications. We focus on a black-box (specification-based) approach, relying on classification tree models to model the input domain of the system under test (SUT), in order to obtain a more practical and scalable solution. We perform an industrial case study where the SUT is a large database application in Norway’s tax department. Objective: We investigate the use of similarity-based test case selection for supporting black box regression testing of database applications. We have developed a practical approach and tool (DART) for functional black-box regression testing of database applications. In order to make the regression test approach scalable for large database applications, we needed a test case selection strategy that reduces the test execution costs and analysis e ort. We used classification tree models to partition the input domain of the SUT in order to then select test cases. Rather than selecting test cases at random from each partition, we incorporated a similarity-based test case selection, hypothesizing that it would yield a higher fault detection rate. Method: An experiment was conducted to determine which similarity-based selection algorithm was the most suitable in selecting test cases in large regression test suites, and whether similarity-based selection was a worthwhile and practical alternative to simpler solutions. Results: The results show that combining similarity measurement with partition-based test case selection, by using similarity-based test case selection within each partition, can provide improved fault detection rates over simpler solutions when specific conditions are met regarding the partitions. Conclusions: Under the conditions present in the experiment the improvements were marginal. However, a detailed analysis concludes that the similarity-based selection strategy should be applied when a large number of test cases are contained in each partition and there is significant variability within partitions. If these conditions are not present, incorporating similarity measures is not worthwhile, since the gain is negligible over a random selection within each partition.

  • 44. Rönkkö, Kari
    Interpretation, interaction and reality construction in software engineering: An explanatory model2007In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 682-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incorporation of social issues in software engineering is limited. Still, during the last 20 years the social element inherent in software development has been addressed in a number of publications that identified a lack of common concepts, models, and theories for discussing software development from this point of view. It has been suggested that we need to take interpretative and constructive views more seriously if we are to incorporate the social element in software engineering. Up till now we have lacked papers presenting 'simple' models explaining why. This article presents a model that helps us better to understand interpretation, interaction and reality construction from a natural language perspective. The concepts and categories following with the model provide a new frame of reference useful in software engineering research, teaching, and methods development.

  • 45. Soomro, Arjumand Bano
    et al.
    Salleh, Norsaremah
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Grundy, John
    Burch, Giles
    Nordin, Azlin
    The effect of software engineers' personality traits on team climate and performance: A Systematic Literature Review2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, p. 52-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Over the past 50 years numerous studies have investigated the possible effect that software engineers' personalities may have upon their individual tasks and teamwork. These have led to an improved understanding of that relationship; however, the analysis of personality traits and their impact on the software development process is still an area under investigation and debate. Further, other than personality traits, "team climate" is also another factor that has also been investigated given its relationship with software teams' performance. Objective: The aim of this paper is to investigate how software professionals' personality is associated with team climate and team performance. Method: In this paper we detail a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of the effect of software engineers' personality traits and team climate on software team performance. Results: Our main findings include 35 primary studies that have addressed the relationship between personality and team performance without considering team climate. The findings showed that team climate comprises a wide range of factors that fall within the fields of management and behavioral sciences. Most of the studies used undergraduate students as subjects and as surrogates of software professionals. Conclusions: The findings from this SLR would be beneficial for understanding the personality assessment of software development team members by revealing the traits of personality taxonomy, along with the measurement of the software development team working environment. These measurements would be useful in examining the success and failure possibilities of software projects in development processes. General terms: Human factors, performance. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 46. Sulayman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Urquhart, Cathy
    Riaz, Mehwish
    Tempero, Ewan
    Towards a theoretical framework of SPI success factors for small and medium web companies2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 807-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The context of this research is software process improvement (SPI) success factors for small and medium Web companies. Objective: The primary objective of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework of SPI success factors for small and medium Web companies. Method: The theoretical framework presented in this study aggregated the results of three previous research phases by applying principles of theoretical integration and comparative analysis. Those three previous phases were all empirical in nature, and comprise: a systematic review of SPI in small and medium Web companies [1,2]; a replication study [3] and a grounded theory-based initial exploratory framework of factors in small and medium Web companies [4]. Results: The theoretical framework includes 18 categories of SPI success factors, 148 properties of these categories and 25 corresponding relationships, which bind these categories together. With the help of these relationships, the categories and properties of SPI success factors can be directly translated into a set of guidelines, which can then be used by the practitioners of small and medium Web companies to improve the current state of SPI in their companies and achieve overall company success. Conclusion: The comprehensive theoretical framework of SPI success factors presented herein provides evidence regarding key factors for predicting SPI success for small and medium Web companies. The framework can be used as a baseline for a successful implementation of SPI initiatives in the mentioned domain.

  • 47. Svahnberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Feldt, Robert
    Torkar, Richard
    Saleem, S.B
    Shafique, M.U.
    A systematic review on strategic release planning models2010In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 237-248Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strategic release planning (sometimes referred to as road-mapping) is an important phase of the requirements engineering process performed at product level. It is concerned with selection and assignment of requirements in sequences of releases such that important technical and resource constraints are fulfilled. Objectives: In this study we investigate which strategic release planning models have been proposed, their degree of empirical validation, their factors for requirements selection, and whether they are intended for a bespoke or market-driven requirements engineering context. Methods: In this systematic review a number of article sources are used, including Compendex, Inspec, IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, and Springer Link. Studies are selected after reading titles and abstracts to decide whether the articles are peer reviewed, and relevant to the subject. Results: Twenty four strategic release planning models are found and mapped in relation to each other, and a taxonomy of requirements selection factors is constructed. Conclusions: We conclude that many models are related to each other and use similar techniques to address the release planning problem. We also conclude that several requirement selection factors are covered in the different models, but that many methods fail to address factors such as stakeholder value or internal value. Moreover, we conclude that there is a need for further empirical validation of the models in full scale industry trials. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 48. Tomaszewski, Piotr
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Software Development Productivity on a New Platform: an Industrial Case Study2005In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 257-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high non-functional requirements on mobile telecommunication applications call for new solutions. An example of such a solution can be a software platform that provides high performance and availability. The introduction of such a platform may, however, affect the development productivity. In this study, we present experiences from research carried out at Ericsson. The purpose of the research was productivity improvement and assessment when using the new platform. In this study, we quantify and evaluate the current productivity level by comparing it with UNIX development. The comparison is based on two large, commercially, available systems. We reveal a factor of four differences in productivity. Later, we decompose the problem into two issues: code writing speed and average amount of code necessary to deliver a certain functionality. We assess the impact of both these issues. We describe the nature of the problem by identifying factors that affect productivity and estimating their importance. To the issues identified we suggest a number of remedies. The main methods used in the study are interviews and historical data research. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 49. Tomaszewski, Piotr
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    The increase of productivity over time: an industrial case study2006In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 915-927Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Usman, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Taxonomies in software engineering: A Systematic mapping study and a revised taxonomy development method2017In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 85, p. 43-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Software Engineering (SE) is an evolving discipline with new subareas being continuously developed and added. To structure and better understand the SE body of knowledge, taxonomies have been proposed in all SE knowledge areas. Objective: The objective of this paper is to characterize the state-of-the-art research on SE taxonomies. Method: A systematic mapping study was conducted, based on 270 primary studies. Results: An increasing number of SE taxonomies have been published since 2000 in a broad range of venues, including the top SE journals and conferences. The majority of taxonomies can be grouped into the following SWEBOI(knowledge areas: construction (19.55%), design (19.55%), requirements (15.50%) and maintenance (11.81%). Illustration (45.76%) is the most frequently used approach for taxonomy validation. Hierarchy (53.14%) and faceted analysis (39.48%) are the most frequently used classification structures. Most taxonomies rely on qualitative procedures to classify subject matter instances, but in most cases (86.53%) these procedures are not described in sufficient detail. The majority of the taxonomies (97%) target unique subject matters and many taxonomy-papers are cited frequently. Most SE taxonomies are designed in an ad-hoc way. To address this issue, we have revised an existing method for developing taxonomies in a more systematic way. Conclusion: There is a strong interest in taxonomies in SE, but few taxonomies are extended or revised. Taxonomy design decisions regarding the used classification structures, procedures and descriptive bases are usually not well described and motivated. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

12 1 - 50 of 64
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf