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  • 1.
    Aco, Dekan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Tillverkningsekonomisk utvärdering av återvinning och återanvändning av blyfri mässing2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är en del av ett större projekt (Evochip) som bedrivs på Lunds tekniska högskola, avdelningen för industriell produktion (iProd) och med samarbete med bland annat AB Markaryds metallarmatur och Mistra innovation. I detta arbete har en dynamisk kostnadsmodell tagits fram för att beräkna tillverkningskostnaderna av komponenter tillverkade av återanvända spånor av blyfri mässing från de egna tillverkningsprocesserna hos AB Markaryds metallarmatur (MMA).

    Idag skickas alla kasserade detaljer och materialspill ner till materialleverantörer i Sydeuropa för återvinning. Transporterna sker med lastbil och återvinningsprocessen utgår från ett energikrävande nedsmältningssteg. Idag pågår utvecklingsprojekt med målet att återanvända spånorna utan nedsmältning hos MMA, men kostnadsbilden per detalj har varit hittills okänd. Med hjälp av detta examensarbete ska detaljpriset tas fram. Tillverkningsprocessen delas in i totalt 11 olika förädlingsstationer. För att kartlägga kostnaderna används Jan-Eric Ståhls dynamiska kostnadsmodell. Nödvändig data och information har samlats in med hjälp av intervjuer på företaget och genom företagets egna dokumentationer. För att minska felmarginalen i resultaten har lämpliga Monte Carlo simuleringar utförts.

    Arbetet utgår även från ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. Förutom elimineringen av lastbilstransporter och energikrävande nedsmältningsprocesser för grundmaterialet, främjar arbetet även användning och återanvändning av blyfri mässing genom att kompaktera spånor till nya grönkroppar. Detta då forskare länge har varnat för blyade detaljers negativa hälsoeffekter. 

    Detaljen som undersöks i detta arbete är en ventil som har benämningen EVO 10, vilken återfinns i företagets blyfria standardsortiment. Kostnadsmodellen är dynamisk till den grad att den i framtiden skulle kunna appliceras på övriga blyfria mässingkomponenter hos MMA.     

    En jämförelse mellan två olika koncept presenteras i resultatdelen. Koncept ett representerar dagens tillverkningssystem, och koncept två framtidens kompakteringsteknik. Då många av förädlingsstegen är desamma för båda systemen, valdes en jämförelse mellan framtagningen av grönkropparna genom de två olika koncepten. Resultaten visar att kutsar, framtagna enligt dagens tillverkningssystem, kostar 12,75 SEK/detalj, och kutsar framtagna enligt koncept två kostar 9,61 SEK/detalj.

    Då koncept två är beroende av spånor från dagens tillverkningssystem, kan MMA inte helt gå över till att kompaktera spånor till nya kutsar. Mer arbete måste utföras för att hitta en balanserad modell mellan de två olika tillverkningssystemen för bästa möjliga resultat. Monte Carlo-simuleringarna visar att kostnaden per detalj uppgår till 12.96 SEK, detta med de på förhand valda konstanter och variabler i systemet.

  • 2.
    Adnan, Md Asif
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Shehata, Ahmed
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Stress Analysis Validation for Gear Design2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Gear stress analysis and understanding the effect of misalignment and microgeometry is important for gear designers and for those who work in gear maintenance. The misalignment can lead to the higher stress acting in one side of the gear tooth and the micro-geometry modification can improve the stress distribution in the gear teeth. In this research, a helical gear pair was modeled using three different software and tools; LDP, KISSsoft and Abaqus. Three different cases were modeled to study the effect of misalignment and microgeometry. Finally, the results from different tools were presented and discussed. It was observed that the tooth contact analysis software resulted in significantly higher stresses than the FE software. The results have been discussed to understand the differences in the cases obtained from the used tools. The results showed how bad is the effect of the misalignment on the gear mesh and the stress distribution and how the microgeometry modifications are used to compensate that effect.

  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Erika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Automatiseringskonstruktion till mätfixtur2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 4.
    Al Choueyri, Yousef
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Fayazi, Mojtaba
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Digital models of manufacturing: with emphasis on titanium welding for early product development2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingen är en del av BTH research lab och fokuserar på det tidiga produktutvecklingsstadiet. Närmare kontrolleras hur produkttillverkningsprocessen kan integreras in i det tidiga produktutvecklingsstadiet. Ett känt problem för detta område är skillnaden på kunskapen som designer och tillverkaren besitter under det tidiga produktutvecklingsstadiet, då kunskapen om tillverkningsprocessen inte existerar. Vanligtvis tar inte produktutvecklare hänsyn till detta, eftersom ansvaret för valet av tillverkningsprocessen bedöms falla på tillverkaren. Trots att tillverkningsprocessen beror på många aspekter som bestäms under designprocessen som till exempel materialval, geometrin, efterbehandlingar och toleranser på produkten. För att minimera problemet involverar industrin en stor variation av människor med kompetens och erfarenhet, som sedan kan tillverka en produkt rätt anpassad för tillverkningsprocessen. Dock har denna lösning några nackdelar, då det kan vara svårt att hitta människor med rätt erfarenhet, men då man fokuserar på ett tillverkningssätt så kan företaget gå miste om fördelarna med alternativa tillverkningsprocesser.

    Denna avhandling fokuserar på hur analysen av svetstillverkningstekniken kan integreras in i designprocessen med hjälp av en digital modell.

    För att förbättra kommunikationen mellan tillverkare och designer har 2 Excel filer utvecklats. Den första Excel filen är riktat mot tillverkarna där dem kan nämna maskinerna som finns tillgängliga i deras verkstad. Den andra Excel filen är till för att kunna göra en kostnadskalkyl och jämföra dem olika tillverkningsmetoderna med hjälp av maskinspecifikationerna som fanns presenterade i den första Excel filen.

    För att utvärdera Excel filerna, har en parametrisk CAD modell skapats och 3 fall har använts för att testa de utvecklade CAD modellera. Värdena som använts i detta examensarbete finns i Appendix A: Table 11–15 och är hämtade från allmänt tillgängliga källor. Värden uppskattades också med hjälp av regressionsanalyser.

  • 5.
    ALAMSETTY, SREETEJA
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    VEMURI, SAITEJA
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Springback Analysis of Aluminium Alloy 2024 in Flex-forming Process2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 6.
    Ali, Mazin
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Shahin, Mahdi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Framtagning av kalibreringsverktyg för referensmätningar: Vardaglig kontroll av kalibrering i industriell provbänk för pneumatiskt styrda tågbromsar2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Faiveley Transport Nordic AB is a company in Landskrona and which is an international supplier in the railway industry. The industry sight in landskrona is mostly focused on developing and manufacturing train brakes.Today, Faiveley has a number of test benches that needs regular checks and re-calibration every three months. In the current situation, it is the responsibility of the lab engineer to check that the calibration is correct on the test benches and adjust if needed. The purpose of this research is to design a reference object that will be used for checking the calibration on a test bench.During the research, the product development process was used with some tools from the design thinking process. The research begins with a lot of theoretical background about BFC (Brake Friction Concept), test benches and calibration to develop a deeper understanding for the different concepts.Since Faiveley had already identified the problem, the method was started directly by looking for other solutions that could inspire the solution to the problem. The search for inspiration was conducted through various methods such as patent searching, trend watching and techwatching. The authors proceeded by choosing the best possible ideas for them to create a prototype of the best concepts.After creating a prototype of the reference object, the objects function was verified by testing on a test bench to check if it meets the preset requirements. The authors were able to get the result for each one of them three measurement parameters such as force, distance and pressure. Results showed that most of the requirements was accomplished.Based on the results several conclusions could be drawn. Such as that the reference object that was the solution to the problem worked and partly fulfills the associated requirements. Through this research a method has been created for how to generate reference values for similar parameters in general contexts, which others interested can use in the future.

  • 7.
    Allesson, Sara
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Sheet Metal Forming Simulations with Elastic Dies: Emphasis on Computational Cost2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bilindustrin producerar många av sina bildelar genom att tillämpa plåtformning, där en av de mest tidskrävande faserna är utveckling och tillverkning av nya formningsverktyg. Idag, när ett nytt verktyg ska utvärderas med avseende på användbarhet, genomförs en formningssimulering för att förutsäga eventuella fel innan tillverkning. Antagandet är då att verktygen är stela och den enda deformerbara delen är själva plåten. Det är dock inte så, eftersom verktygen också deformeras under formningsprocessen. Tidigare forskning, som ligger till grund för detta examensarbete, inkluderade en modell med endast elastiska verktyg och visade resultat med hög noggrannhet i jämförelse med att använda stela verktyg. Simuleringen med elastiska verktyg är emellertid inte optimal att implementera för daglig användning, eftersom den kräver hög beräkningskraft och har en lång simuleringstid.

    Syftet och omfattningen av detta examensarbete är att utvärdera hur en plåtformningssimulering med elastiska verktyg kan minskas med avseende på beräkningskostnaden, genom att använda programvaran LS-DYNA. En liten avvikelse från formningsresultatet är acceptabelt, och målet är att köra simuleringen med en 50-75 % minskning av tiden på färre kärnor än ungefär 14 timmar och 800 processorer som simuleringen kräver idag.

    Det första steget är att ändra verktygets geometri och utvärdera inverkan på deformationerna av plåten. De elastiska solida verktygsdelarna som endast har små deformationer raderas och ersätts av stela ytor, vilket gör modellen delvis elastisk. Senare studeras olika dekompositionsmetoder för att avgöra vilka som gör simuleringen snabbare. Till sist utförs en skalningsanalys för att bestämma antalet processorer som ska användas för att köra simuleringen så effektivt som möjligt.

    Korrelationen av huvudtöjningarna mellan en helt elastisk modell och en delvis elastisk modell visade resultat av hög noggrannhet, såväl som jämförelse med produktionsmätningar av en format plåt. Beräkningstiden minskar med över 90 % när man använder ungefär 65 % av den ursprungliga beräkningskraften. Om simuleringarna körs med färre antal kärnor, cirka 10 % av ursprungligt antal CPUer, minskar simuleringstiden med 70 %. 

    Slutsatsen av detta arbete är att det är möjligt att köra en delvis elastisk plåtformningssimulering mycket effektivare än att använda en helt elastisk modell, utan att de resulterar i pålitlighetsproblem. Detta genom att minska antalet element, utvärdera dekompositionsmetoden och genom att genomföra en skalningsanalys för att utvärdera effektiviteten av beräkningskraften.

  • 8.
    Ameen, Noor
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Safawizadeh, Hassan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Visualizing Material on Site for Machines and Humans: A Step toward an Autonomous Construction Site2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has not seen the same growth in productivity as e.g. the manufacturing- and automobile industry. This is largely due to the ease of implementing automation and robotics in the latter mentioned industries. Now more than before when the urbanization rate is increasing, there is a strong need in increasing the efficiency of the construction industry. That is why the research questions of this thesis work involves finding a complementary solution that will help autonomous construction machines operate in a dynamic construction site. The aim is permeated by two visions. The first one being to have autonomous construction machines collaborating with humans in the most remote places in the world. The second vision is that multiple smaller construction machines is more beneficial. Meaning a few machine breakdowns would not halt the entire construction process.

    During the research work, using the design research methodology and the innovation process, data showed that a construction site is very dynamic and complex. Having a change in factors such as size of construction site, number of involved stakeholders, location of the construction site, and time phase heavily affects the complexity of the site. Throughout the three case studies there were different characteristics, but there was a pattern. All the mentioned factors played a huge role in what needs expressed by the interviewees. The more complex a site was, the more there was a need to organize the material, personnel and machine flow. Therefore, the final solution is to decentralize the information flow of the construction site. Meaning that all humans, machines and material on site is to communicate its information. The suggested solution is the usage of a tag using GPS and Wi-Fi to communicate location and the necessary information. Thus, when attaching the tag onto a material, the workers and the machine will know of its information.

    The analogy is that when the implementation of autonomous machines is up to pace, the sites need to be prepared with all the errors and issues that might come with it. Since the autonomous construction machines will be collaborating with humans, it means that the issues expressed today will reappear in the future. Also, since the implementation of autonomy and robotics has been slow for the construction industry, there is a clear need of a complementary solution to speed up the process. By decentralizing the construction site and implementing tags on each interesting point, the once complex and changing construction site, will turn into a fully digitized infrastructure.

  • 9.
    An, Hai
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Gu, Lujun
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Main Success Factors for Developing Car-sharing in China2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 10.
    Andersson, Carolina
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Fritidsbåt för alla2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett fysiskt handikapp kan innebära stora begränsningar i livet. För de som sitter i rullstol kan det vara mycket svårt eller till och med omöjligt att förflytta sig dit de vill och få uppleva aktiviteter som personer utan handikapp tar för givet. Det här kandidatarbetet har haft som syfte att ta fram en handikappanordning som ska göra det möjligt för rullstolsburna att kunna ta sig ombord och iland från fritidsbåtar. Det finns redan olika lösningar på marknaden som syftar till att möjliggöra en sådan förflyttning, men målet med det här arbetet har varit att ta fram en lösning som är annorlunda jämfört med de befintliga lösningarna framförallt vad gäller möjligheten till att använda den från båten istället för från kaj, samt att den ska kunna installeras till en rimlig kostnad och dess design ska passa flertalet fritidsbåtar utan alltför stora krav på båtens utformning. 

    Det viktigaste kravet på produkten är att den ska vara säker att använda. Det får inte föreligga någon risk för personskada. Andra krav som ställdes upp när problembeskrivningen arbetades fram är att anordningen ska vara enkel att använda. Installationen ska vara möjlig att göra i flertalet fritidsbåtar till en rimlig kostnad. Detta för att ett plötsligt behov av rullstolsanpassning inte nödvändigtvis ska behöva innebära inköp av en ny båt. Produkten ska vara hållbar (kunna vara monterad och användas under många år) och inte kräva service under den primära utnyttjandeperioden (under sommaren). Under utvecklingen togs hänsyn till miljöaspekter i val av tillverkningsmetoder och materialval. 

    Det slutliga produktförslaget, som arbetats fram efter att ha gjort flertalet analyser och utvärderingar av på marknaden befintliga lösningar, är en mast som monteras i durken på båten. Masten har ett stödben som placeras på bryggan/kaj, vilket ger stabilitet och därmed hög säkerhet för användaren. Detta då motorbåtar inte har en köl som kan fungera som motvikt för den sidobelastning som ombordstigningen innebär. 

  • 11.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Andersson, Peter
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Konceptlösning för upptagning av kabel ur karusell2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samarbete med Semcon i Karlskrona utvecklades en konceptlösning för upptagning av kabel ur en karusell med två fack. Kabeln ägde en diameter på 300 mm samt en vikt på 160 kg/m. Flertalet konceptförslag togs fram via brainstorming varav ett sållades fram med hjälp av Pughs konceptvalsmatris.

    Lösningen blev en arm vilken vilar på ett stödfackverk. Armens ände är krökt så att den matchar kabelns bockningsradie. Armen kan translatera i sidled med hjälp av en puck belägen i skenor. Dessa skenor är klädda med Robalonplast för en bra glidyta. Translationen genomförs med hjälp av vinsch och vajer. I armens bakre ände återfinns ett gångjärn vilket möjlig rotation kring stödpelaren. I karusellens centrum finns en centrumaxel vilken den inre stödpelaren är fäst mot.

    Samtliga de stänger vilka används är varmbearbetade rektangulära konstruktionsrör då dessa anses vara fördelaktiga ur ett tillverkningsperspektiv. Fackverkskonstruktionen dimensionerades gentemot knäckning, tryckning, dragning och skjuvning. Dimensionering gjordes även av de svets-, och skruvförband, vilka fogar samman konstruktionen.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Sildén, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Vidareutveckling av parkeringsbroms2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis report is the final work and summary for Bachelor of Science degree in Product Development. The program has emphasis in Mechanical Engineering, at Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2016.

    This assignment consists of a continued research and development study of a conceptual brake caliper operated by an electric servo-assisted motor.

    In the current situation there is a concept both as a CAD model and a 3D-printed physical plastic model of a parking brake. After a prolonged investigation seems to have brake for large physical dimensions, high weight, as well as for complex surface geometry. Another important part is that you do not in the current situation have found a suitable electric motor for the linear movement required for functionality to be maintained. Which led to the desire to explore the opportunities that exist to improve these points.

    The assignment has led to a series of improvements through further development based on the earlier concept proposal which found new solution proposals and component taking into account the comments they had regarding previous design and technical solutions. These design improvements have very little or no negative impact of previously established requirements and requests for the product, which has been seen as very positive.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Lu, Anqi
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Elektriskt drivsystem för tandemvält: En utvecklingsprocess2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle har det blivit mer och mer populärt med miljövänliga lösningar. Inom detta område har fordonsindustrin utmärkt sig de senaste åren genom utvecklandet av eldrivna bilar. Därför börjar även företagen som utvecklar tunga maskiner bli intresserade av att börja utveckla mer miljövänliga produkter.

     

    Syftet med arbetet som vi utfört i samarbete med Dynapac Compaction Equipment AB i Karlskrona har varit att utveckla ett koncept till en lösning av ett miljövänligt drivsystem för deras minsta tandemvält. Det är tänkt att motsvara den vardagliga prestationen av det dieseldrivna systemet, utan att bli för dyrt, samt undvika att använda specialbeställda produkter.

  • 14.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Mechanics and Failure in Thin Material Layers: Towards Realistic Package Opening Simulations2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The final goal of this PhD-work is an efficient and user-friendly finite element modelling strategy targeting an industrial available package opening application.  In order to reach this goal, different experimental mechanical and fracture mechanical tests were continuously refined to characterize the studied materials. Furthermore, the governing deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties involved in the opening sequence were quantified with full field experimental techniques to extract the intrinsic material response. An identification process to calibrate the material model parameters with inverse modelling analysis is proposed. Constitutive models, based on the experimental results for the two continuum materials, aluminium and polymer materials, and how to address the progressive damage modelling have been concerned in this work. The results and methods considered are general and can be applied in other industries where polymer and metal material are present.                                                                   

    This work has shown that it is possible to select constitutive material models in conjunction with continuum material damage models, adequately predicting the mechanical behaviour in thin laminated packaging materials. Finally, with a slight modification of already available techniques and functionalities in a commercial general-purpose finite element software, it was possible to build a simulation model replicating the physical behaviour of an opening device. A comparison of the results between the experimental opening and the virtual opening model showed a good correlation.

    The advantage with the developed modelling approach is that it is possible to modify the material composition of the laminate. Individual material layers can be altered, and the mechanical properties, thickness or geometrical shape can be changed. Furthermore, the model is flexible and a new opening design with a different geometry and load case can easily be implemented and changed in the simulation model. Therefore, this type of simulation model is prepared to simulate sustainable materials in packages and will be a useful tool for decision support early in the concept selection in technology and development projects.

  • 15.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Realistic Package Opening Simulations: An Experimental Mechanics and Physics Based Approach2015Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A finite element modeling strategy targeting package opening simulations is the final goal with this work. The developed simulation model will be used to proactively predict the opening compatibility early in the development process of a new opening device and/or a new packaging material. To be able to create such a model, the focus is to develop a combined and integrated physical/virtual test procedure for mechanical characterization and calibration of thin packaging materials. Furthermore, the governing mechanical properties of the materials involved in the opening performance needs to be identified and quantified with experiments. Different experimental techniques complemented with video recording equipment were refined and utilized during the course of work. An automatic or semi-automatic material model parameter identification process involving video capturing of the deformation process and inverse modeling is proposed for the different packaging material layers. Both an accurate continuum model and a damage material model, used in the simulation model, were translated and extracted from the experimental test results. The results presented show that it is possible to select constitutive material models in conjunction with continuum material damage models, adequately predicting the mechanical behavior of intended failure in thin laminated packaging materials. A thorough material mechanics understanding of individual material layers evolution of microstructure and the micro mechanisms involved in the deformation process is essential for appropriate selection of numerical material models. Finally, with a slight modification of already available techniques and functionalities in the commercial finite element software AbaqusTM it was possible to build the suitable simulation model. To build a realistic simulation model an accurate description of the geometrical features is important. Therefore, advancements within the experimental visualization techniques utilizing a combination of video recording, photoelasticity and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the micro structure have enabled extraction of geometries and additional information from ordinary standard experimental tests. Finally, a comparison of the experimental opening and the virtual opening, showed a good correlation with the developed finite element modeling technique. The advantage with the developed modeling approach is that it is possible to modify the material composition of the laminate. Individual material layers can be altered and the mechanical properties, thickness or geometrical shape can be changed. Furthermore, the model is flexible and a new opening device i.e. geometry and load case can easily be adopted in the simulation model. Therefore, this type of simulation model is a useful tool and can be used for decision support early in the concept selection of development projects.

  • 16.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Jönsson, Joel
    Tetra Pak, SWE.
    Advancements in package opening simulations2014Ingår i: Procedia Materials Science / [ed] Zhang, Z; Skallerud, B; Thaulow, C; Ostby, E; He, J, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 3, s. 1441-1446Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fracture mechanical phenomenon occurring during the opening of a beverage package is rather complex to simulate. Reliable and calibrated numerical material models describing thin layers of packaging materials are needed. Selection of appropriate constitutive models for the continuum material models and how to address the progressive damage modeling in various loading scenarios is also of great importance. The inverse modeling technique combined with video recording of the involved deformation mechanisms is utilized for identification of the material parameters. Large deformation, anisotropic non-linear material behavior, adhesion and fracture mechanics are all identified effects that are needed to be included in the virtual opening model. The results presented in this paper shows that it is possible to select material models in conjunction with continuum material damage models, adequately predicting the mechanical behavior of failure in thin laminated packaging materials. Already available techniques and functionalities in the commercial finite element software Abaqus are used. Furthermore, accurate descriptions of the included geometrical features are important. Advancements have therefore also been made within the experimental techniques utilizing a combination of microCT-scan, SEM and photoelasticity enabling extraction of geometries and additional information from ordinary experimental tests and broken specimens. Finally, comparison of the experimental opening and the virtual opening, showed a good correlation with the developed finite element modeling technique.

  • 17.
    Andreasson, Eskil
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Lindström, Tommy
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Käck, Britta
    Altair Engineering AB, SWE.
    Malmberg, Christoffer
    Saab AB, SWE.
    Asp, Ann Magret
    Tetra Pak AB, SWE.
    Simulation of thin aluminium-foil in the packaging industry2017Ingår i: AIP Conference Proceedings / [ed] Brabazon D.,Ul Ahad I.,Naher S., American Institute of Physics Inc. , 2017, Vol. 1896, artikel-id 160014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work present an approach of how to account for the anisotropic mechanical material behaviour in the simulation models of the thin aluminium foil layer (≈10 μm) used in the Packaging Industry. Furthermore, the experimental results from uniaxial tensile tests are parameterised into an analytical expression and the slope of the hardening subsequently extended way beyond the experimental data points. This in order to accommodate the locally high stresses present in the experiments at the neck formation. An analytical expression, denominated Ramberg-Osgood, is used to describe the non-linear mechanical behaviour. Moreover it is possible with a direct method to translate the experimental uniaxial tensile test results into useful numerical material model parameters in Abaqus™. In addition to this the extended material behaviour including the plastic flow i.e. hardening, valid after onset of localisation, the described procedure can also capture the microscopic events, i.e. geometrical thinning, ongoing in the deformation of the aluminium foil. This method has earlier successfully been applied by Petri Mäkelä for paperboard material [1]. The engineering sound and parameterised description of the mechanical material behaviour facilitates an efficient categorisation of different aluminium foil alloys and aid the identification of the correct anisotropic (RD/TD/45°) mechanical material behaviour derived from the physical testing. © 2017 Author(s).

  • 18.
    Asbjorn Sorensen, Charlotte
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola, SWE.
    Warell, Anders
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Jagtap, Santosh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Material selection: A qualitative case study of five design consultancies2017Ingår i: DS87-1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 1: RESOURCE SENSITIVE DESIGN, DESIGN RESEARCH APPLICATIONS AND CASE STUDIES / [ed] Maier, A; Skec, S; Kim, H; Kokkolaras, M; Oehmen, J; Fadel, G; Salustri, F; VanDerLoos, M, The Design Society, 2017, nr DS87-1, s. 439-448, artikel-id DS87-1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative case study aims at understanding when and how industrial designers, working in design consultancies, engage in activities that will influence material selection in the design process. While the extant literature presents material selection processes as a sequence of activities aimed at finding candidate materials, there is paucity of research on material criteria activities. Formulating material criteria is an activity that is performed during all design phases and they become clearer and more complete throughout the project. For the case studies, explorative semi-structured interviews were conducted with five industrial designers with 10 years of work experience or more. The results suggest (a) that risk management has a major influence on the material selection process, (b) that negotiations of project boundaries in the 'fuzzy' pre-design phase has crucial influence on the risk management aspect of the material criteria activities, and (c) a lack of awareness that design briefs usually outline material criteria expressed as sensorial characteristics, which are later translated by engineering into final material criteria used for the material selection process.

  • 19.
    Asbjörn Sörensen, Charlotte
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola, SWE.
    Jagtap, Santosh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Warell, Anders
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    A shift from technical properties towards sensorial characteristics in product design education2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education:: Building Community: Design Education for a Sustainable Future / [ed] Gulden T.,Pavel N.,Kovacevic A.,Buck L.,Bohemia E.,Berg A., Institution of Engineering Designers, The Design Society , 2017, s. 388-393Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a new pedagogic approach implemented in a compulsory materials course for product design students at bachelors level at ABC University. When developing a new curriculum for the material course, a decision was made to teach materials and production methods in a contextualized setting with emphasis on how students can deal with materials in a design process. Methods can be seen as mental tools that aid the design students in navigating complexity and offers them a structure to deal with unfamiliar territories. After an evaluation, some methods, guidelines and tools were selected to integrate in the compulsory materials course for the product design students, e.g. the Expressive-Sensorial Atlas [1], Meaning Driven Materials Selection [2] and the Material Driven Design method [3]. The implementation is made in two steps in order to test, evaluate and further develop a framework for teaching materials courses to product design students. The study evaluate the first step of implementation in general, and the implementation of the Material Driven Design method in particular. It is hoped that this research can contribute to further development of pedagogical approaches for teaching materials and production methods in a contextualized setting for product design students at bachelors level.

  • 20.
    BAKTASH, IMAN
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating of Multi-coil Inductors in Railway Traction Systems2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Inductors are frequently used in railway electrical tractions systems in

    filtering and current limiting operations. Magnetic fields are generated due

    to the flow of large AC currents through the coils, which intend induce

    currents on the coils as well as the metallic components in the vicinity,

    causing electromagnetic heating. The heating may cause temperatures to

    exceed project temperature requirements and in the worst case distort the

    functionality of drive system. The purpose of this work is to simulate the

    Electromagnetic Heating effect of inductors in 3D using COMSOL Multiphysics.

    First a 3D CAD model of the inductor geometry is imported to

    COMSOL and the magnetic fields for a giving current excitation are

    estimated. Then the power losses are fed in to a heat flow simulation to

    predict the temperature distributions. Cooling is simulated by driving cool

    air through the heated coils and the surrounding metal objects. The

    temperature distributions for different current excitations and air flow

    velocities are estimated. Simulation is performed on conceptual project

    inductor model. The 3D inductor modeling approach established in this thesis

    work could be used to characterize the electromagnetic heating issues early

    in the project design phase.

     

  • 21.
    Bandari, Shiva Ram
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Investigation on Flow Control Valve by CFD Simulation2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In a water distribution system, Flow Control Valve is used to control the flow rate in the pipeline connections. In this thesis, a fixed flow control valve is investigated to reduce the flow rate and set to deliver the pre-set flow of 5-6 LPM (litre per minute). Which helps to distribute the water for a maximum period and maintains the usage only for the drinking purpose. A geometry of FCV with a ball check valve is implemented, where the ball check helps to stop the back flow of the fluid from the valve. Detailed inspection of dynamic changes in pressure and flow velocity in the valve are conducted through simulation. The study of fluid properties describes the expected design and specifies the flow structure in the valve. The results of this project demonstrate a good performance of the design-build and influence the requirements. The obtained values in the simulation, analytical and experimental results are compatible, which concludes the survey of FCV is equipped to custom.

  • 22.
    Bankaoglu, Cagatay
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    IMPACT FAILURE ASSESSMENT ON CRUSHER DISK BY RIGID AND ELASTO-PLASTIC BODY APPROXIMATIONS2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Rigid and elasto-plastic body simulations and analytical methods were carried out to identify and assess impact forces based on their contact durations and force magnitudes. Based on the estimations, most severe cases were simulated in ABAQUS to assess the possible damage on crusher disk component of crusher machines, designed and manufactured by MRT System Karlskrona. Further analyses were carried out to combine both impact force estimations and damage assessment. It was concluded that studied case of impact was not a likely scenario to cause the damage occurring under normal operation conditions in the studied type of crusher machines with the material properties considered in this work.

  • 23.
    Benaim, Andre
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Andreas
    The implementation of Innovation Metrics: A case study2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the implementation process of an innovation measuring system prototype to support a heavy machinery multinational company to secure their innovative capability. In general,companies recognize the importance of becoming innovative to become, or remain, competitive on a global market. The case company decided to pilot a metric system that corresponds to the crucial factors to secure innovative capability and work with the stepwise improvement based on the assessment results.

    The methods are based on design-research approach and participatory action research. Interviews, surveys and observation were used, as well as, workshops were conducted to develop and follow up the implementation innovation measuring system.

    The findings explore topics and open questions related to metric selection, purpose and use of the selected indicators, as well as challenges related to the implementation of the metric system. Some of the conclusions question the viability of measuring project teams, as well as, it suggests the need for further research to clarify whether team metrics need to be develop in parallel to organizational ones.

  • 24.
    Benaim, Andre
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Becoming An Innovative Company: Assessing An Organization’s Innovation Capability From The Perspective Of A Team2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature points out the need for companies to innovate continuously. Such need requires that companies develop capacities to exploit and improve current work as well as to develop and explore more radical opportunities. This paper is a case study that investigates the innovation capabilities of a multinational manufacturing company by interviewing a group that is mandate to support the development of those capabilities. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews, which were based on the categories of a framework previously developed. The findings speak about the importance of setting clear processes for continuation and implementation of ideas, adequate allocation of resources and management support. The discussion and conclusion are about the importance of the integration of efforts in different organizational levels and some of the future challenges integrating the innovation efforts into a natural way of working.

  • 25.
    Berglind, Robin
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Impact of Sidewall Pressure on High Voltage Cables2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    When a high voltage cable is transported throughout factory it is affected by sidewall pressure in cable bends between the roller supports and the cable. The problem is when the sidewall pressure is too high it will deform the cable which can have a negative impact on the conductivity of the cable. The roller supports can also get damaged because of fatigue. These negative consequences are the subject to exploration by implementing known analytical solution of contact mechanics developed by Hertz together with finite element analysis and experimental testing.

     

    Two possible methods of measuring the radial force is studied to be able adjust the roller supports positions to reduce the sidewall pressure on the cable. The first one is to use the pressure film to determine the radial force. The second one is to by measuring the compression in cable to thereafter translate it to radial force by having the relation between compression and radial force for the specific cable.

     

    Two different types of high voltage cables, a direct current (DC) cable and an alternating current (AC) cable is studied by using finite element method and experimental tests to see the relation between the compression and radial force in the cable. Also in these experimental tests the pressure films are used and evaluated to see if this measuring technique combined with Hertzian’s theory make it possible determining the radial force.

     

    For the method of using the pressure films to determine the radial force the result shows it is difficult to translate the pressure from the films to radial force for a high voltage because of the cable’s armouring wires. The conclusion about these the pressure films is that they are good to use to describe the compression and can be used as relative measurement between the rollers but not for determine the radial force.

     

    The result shows it is a possible to describe relation between compression and radial force for a high voltage cable and use this information to determine the radial force by measuring the compression. But the conclusion is that it is ineffective and less accurate way of measuring the radial force.

     

    These results from this thesis are important for further research within the area and they help creating a greater understanding of sidewall pressure related problems in cables.

  • 26.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    A Reverse Engineering Role-Play to Teach Systems Engineering Methods2019Ingår i: Education Sciences, ISSN 2227-7102, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Students engaged in systems engineering education typically lack experience and understanding of the multidisciplinary complexity of systems engineering projects. Consequently, students struggle to understand the value, rationale, and usefulness of established systems engineering methods, often perceiving them as banal or trivial. The paper presents a learning activity based on a three-stage reverse engineering role-play developed to increase students’ awareness of the importance of correctly using systems engineering methods. The activity was developed and integrated in the Systems Engineering course given at Blekinge Institute of Technology. Its effectiveness was analyzed through semistructured self-reflection reports along with two editions of the course. The results showed the development of students’ understanding of how to use systems engineering methods. In particular, the students realized the need to deliver detailed and easy-to-read models to the decision makers. This result was in line with the achievement of some of the intended learning outcomes of the course.

  • 27.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Introducing value driven design in engineering education: teaching the use of value models in preliminary designIngår i: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods and approaches for teaching engineering disciplines are evolving to adapt to the

    needs of companies and society. Engineering Design is one of the areas most influenced by

    such changes and constantly striving to develop more effective and efficient strategies to

    prepare the soon-to-be engineers to face the challenges of a real working environment. This

    paper presents an approach used to teach the use of value models for concept trade-off in

    the preliminary design phase, in line with the industrial challenges highlighted by the literature

    on Value Driven Design. The approach is based on realistic design sessions assigning

    to master students a value assessment challenge. The paper describes the rationale of the

    approach, its set-up, and a validation activity run to compare the performances of the students

    with those of industrial practitioners. The results of the study show that the students

    taking part in the design sessions can produce results that do not statistically differ from

    those of industrial practitioners. Moreover, the students’ self-reflection on the achievement

    of the intended learning outcomes show a high satisfaction toward the achievement of the

    educational objectives.

  • 28.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Role and Challenges of Data-Driven Design in the Product Innovation Process2018Ingår i: IFAC PAPERSONLINE, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 51, nr 11, s. 1107-1112, artikel-id No. 11Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the role and the challenges of integrating Data-Driven Design (DDD) models in the product innovation process. Firstly, based on academic literature on the Product Innovation Value Streamsand on Model-Based Decision Supports, the paper highlights how and when the use of DDD models can support a more effective product innovation process. Secondly, it highlights a list of challenges to be considered for the development of new DDD models for decision support. Ultimately, those challenges are formalized in an evaluation matrix intended to guide the further development of DDD.

  • 29.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Amnell, Henrik
    Isaksson, Ola
    Value modelling in aerospace sub-system design: linking quantitative and qualitative assessment2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a prototype of a value model where engineering design teams can play with costand value data in a semi-structured way. In particular, the value model serves to facilitatecommunication of multidimensional information during preliminary design analysis and to visualizesuch information in a unique environment. The model first automatically generates, from the output ofa computer-based simulation, a quantitative assessment of manufacturer costs and customer costsaving of a set on different configuration of the same design concept. Second, it couples to the resultsa qualitative assessment of concept risks and product and process commonalities. Third, it allows anassessment of the concept impact on customer “ilities” (maintainability, survivability, scalability,flexibility). The model has been developed in collaboration with an aerospace sub-systemmanufacturer and it ultimately aims to enable the maturation of the knowledge about cost and valueaspects among the design team since the preliminary stages of design.

  • 30.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Modeling ‘ilities’ in early Product-Service Systems design2019Ingår i: Procedia CiRP, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 83, s. 230-235Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems, like all complex systems, are vulnerable to unpredictable environmental changes that can seriously undermine their ability to continuously deliver value to customers. The long-term consequences of volatile markets, unanticipated technologies, and unpredictable changes in society must be captured, modeled and communicated to decision makers since the earliest stages of the design, so to identify sustainable PSS solutions able to deliver value for years or decades to come. The paper analyses the problem of PSS changeability from the perspective of established medium-large product manufacturers facing the transition toward result-oriented PSS offers. Building on established literature in the systems engineering field, the paper proposes the definition of the changeability criteria, also named ‘ilities’, that are relevant to consider for PSS engineers in the early stages of design. Furthermore, the paper describes a systematic framework for assessing ilities in early PSS design, elaborating on technological enablers for ilities modeling.

  • 31.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    PSS cost engineering: A model-based approach for concept design2018Ingår i: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies are increasingly moving toward delivering combinations of products and services to provide higher value to their customers. The development of such Product Service Systems (PSS) escalates in complexity when several products developed by different suppliers need to be integrated into a unique system. For first tier suppliers, it is a great challenge to model and simulate the impact of changing design variables at the micro-level on both hardware properties and governing behaviours of services over the entire life-cycle of the PSS. The paper describes a model-based approach developed to estimate the life cycle cost of a PSS hardware already at a concept design stage.  The proposed approach computes the relative cost efficiency of a set of design variants using as input the data generated by the simulations run in the Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) environment. The approach allows the exploration of the design space of a PSS given by the variation of the geometry of a Computer Aided Design (CAD) model, building on the computation of customised cost modules selected by a generic list of PSS cost dimensions. For each evaluated design case, the model produces as output a unique monetary figure of the cost expected to incur by owning or using the asset throughout the lifetime. The work has been conducted in collaboration with a tier-one aerospace component manufacturer, and the application of the model is exemplified through a case study related to the development of a turbine rear structure (TRS) for commercial jet engines. The approach is most suitable for the development of complex systems in which new products and components are integrated into a shared product platform. The results are discussed in relation to the current literature on PSS cost engineering, highlighting challenges to be addressed to increase cost estimation accuracy and increase uncertainty identification and awareness.

  • 32.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    SUPPORTING EARLY STAGE SET-BASED CONCURRENT ENGINEERING WITH VALUE DRIVEN DESIGN2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, Cambridge University Press, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Set-Based Concurrent Engineering is commonly adopted to drive the development of complex products and systems. However, its application requires design information about a future product that is often not mature enough in the early design stages, and that it is not encompassing a service and lifecycle- oriented perspective. There is a need for manufacturers to understand, since the early design stages, how customer value is created along the lifecycle of a product from a hardware and service perspective, and how to use such information to screen radically new technologies, trade-off promising design configurations and commit to a design concept. The paper presents an approach for the multidisciplinary value assessment of design concepts in sub-systems design, encompassing the high-level concept screening and the trade-off of different design concepts, and enabling the integration of value models results into a Set-based Concurrent Engineering process. The approach is described through its application in the case study of the development of a subsystem component for a commercial aircraft engine.

  • 33.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Analysing the effects of value drivers and knowledge maturity in preliminary design decision-making.2015Ingår i: ICED 15, VOL 10: DESIGN INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, Design Society , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the results of a three-days experiment to test the use of informationfrom a value assessment model and from a knowledge maturity scale in decisionmakingin preliminary design. A visual analogue scale was used to collect individualinformation from designers through questionnaires. Bivariate statistical analysis wasapplied to study the correlations between both the use of value drivers and knowledgematurity and the designers' awareness of the design problem to be addressed. Resultsshow that value drivers and knowledge maturity information increase the decisionmakers’ awareness of (1) the different perceptions of design team members about theneeds to be satisfied and (2) the technical solution to be developed in the productconcept under consideration.

  • 34.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Tobias, Larsson
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Expanding Value Driven Design to meet Lean Product Service Development2015Ingår i: 7TH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS CONFERENCE: IPSS, INDUSTRY TRANSFORMATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND BUSINESS / [ed] Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 30, s. 197-202Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a discussion about gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between Value Driven Design and Lean Product Service Development to promote the use of value-driven method and tools since the preliminary design stages. In particular the paper discusses how methods and tools developed in Value Driven Design have the potential to be applied in the preliminary design stage in the context of Lean Product Service Development. The paper concludes by defining a research area on Value Innovation method and tools for preliminary Lean Product Service Development.

  • 35.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Dasari, Siva Krishna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datalogi och datorsystemteknik.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling.
    Petter, Andersson
    GKN Aerospace Systems , SWE.
    Model-based decision support for value and sustainability assessment: Applying machine learning in aerospace product development2018Ingår i: DS92: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2018 15th International Design Conference / [ed] Marjanović D., Štorga M., Škec S., Bojčetić N., Pavković N, The Design Society, 2018, Vol. 6, s. 2585-2596Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a prescriptive approach toward the integration of value and sustainability models in an automated decision support environment enabled by machine learning (ML). The approach allows the concurrent multidimensional analysis of design cases complementing mechanical simulation results with value and sustainability assessment. ML allows to deal with both qualitative and quantitative data and to create surrogate models for quicker design space exploration. The approach has been developed and preliminary implemented in collaboration with a major aerospace sub-system manufacturer.

  • 36.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Hallstedt, Sophie
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för strategisk hållbar utveckling. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Dasari, Siva Krishna
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Petter
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, SWE.
    Integration of Value and Sustainability Assessment in Design Space Exploration by Machine Learning: An Aerospace Application2019Ingår i: Design ScienceArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Data Mining in Product Service Systems Design: Literature Review and Research Questions2017Ingår i: Procedia CIRP / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, s. 306-311Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a literature review about data mining applications in Product/Service-Systems (PSS) design. A systematic literature review, combined with snowballing techniques, has been run to identify relevant contributions in the area. The analysis has focused on the categorization of the contributions according to their impact on the PSS design process and according to their theoretical or empirical nature. A picture of the different research achievements for each stage of the PSS design process have been drawn, identifying the research gaps in respect to the challenges of PSS design. Based on the analysis the paper proposes a set of research questions for each PSS design stage with the intent of facilitating the application of data mining techniques in PSS design, and ultimately push forward the state of the art.

  • 38.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Scania Group, SWE.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Volvo Construction Equipment, SWE.
    Mining data to design value: a demonstrator in early design2017Ingår i: DS87-7 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 7: DESIGN THEORY AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY / [ed] Fadel G.,Salustri F.,Kim H.,Skec S.,Van der Loos M.,Maier A.M.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 7, s. 21-29, artikel-id DS87-7Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a study run to verify the applicability of data mining algorithms as

    decision support in early design stages of a product development project. The paper

    describes a two-stage scenario providing the rationale for the application of data science in

    engineering design. Furthermore, it describes a demonstrator showing how data can be fed

    back to the early design stages and can be used to populate models to reduce uncertainty in

    decision making. A wheel loader for constructions works is the reference product for the

    demonstration. Data mining is applied on a dataset built on machine performances and

    contextual and environmental data. The demonstrator focuses on the estimation of the fuel

    consumption of alternative design concepts and estimates the performance variations given

    different contextual variable. Finally, a way of visualizing the results of the data analysis in

    relation to the tested and expected performances is presented.

  • 39.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Levandowski, Christoffer
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Virtual Modeling for Lifecycle Performance Assessment in aerospace design2016Ingår i: Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle / [ed] Cavalieri, S; Ceretti, E; Tolio, T; Pezzotta, G, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, s. 335-340Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to present an approach for the multidisciplinary evaluation of alternative modular concepts in preliminary design with the intent of enhancing engineers’ capability to simulate alternative scenarios with different design configurations, so to derive decisions about the most valuable design concepts to further develop. The research contribution is novel in the way that it expands the Set-Based-Engineering approach by addressing the “servitization” challenge in two ways: firstly by the use of value models and sustainability models as decision making support, making possible a preliminary assessment of the value contribution and of the sustainability performances of a design concept;secondly, by the use of functional modelling modules and configurable systems elements for platform-based design, to manage the  complex relationships within and between parts of the platform throughout the lifecycle. The paper presents the main features of the approach and introduces an industrial case concerning the development of a module component for an aircraft engine in which the approach is applied for demonstration. The paper finally elaborates on the benefits and implications of the approach in the design process.

  • 40.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Marco, Bertoni
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Value-driven product service systems development: Methods and industrial applications2016Ingår i: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 15, s. 42-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times a service-dominant logic is permeating the design of complex systems. However, in spite of their appeal, initiatives such as Product Service Systems (PSS) have not become mainstream, and methods are lacking to support this transition. This paper argues that methodological guidance, as well as tools for decision support, may be found in the research field of Value Driven Design (VDD), which originates in the realm of Systems Engineering. The paper objective is to elaborate on gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between VDD and PSS. The results of a systematic review of methods and tools for design decision support highlight the opportunity for introducing optimization models derived from VDD in the PSS design process, while the latter can enrich VDD research with a more qualitative value assessment logic. The paper summarizes this integration in a methodological approach, and exemplifies its application in case studies mainly from the aerospace and road construction equipment sector.

  • 41.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Introducing Sustainability in Value Models to Support Design Decision Making: A Systematic Review2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikel-id 994Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing organizations shall recognize sustainability as a business occasion to capitalize on, rather than an undesirable pressing situation. Still, empirical evidence shows that this opportunity is hard to capture and communicate in global strategic decisions, through planning by tactical management, to daily operational activities. This paper systematically reviews the modeling challenges at the crossroad of value and sustainability decisions making, spotlighting methods and tools proposed in literature to link sustainability to customer value creation at strategic, tactical and operational level. While statistical results show that the topic of sustainability and value modeling is trending in literature, findings from content analysis reveal that recent attempts to promote a value-based view in the sustainability discussion remain at a strategic level, with most of the proposed indicators being suited for managerial decision-making. The lack of support at operational level points to the opportunity of cross-pollinating sustainability research with value-centered methodologies originating from the aerospace sector. The Value Driven Design framework is proposed as main hub from which to derive models supporting engineers and technology developers in the identification of win-win-win situations, where sustainable improvements are aligned with business advantages.

  • 42.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Sustainability and Value Assessment in Early PSS Design2019Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 1952-1979, artikel-id 1952Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is increasingly recognized as a key innovation capability in the organization. However, it is not always evident for manufacturers how sustainability targets shall be “mixed and matched” with more traditional objectives—such as quality, time, cost, and performances—when designing and developing solutions. The emergence of “servitization” and product-service systems (PSS) further emphasizes the need for making thoughtful trade-offs between technical aspects, business strategies, and environmental benefits of a design. The objective of this paper is to investigate how multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) models shall be applied to down-select PSS concepts from a value perspective, by considering sustainability as one of the attributes of a design contributing to the overall value of a solution. Emerging from the findings of a multiple case study in the aerospace and construction sector, the paper presents a five-step iterative process to support decision making for sustainable PSS design, which was further applied to design an electrical load carrier. The findings show that the proposed approach creates a “hub” where argumentations related to “value” and “sustainability” of PSS solution concepts can be systematically captured in a way that supports the discussion on the appropriate quantification strategy.

  • 43.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    WORK INTEGRATION SOCIAL ENTERPRISES: A TESTBED FOR CHALLENGE-BASED LEARNING?2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th international CDIO Conference, Aarhus university , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISE) are a particular enterprise form permeated by a so-called ‘double business idea’. Besides the commercial imperative of providing product and services, WISE offer employment and training opportunities for individuals considered less able to compete in mainstream labour markets. The paper argues that this multiple goal structure makes WISE an ideal testbed for Challenge-Based Learning (CBL). The latter deepens both problem-based learning and CDIO, by featuring open-ended problems that stress an entrepreneurial, value-driven and sustainable approach to problem formulation and decision-making. The aim of this paper is to describe how real-life design projects conducted in collaboration with WISE take CBL a step forward compared with those involving more ‘traditional’ enterprise forms. Evidence is gathered along 4 main lines of thought, which are: 1) iterative problem formulating and designing; 2) entrepreneurial mindset and of value-driven learning; 3) social sustainability-aware designing; and 4) social-constructed learning. The findings indicate that WISE-based design experiences bring forward additional characteristics compared with more ‘traditional’ engineering ones. Students are able to expand the scope and depth of their problem identification and formulation activities, due to the continuous dialogue with a broad range of stakeholders, enthusiasts, and volunteers. They become more aware of the multifaceted meaning of the word ‘value’ in engineering, realizing the existence of competing value systems for the design problem. Eventually their decision-making activities emphasizes the pursuit of different goals and objectives (e.g., technical feasibility, business viability, and sustainable development) in the design process.

  • 44.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Iterative value models generation in the engineering design process2019Ingår i: Design Science, Vol. 5, artikel-id e18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Value models are increasingly discussed today as a means to frontload conceptual design activities in engineering design, with the final goal of reducing cost and rework associated with sub-optimal decisions made from a system perspective. However, there is no shared agreement in the research community about what a value model exactly is, how many types of value models are there, their inputoutput relationships and their usage along the engineering design process timeline. Emerging from five case studies conducted in the aerospace and in the construction equipment industry, this paper describes how to tailor the development of value models in the engineering design process. The initial descriptive study findings are summarized in the form of seven lessons learned that shall be taken into account when designing valuemodels for design decision support. From these lessons, the paper proposes a six-step framework that considers the need to update the nature and definition of value models as far as new information becomes available,moving from initial estimations based on expert judgment to detailed quantitative analysis.

  • 45.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Models for Value-driven engineering design2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Design Conference / [ed] Marjanovic, D; Storga, M; Bojcetic, N; Skec, S, DESIGN SOC, UNIV STRATHCLYDE , 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, it is a great challenge to understand what models shall be used to iteratively translate customer desires into terms that are meaningful for engineering design decision-making. This paper proposes a framework illustrating the iterative evolution of model-based enablers for value during conceptual system design. The framework is developed from the analysis of four case studies in the Swedish manufacturing industry. The paper discusses the learning from the cross-case study, and elaborates on how value models may complement existing Systems Engineering practices.

  • 46.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Nonlinear Quality Function Deployment: an experimental analysis2017Ingår i: DS87-4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 4: DESIGN METHODS AND TOOLS / [ed] Maier, A; Skec, S; Kim, H; Kokkolaras, M; Oehmen, J; Fadel, G; Salustri, F; VanDerLoos, M, The Design Society, 2017, s. 99-108Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a common model to frontload engineering design activities with, linking the characteristics of a product vs. the voice of the customer using linear relationships. This approximation is often claimed to be misleading when dealing with the design of complex engineering systems. The paper presents the results of experimental activities aimed at verifying usability and effectiveness of nonlinear functions as extension of the QFD logic. A total of 40 experiments was conducted in a given design episode, involving 139 participants, to analyse the trade-off between the benefit of introducing nonlinearity vs. effort and cost triggered by increased complexity in the modelling. The results show that nonlinear functions, while improving the granularity of the QFD mapping, keeps the method simple enough to work as ‘boundary object’ in cross-functional design teams, irrespectively from the experience of design team members. The experiments also highlight how users’ cognitive attention in the task is dependent from the format by which nonlinear merit functions are presented.

  • 47.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Eres, Murat Hakki
    University of Southampton, GBR.
    Value Driven Design revisited: emerging modelling concepts and applicatons2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, 2019, s. 2407-2416Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended product warranties, leasing, and pay-per-use schemes are few examples of how manufacturing companies are shifting their focus from selling products to offering “solutions”, combining products and services to maximise customer value. The idea of optimising a system towards the best ‘value’ is both "intuitive and sensible", and processes such as Value Driven Design (VDD), have been proposed to supplement traditional engineering design methodologies. Yet, value-driven initiatives struggle to communicate their benefits and to demonstrate how value models can solve actual problems. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the evolution of the VDD toolbox, mapping research clusters, applications and case studies from the perspective of how much (and how well) recent contributions have answered the five top-level questions of the VDD research agenda published in 2012. The results of the systematic literature review reveal the emergence of innovative modelling constructs, methods, and tools that help VDD in taking a leap forward in supporting organizations and teams in achieving the long-sought objective of designing for 'value'.

  • 48.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Johansson, Christian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Knowledge Enabled Engineering2015Ingår i: International Workshop of Advanced Manufacturing and Automation, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex product-service combinations challenges the existing practices for engineering knowledge management. The objective of the paper is to highlight how such practices need to change to meet the engineers’ demand for knowledge when developing “functions” instead of merely hardware. It further proposes Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) as an umbrella term that collects engineering knowledge management methods and tools inspired by the second wave of knowledge management, and that are aimed to meet needs of today’s modern knowledge workers in engineering organizations. The current state of readiness of these approaches is eventually described together with results from verification and validation activities.

  • 49.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Ola, Isaksson
    Chalmers, SWE.
    EVOKE: A Value-Driven Concept Selection Method for Early System Design2018Ingår i: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, ISSN 1004-3756, E-ISSN 1861-9576, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 46-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of new technologically advanced products requires the contribution from a range of skills and disciplines, which are often difficult to find within a single company or organization. Requirements establishment practices in Systems Engineering (SE), while ensuring coordination of activities and tasks across the supply network, fall short when it comes to facilitate knowledge sharing and negotiation during early system design. Empirical observations show that when system-level requirements are not available or not mature enough, engineers dealing with the development of long lead-time sub-systems tend to target local optima, rather than opening up the design space. This phenomenon causes design teams to generate solutions that do not embody the best possible configuration for the overall system. The aim of this paper is to show how methodologies for value-driven design may address this issue, facilitating early stage design iterations and the resolution of early stage design trade-offs. The paper describes how such methodologies may help gathering and dispatching relevant knowledge about the ‘design intent’ of a system to the cross-functional engineering teams, so to facilitate a more concurrent process for requirement elicitation in SE. The paper also describes EVOKE (Early Value Oriented design exploration with KnowledgE maturity), a concept selection method that allows benchmarking design options at sub-system level on the base of value-related information communicated by the system integrators. The use of EVOKE is exemplified in an industrial case study related to the design of an aero-engine component. EVOKE’s ability to raise awareness on the value contribution of early stage design concepts in the SE process has been further verified with industrial practitioners in ad-hoc design episodes.

  • 50.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Chowdhery, Syed Azad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för maskinteknik.
    Bellini, Anna
    Tetra Pak .
    Model-driven value assessment: a case from the food packaging industry2018Ingår i: Proceeedings of the International DESIGN Conference / [ed] D. Marjanović, M. Štorga, S. Škec, N. Bojčetić, N. Pavković (eds.), The Design Society, 2018, Vol. 1, s. 161-170Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer perception of food packaging solutions is driven by early design decisions on paperboard configuration and manufacturing technologies. Simulation Driven Design is common to frontload design activities, but is confined to the engineering field and fails to capture higher-level value aspects. This paper presents an assessment framework connecting customer value dimensions with simulations conducted on the mechanical properties of the packaging material, and discusses how value modelling results can be visualised to support collaborative decision making in cross-functional teams.

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