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  • 1.
    Aeddula, Omsri
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Flyborg, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health. Kristianstad University, SWE.
    A Solution with Bluetooth Low Energy Technology to Support Oral Healthcare Decisions for improving Oral Hygiene2021In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, Vol. 1, p. 134-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advent of powered toothbrushes and associated mobile health applications provides an opportunity to collect and monitor the data, however collecting reliable and standardized data from large populations has been associated with efforts from the participants and researchers. Finding a way to collect data autonomously and without the need for cooperation imparts the potential to build large knowledge banks. A solution with Bluetooth low energy technology is designed to pair a powered toothbrush with a single-core processor to collect raw data in a real-time scenario, eliminating the manual transfer of powered toothbrush data with mobile health applications. Associating powered toothbrush with a single-core processor is believed to provide reliable and comprehensible data of toothbrush use and propensities can be a guide to improve individual exhortation and general plans on oral hygiene quantifies that can prompt improved oral wellbeing. The method makes a case for an expanded chance to plan assistant capacities to protect or improve factors that influence oral wellbeing in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. The proposed framework assists with determining various parameters, which makes it adaptable and conceivable to execute in various oral care contexts 

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    ICMHI-OKA
  • 2.
    Aeddula, Omsri
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ruvald, Ryan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    AI-Driven Comprehension of Autonomous Construction Equipment Behavior for Improved PSS Development2024In: Proceedings of the 57th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Manoa , 2024, p. 1017-1026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach that utilizes artificial intelligence techniques to identify autonomous machine behavior patterns. The context for investigation involves a fleet of prototype autonomous haulers as part of a Product Service System solution under development in the construction and mining industry. The approach involves using deep learning-based object detection and computer vision to understand how prototype machines operate in different situations. The trained model accurately predicts and tracks the loaded and unloaded machines and helps to identify the data patterns such as course deviations, machine failures, unexpected slowdowns, battery life, machine activity, number of cycles per charge, and speed. PSS solutions hinge on efficiently allocating resources to meet the required site-level output. Solution providers can make more informed decisions at the earlier stages of development by using the AI techniques outlined in the paper, considering asset management and reallocation of resources to account for unplanned stoppages or unexpected slowdowns. Understanding machine behavioral aspects in early-stage PSS development could enable more efficient and customized PSS solutions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    HICSS_Omsri
  • 3.
    Aeddula, Omsri
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS SUPPORTING CAUSE AND EFFECT STUDIES IN PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT2021In: Design for Tomorrow—Volume 1: Proceedings of ICoRD 2021 / [ed] Chakrabarti, A., Poovaiah, R., Bokil, P., Kant, V. (Eds.), Springer, 2021, Vol. I, article id 132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A data analysis method based on artificial neural networks aiming to support cause-and-effect analysis in design exploration studies is presented. The method clusters and aggregates the effects of multiple design variables based on the structural hierarchy of the evaluated system. The proposed method is exemplified in a case study showing that the predictive capability of the created, clustered, a dataset is comparable to the original, unmodified, one. The proposed method is evaluated using coefficient-of-determination, root mean square error, average relative error, and mean square error. Data analysis approach with artificial neural networks is believed to significantly improve the comprehensibility of the evaluated cause-and-effect relationships studying PSS concepts in a cross-functional team and thereby assisting the difficult and resource-demanding negotiations process at the conceptual stage of the design.

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    ICORD_21
  • 4. Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A case study of how knowledge based engineering tools support experience re-use2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A manufacturing company’s unique intellectual capital is to a large extent built on experience from its own product development and manufacturing processes. Thus, methods and tools to utilize and benefit from this experience in an efficient way have an impact on a company’s ability to stay competitive and advance on the global market. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) is an engineering methodology to capture engineering knowledge systematically into the design system. Hence, KBE tools are considered to support experience re-use and improve engineering activities. This paper presents the results from a study where the objective was to investigate the support for experience re-use in KBE applications in an aerospace company. A proposed framework is presented to analyze the capturing and use of experience in a company’s processes identifying gaps and propose improvements. The study revealed weaknesses in the process steps for experience feedback which can be used to improve KBE applications further.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Benaim, Andre
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    The implementation of Innovation Metrics: A case study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the implementation process of an innovation measuring system prototype to support a heavy machinery multinational company to secure their innovative capability. In general,companies recognize the importance of becoming innovative to become, or remain, competitive on a global market. The case company decided to pilot a metric system that corresponds to the crucial factors to secure innovative capability and work with the stepwise improvement based on the assessment results.

    The methods are based on design-research approach and participatory action research. Interviews, surveys and observation were used, as well as, workshops were conducted to develop and follow up the implementation innovation measuring system.

    The findings explore topics and open questions related to metric selection, purpose and use of the selected indicators, as well as challenges related to the implementation of the metric system. Some of the conclusions question the viability of measuring project teams, as well as, it suggests the need for further research to clarify whether team metrics need to be develop in parallel to organizational ones.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Benaim, Andre
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias C.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Lund University.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Building a pathway for innovation: Lessons learned from developing an online platform2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are constantly being pressured to innovate in order to stay competitive in the short run and have new offerings in the long run. One way of boosting innovation is to develop idea support systems that go beyond the traditional methods and tools. Through a qualitative study, this paper explores the lessons learned from developing an online platform for idea generation, and discusses it in terms of innovation process, climate, and capabilities. The results show that the platform itself is not enough for innovation. The structure and work processes around the platform are as important, which implies the need to design processes and procedures that allow an idea to develop, providing, focus, idea feedback and role clarity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Benaim, Andre
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Lund University.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Becoming An Innovative Company: Assessing An Organization’s Innovation Capability From The Perspective Of A Team2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature points out the need for companies to innovate continuously. Such need requires that companies develop capacities to exploit and improve current work as well as to develop and explore more radical opportunities. This paper is a case study that investigates the innovation capabilities of a multinational manufacturing company by interviewing a group that is mandate to support the development of those capabilities. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews, which were based on the categories of a framework previously developed. The findings speak about the importance of setting clear processes for continuation and implementation of ideas, adequate allocation of resources and management support. The discussion and conclusion are about the importance of the integration of efforts in different organizational levels and some of the future challenges integrating the innovation efforts into a natural way of working.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8. Bergström, Mattias
    et al.
    Ericson, Åsa
    Larsson, Madelene
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Renström, Boo
    Needs as a basis for design rationale2008In: / [ed] Dorian Marjanovic, Mario Storga, Neven Pavkovic, Nenad Bojcetic, University of Zagreb, Dubrovnik, Croatia: University of Zagreb , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic principle for Needfinding [Faste, 1987; Patnaik & Becker, 1999] is that designers and engineers should interact directly with users to get direct insights into the user domain. Needfinding is not a new phenomena, it is almost forty years ago since the process was adopted at Stanford University’s product design program [Patnaik & Becker, 1999]. As the name, Need-finding, implies, this is an intertwined approach to find needs which are not readily articulated by users. The application of a Needfinding process offers qualitative methods to make those needs visible early on in product development. In fact, the process has become more interesting during recent time, since qualitative methods have gained more acceptance outside the academic realm [ibid.].The word qualitative indicates that what are sought for are qualities such as people’s experiences, what they perceive or interpret into a situation [Miles & Huberman, 1994; Patton, 2002]. Such data is contextually dependent, i.e., it must be generated in the context in which the phenomena occur. Besides context, people’s activities, behaviours and goals are important to observe and learn from. The objectives, for applying Needfinding, are to make the identification of needs and design a seamless effort, as well as an interest to identify opportunities to innovations. Needs last longer than any solution [Patnaik & Becker, 1999], since they are grounded in people’s activities. The solution and product that might meet such needs change over time. One example is how to store computer data, the products which satisfy the need has changed from, e.g., punch cards, magnetic tape, floppy discs [ibid.] to USB-flash memories. A guiding methodology in Needfinding is a flexible process, which is adapted to the task at hand [Kelley, 2001]. Such a process is conveyed in a few basic steps and, builds on a ‘philosophy’ which permeates all activities in order to adapt the process according to the project. Therefore, the designer’s ability to rely on such a process depends on familiarity with a number of methods for observations and interviews, as well as an aptitude for socio-technical skills. Hence, the purpose in this paper is to present and reflect on methods used in a running development project to identify needs in a product development project. This is done to contribute to the advancement of a need driven product development process. The disposition of this paper is as follows. First, our approach in studying the need identification activities is presented. Second, a theoretical frame for need identification and design is presented, i.e., Needfinding [Patnaik & Becker, 1999]. Third, the practice of finding needs is outlined and discussed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Tobias, Larsson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Expanding Value Driven Design to meet Lean Product Service Development2015In: 7TH INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS CONFERENCE: IPSS, INDUSTRY TRANSFORMATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND BUSINESS / [ed] Xavier Boucher and Daniel Brissaud, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 30, p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a discussion about gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between Value Driven Design and Lean Product Service Development to promote the use of value-driven method and tools since the preliminary design stages. In particular the paper discusses how methods and tools developed in Value Driven Design have the potential to be applied in the preliminary design stage in the context of Lean Product Service Development. The paper concludes by defining a research area on Value Innovation method and tools for preliminary Lean Product Service Development.

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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Assessing the Value of Sub-System Technologies including Life Cycle Alternatives - an aerospace investigation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from an industrial case study in the aerospace industry, the paper proposes an approach to evaluate sub- system technology concepts from a life cycle perspective. The approach is composed by 5 main phases that aims to drive product designers towards more value-oriented design decisions. It is shown how different life cycle alternatives, such as the selling of a Product-Service-System instead of a traditional product, deeply impact the value of design alternatives. The described approach has been developed in collaboration with industrial partners and represents a potential instrument to enhance value-driven product design.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Data Mining in Product Service Systems Design: Literature Review and Research Questions2017In: Procedia CIRP / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, p. 306-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a literature review about data mining applications in Product/Service-Systems (PSS) design. A systematic literature review, combined with snowballing techniques, has been run to identify relevant contributions in the area. The analysis has focused on the categorization of the contributions according to their impact on the PSS design process and according to their theoretical or empirical nature. A picture of the different research achievements for each stage of the PSS design process have been drawn, identifying the research gaps in respect to the challenges of PSS design. Based on the analysis the paper proposes a set of research questions for each PSS design stage with the intent of facilitating the application of data mining techniques in PSS design, and ultimately push forward the state of the art.

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    fulltext
  • 12.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Scania Group, SWE.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    Volvo Construction Equipment, SWE.
    Mining data to design value: a demonstrator in early design2017In: DS87-7 PROCEEDINGS OF THE 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN (ICED 17), VOL 7: DESIGN THEORY AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY / [ed] Fadel G.,Salustri F.,Kim H.,Skec S.,Van der Loos M.,Maier A.M.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 7, p. 21-29, article id DS87-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a study run to verify the applicability of data mining algorithms as

    decision support in early design stages of a product development project. The paper

    describes a two-stage scenario providing the rationale for the application of data science in

    engineering design. Furthermore, it describes a demonstrator showing how data can be fed

    back to the early design stages and can be used to populate models to reduce uncertainty in

    decision making. A wheel loader for constructions works is the reference product for the

    demonstration. Data mining is applied on a dataset built on machine performances and

    contextual and environmental data. The demonstrator focuses on the estimation of the fuel

    consumption of alternative design concepts and estimates the performance variations given

    different contextual variable. Finally, a way of visualizing the results of the data analysis in

    relation to the tested and expected performances is presented.

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    fulltext
  • 13.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson Askling, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    MODEL-DRIVEN PRODUCT SERVICE SYSTEMS DESIGN: THE MODEL-DRIVEN DEVELOPMENT AND DECISION SUPPORT (MD3S) APPROACH2021In: Proceedings of the Design Society 2021, Cambridge University Press , 2021, p. 2137-2146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a Model-Driven approach for Product-Service System (PSS) Design promoting an increased digitalization of the PSS design process based on the combination of data-driven design (DDD) activities and value-driven design (VDD) methods. The approach is the results of an 8-year long research profile named (omitted for blind review) featuring the collaboration between (omitted for blind review) and nine industrial companies, in the field of PSS Design. It combines VDD models and the supporting data-driven activities in the frame of PSS design and aligns with the product value stream and the knowledge value stream in the product innovation process as described by Kennedy et al. (2008). The paper provides a high-level overview of the approach describing the different stages and activities, and provides references to external scientific contributions for more exhaustive descriptions of the research rationale and validity. The approach is meant to ultimately drive the development and implementation of a simulation environment for cross-functional and multi-disciplinary decision making in PSS, named Model-Driven Decision Arena, describe in the concluding part of the paper.

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    fulltext
  • 14.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Levandowski, Christoffer
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Virtual Modeling for Lifecycle Performance Assessment in aerospace design2016In: Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle / [ed] Cavalieri, S; Ceretti, E; Tolio, T; Pezzotta, G, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, p. 335-340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to present an approach for the multidisciplinary evaluation of alternative modular concepts in preliminary design with the intent of enhancing engineers’ capability to simulate alternative scenarios with different design configurations, so to derive decisions about the most valuable design concepts to further develop. The research contribution is novel in the way that it expands the Set-Based-Engineering approach by addressing the “servitization” challenge in two ways: firstly by the use of value models and sustainability models as decision making support, making possible a preliminary assessment of the value contribution and of the sustainability performances of a design concept;secondly, by the use of functional modelling modules and configurable systems elements for platform-based design, to manage the  complex relationships within and between parts of the platform throughout the lifecycle. The paper presents the main features of the approach and introduces an industrial case concerning the development of a module component for an aircraft engine in which the approach is applied for demonstration. The paper finally elaborates on the benefits and implications of the approach in the design process.

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    fulltext
  • 15.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Machchhar, Raj Jiten
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Frank, Bobbie
    Volvo Construction Equipment SWE.
    Digital Twins of Operational Scenarios in Mining for Design of Customized Product-Service Systems Solutions2022In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier, 2022, p. 532-537Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an approach, based on the development of digital twins, to support the transition toward electromobility and autonomy in the mining industry, by supporting the design space exploration of future operational scenarios based on different construction equipment and mining site configurations. With such an intent, the paper presents an approach combining systems and systems-of-systems simulations to run trade-off analysis based on different product-service systems (PSS) configurations. Additionally, the paper integrates the "operational context"variables in PSS design simulations to create a digital twin of a "mining operational scenario"customizable for the specific configurations of each mine. The paper exemplifies the proposed approach by contextualizing in a reference mining site describing how the multi-dimensional simulations have enabled PSS trade-off analysis and PSS sensitivity analyses, and how operational context variables are integrated into the digital twin of the operational scenario. © 2022 The Authors.

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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Bertoni, Alessandro
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Marco, Bertoni
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Massimo, Panarotto
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Christian, Johansson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Value-driven product service systems development: Methods and industrial application2016In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 15, p. 42-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent times a service-dominant logic is permeating the design of complex systems. However, in spite of their appeal, initiatives such as Product Service Systems (PSS) have not become mainstream, and methods are lacking to support this transition. This paper argues that methodological guidance, as well as tools for decision support, may be found in the research field of Value Driven Design (VDD), which originates in the realm of Systems Engineering. The paper objective is to elaborate on gaps and opportunities for cross-pollination between VDD and PSS. The results of a systematic review of methods and tools for design decision support highlight the opportunity for introducing optimization models derived from VDD in the PSS design process, while the latter can enrich VDD research with a more qualitative value assessment logic. The paper summarizes this integration in a methodological approach, and exemplifies its application in case studies mainly from the aerospace and road construction equipment sector.

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  • 17. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Bordegoni, Monica
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå Technical University.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Pilot specifications definition guidelines for the implementation of a KEE solution in the aeronautical domain2008In: CIRP Design Conference 2008 / [ed] Fred J. A. M. van Houten, Laboratory of Design, Production and Management, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Univ. of Twente , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing and implementing a Knowledge Management System (KMS) in a Virtual Enterprise is a labour intensive and risky task. Solution prototypes (Pilots) are usually built to verify system effectiveness prior to final implementation. The paper proposes a methodology to guide this Pilot specifications definition process. These guidelines support engineers and knowledge experts in collaboratively defining functionalities, services, software components and performance indicators of the prototype. The methodology has been conceived and applied within the European project VIVACE, to support the development of a Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) system in the aeronautical domain.

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    fulltext
  • 18. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Larsson, Tobias
    Methods and Tools for Knowledge Sharing in Product Development2011In: Innovation in Product Design: From CAD to Virtual Prototyping / [ed] Bordegoni, Monica; Rizzi, Caterina, New York: Springer , 2011, p. 37-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging industrial business partnerships, which feature cross-functional and cross-company development efforts, raise the barrier for the establishment of effective knowledge sharing practices in the larger organization. This chapter aims to highlight the role of knowledge as a key enabler for effective engineering activities in the light of such emerging enterprise collaboration models. Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) is presented as an approach to enhance the extended organization’s capability to establish effective collaboration among its parts, in spite of different organizational structures, technologies or processes. KEE is analysed in its constituent parts, highlighting areas, methods and tools that are particularly interesting for leveraging companies’ knowledge sharing capabilities.

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    fulltext
  • 19. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå Technical University.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå Technical University.
    Isaksson, Ola
    A methodology for KEE systems target cascading2008In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Tools and Methods of Competitive Engineering - TMCE 2008 / [ed] I. Horváth and Z. Rusák, Delft University of Technology , 2008, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this paper is to present a methodology developed within the European Project VIVACE to guide the design and implementation of a Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) system in a Virtual Enterprise. The proposed methodology tries to overcome some of the limitations which characterise traditional methods for Target Cascading, promoting a more collaborative and iterative approach to derive system specifications (in terms of advanced knowledge functionalities) from initial high-level targets. Social and behavioural aspects of Knowledge Management play a crucial role when many different users, knowledge experts, and process owners are involved in the Knowledge Management System (KMS) development. A well designed methodology is needed, therefore, to enhance communication and information sharing among design teams, to promote requirements merging and to take care both of the technological and behavioural aspects of the implementation. Initial business targets have been step-by-step decomposed into a set of sub-problems (Service Requirements, Knowledge Issues, and Knowledge Challenges) in the form of simple sentences in natural language. Then Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrixes have been used to identify the set of functionalities to be implemented in the system, addressing the most important knowledge-related problems outlined in the cascading activity.

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  • 20. Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Ericson, Åsa
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Randall, Dave
    The rise of social product development2012In: International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, ISSN 1470-9503, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 188-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to discuss the rising potential of social software to increase the knowledge management capabilities of virtual product development teams. It presents six fundamental transitions, elaborated from the empirical findings, which justify the rise of a more bottom-up, social creation and sharing of engineering knowledge in the virtual organisation. The study suggests that traditional engineering knowledge management approaches alone are not sufficient to support development activities in the virtual organisation, and that such teams display an increasing demand for social, comparatively lightweight and remixable platforms for bottom-up, social creation and sharing of knowledge.

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  • 21.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Requirements for a KEE system supporting PSS development2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Product Service Systems development, understanding the customer use of goods is vital, since the product per se is not sold but rather the performance it brings to the purchaser in terms of added value. Moving away from offering just a product or service to become a provider of "integrated solutions" implies inevitable changes in the interaction with the customer as well as in the way knowledge is managed and shared in the cross company environment. The main aim of this paper is, on one hand, to provide examples of how Product-Service Systems raise the demand on such cross-functional knowledge sharing; on the other hand it aims to point out a set of requirements for the successful development of Knowledge Enabled Engineering systems able to support a PSS paradigm in a Virtual Enterprise context.

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  • 22.
    Bertoni, Marco
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Boundary objects for PSS design2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE / [ed] Cavalieri, S; Ceretti, E; Tolio, T; Pezzotta, G, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, p. 329-334Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In PSS design, hardware and service developers often have different objectives. Lacking to communicate and negotiate them across boundaries might lead to solutions unable to generate market shares and long-term profitability. This paper aims to contribute to the definition of ‘boundary objects’ that facilitate the sharing of knowledge between members of cross-functional teams engaged in PSS conceptual design activities. Empirical data are gathered from three case studies in the Swedish manufacturing industry to reveal how servitization affects early stage design decision-making, and how hardware vs. service trade-offs are negotiated and solved. The analysis of the findings points to four main trends to be considered when designing such objects in the realm of PSS. These are: an underlying model-based logic, the use of metrics based on customer value, the ability to quickly generate and assess scenarios, the use of non linear relationships to map PSS features vs. customer value.

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  • 23. Boart, Patrik
    et al.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Multidisciplinary design tool for conceptual design and evaluation2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actual product ownership often remains with the manufacturer as functional (total care) products emerge in aerospace business agreements. The business risk is then transferred to the manufacturer why downstream knowledge needs to be available in the concept phase to consider all product life cycle aspects. The aim of this work is to study how a multidisciplinary design tool can be used to embed downstream processes for conceptual design and evaluation allowing simulation of life cycle properties. A knowledge enabled engineering approach was used to capture the engineering activities for design and evaluation of jet engine component flanges. For every design change, cost of manufacturing operations, maintenance and performance aspects can be directly assessed. The design tool assures that the engineering activities are performed accordingly to company design specification which creates a better control over the process quality. It also creates a better understanding enabling the engineers to optimize the concept in real time from an overall product life cycle view. The new tool will be the base for optimize the total product system and will be used not only between companies but also between product development departments in large global companies.

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    fulltext
  • 24. Boldt, Martin
    et al.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Larsson, Tobias
    Lindén, Niklas
    Preventing Privacy-Invasive Software using Online Reputations2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy-invasive software, loosely labeled spyware, is an increasingly common problem for today’s computer users, one to which there is no absolute cure. Most of the privacy-invasive software are positioned in a legal gray zone, as the user accepts the malicious behaviour when agreeing to the End User License Agreement. This paper proposes the use of a specialized reputation system to gather and share information regarding software behaviour between community users. A client application helps guide the user at the point of executing software on the local computer, displaying other users’ feedback about the expected behaviour of the software. We discuss important aspects to consider when constructing such a system, and propose possible solutions. Based on the observations made, we implemented a client/server based proof-of-concept tool, which allowed us to demonstrate how such a system would work. We also compare this solution to other, more conventional, protection methods such as anti-virus and anti-spyware software.

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  • 25.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Collins, Terrence
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, USA.
    Basile, George
    Arizona State Univ, USA.
    Baumgartner, Rupert
    Graz Univ, AUT.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, USA.
    Science in support of systematic leadership towards sustainability2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 1-9Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The un-sustainable course of our societies is the greatest threat humanity has ever confronted. The biophysical systems upon which we are totally dependent have not been challenged by human activities at the global scale before and our impacts upon those planetary systems, as well as upon our social systems, cannot be adequately addressed by ad hoc solutions. Science and leadership will be required to address this threat and transform our current societies into sustainable societies. This Special Volume presents an evolving, yet increasingly cohesive, science-based perspective on leadership towards sustainability. Examples of crucial, overall questions addressed by authors of articles in this Special Volume are: How can science help to clarify sustainability as a foundational platform for success for society's core institutions (e.g. business, governance and education), and how can this platform inform envisioning, planning, monitoring, communication and decision making to accelerate the needed transitions? The conceptual framing of sustainable development in this Special Volume is based upon the logic that it is only if we can define sustainability in a scientifically solid way, as a frame for any vision, that we can analyze current situations in relation to such sustainable visions, and design strategies to close the gap to such visions. In moving from current situations towards possible sustainable futures, specific support in the form of leadership concepts, methods, tools, and requirements are also essential, i.e. given clarity around what needs to be achieved, effective leadership then requires knowing how to achieve it. Both the what and the how questions are addressed in this Special Volume. The research described provides a foundation for moving from ad hoc activities to systemic, systematic and strategic transitions towards sustainability. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 26.
    Broman, Göran
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Robèrt, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Basile, George
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Baumgartner, Rupert
    Collins, Terry
    Huisingh, Donald
    Systematic leadership towards sustainability2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic leadership towards sustainability implies utilization of systems thinking for step-wise approaches to transformative changes towards sustainable societies. This ‘call-for-papers’ (CfPs) for a Special Volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production is focused upon what types of research are needed for us to make the necessary local, regional, national and global changes. This CfPs is for anyone who wishes to address these challenges seriously, that is, to utilize essential aspects of leadership to contribute strategically to the transition towards sustainable societies. To successfully address these challenges, people from different sectors and disciplines must work together in a coordinated and efficient way. We wish to explore the question: What support do such transformative endeavors require and how can science contribute?

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  • 27. Bylund, Nicklas
    et al.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Kalhori, Vahid
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Enhanced engineering design practice using knowledge enabled engineering with simulation methods2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to discuss how Knowledge Enabled Engineering, when combined with simulation methods is a development step for product development processes, engineering design methods and evaluation support systems. The paper opens the discussion on how these approaches, i.e. work methods, simulation support and Knowledge Enabled Engineering (KEE) methods affects best practice in engineering design (ED) by adding synthesis support to the already existing analysis support. In the presented work the authors discuss the actual state of industrial applications, with challenges and opportunities, at Volvo Car Corporation, automotive manufacturer, and Volvo Aero Corporation, jet engine component manufacturer, both operating in Sweden.

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  • 28. Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    et al.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Knowledge sharing across boundaries - Web 2.0 and product-service system development2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been a growing interest among product development organizations to capitalize on engineering knowledge as their core competitive advantage for innovation. Capturing, storing, retrieval, sharing and reusing of engineering knowledge from a wide range of enterprise memory systems have become crucial activities of knowledge management practice in competitive organizations. In light of a changing and dynamic enterprise definition, including a move towards Product-Service System (PSS) development, this paper discusses some of the limitations of current enterprise systems in reusing engineering knowledge across functional and corporate boundaries. Further, the paper illustrates how Web 2.0-based collaborative technologies can leverage cross-functional knowledge for new PSS development projects through an open, bottom-up, and collective sense-making approach to knowledge management.

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  • 29.
    Chowdhery, Syed Azad
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    A data-driven design framework for early stage PSS design explorationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ubiquitous and pervasive computing holds great potential in the domain of Product-Service Systems to introduce a model-driven paradigm for decision support. Data-driven design is often discussed as a critical enabler for developing simulation models that comprehensively explore the PSS design space for complex systems, linking of performances to customer and provider value. Emerging from the findings of two empirical studies conducted in collaboration with multinational manufacturing companies in the business-to-business market, this paper defines a data-driven framework to support engineering teams in exploring, early in the design process, the available design space for Product-Service Systems from a value perspective. Verification activities show that the framework and modeling approach is considered to fill a gap when it comes to stimulating value discussions across functions and organizational roles, as well as to grow a clearer picture of how different disciplines contribute to the creation of value for new solutions.

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  • 30.
    Drugge, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Berghuvud, Ansel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Stensson, Annika
    Luleå University of Technology.
    The nonlinear behaviour of a pantograph current collector suspension1999In: Proceedings of the 1999 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pantograph-catenary system is a critical component for trains required to run at higher speeds. The pantograph often includes nonlinear characteristics and the scope of this work is to investigate if nonlinear dynamic phenomena can occur in an existing design. A model of a pantograph suspension subsystem has been developed according to physical parameter values of the head suspension of the Schunk WBL88/X2 pantograph, providing electric power to the Swedish high-speed train X2. Studies of the system response for different force excitation show both harmonic, subharmonic and chaotic behaviour for the investigated parameter regions.

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  • 31. Drugge, Lars
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Division of Computer Aided Design, Luleå University of Technolo.
    Stensson, Annika
    Modelling and simulation of catenary-pantograph interaction2000In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 33, no suppl, p. 490-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling and simulation of the dynamic behaviour of catenary-pantograph interaction is an important part when assessing the capability of a current collection system for railway traffic. The large variation in infrastructure characteristics in different countries and railway companies, different types of traffic, designs of pantographs etc. makes it almost impossible to develop a final simulation model of such a system. Instead, it would be favourable to have a tool that has the ability to set up models of such systems, choose relevant detail of the models, run simulations and finally visualize the results. To make the tool useful for engineers, design experts as well as simulation experts, the functionality of the tool must be worked out. Aspects on computer simulation such as developed models, simulation methods and computer tools are presented. The aim is to develop a scenario that considers different designs, models, solution methods and user levels. The scenario focuses on how to structure the use of simulation of dynamics in catenary-pantograph development. A scenario is sketched built on different user levels, a modular structure and a structure for information management

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  • 32.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Johan, Berglund
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health.
    Tobias, Larsson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Designing with Priorities and Thresholds for Health Care Heterogeneity: The Approach of Constructing Parametric Ontology2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing systems working in health care needs complying with the heterogeneous, overlapping, non-overlapping, competing, or even contradicting requirements expressed by the various actors of the health care complex environment, including regulatory bodies. The unification method introduced in this paper, utilized ontological struc- tures to unify heterogeneous requirements in different levels of ab- straction. Also the weighting and threshold algorithms defined upon the ontology structure allows to both prioritize the requirements and align design resources upon that priority, at the same time to enforce regulatory requirements in an easy, clear and integrated way and reject designs which cannot comply with them. Application of the method introduced in this paper is not limited to health care, but it might be applied in design for any heterogeneous environment.

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  • 33.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Evaluating Health Information Systems Using Ontologies2016In: JMIR Medical Informatics, E-ISSN 2291-9694, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are several frameworks that attempt to address the challenges of evaluation of health information systems by offering models, methods, and guidelines about what to evaluate, how to evaluate, and how to report the evaluation results. Model-based evaluation frameworks usually suggest universally applicable evaluation aspects but do not consider case-specific aspects. On the other hand, evaluation frameworks that are case specific, by eliciting user requirements, limit their output to the evaluation aspects suggested by the users in the early phases of system development. In addition, these case-specific approaches extract different sets of evaluation aspects from each case, making it challenging to collectively compare, unify, or aggregate the evaluation of a set of heterogeneous health information systems.

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to find a method capable of suggesting evaluation aspects for a set of one or more health information systems—whether similar or heterogeneous—by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes extracted from those systems and from an external evaluation framework.

    Methods: On the basis of the available literature in semantic networks and ontologies, a method (called Unified eValuation using Ontology; UVON) was developed that can organize, unify, and aggregate the quality attributes of several health information systems into a tree-style ontology structure. The method was extended to integrate its generated ontology with the evaluation aspects suggested by model-based evaluation frameworks. An approach was developed to extract evaluation aspects from the ontology that also considers evaluation case practicalities such as the maximum number of evaluation aspects to be measured or their required degree of specificity. The method was applied and tested in Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research (FI-STAR), a project of 7 cloud-based eHealth applications that were developed and deployed across European Union countries.

    Results: The relevance of the evaluation aspects created by the UVON method for the FI-STAR project was validated by the corresponding stakeholders of each case. These evaluation aspects were extracted from a UVON-generated ontology structure that reflects both the internally declared required quality attributes in the 7 eHealth applications of the FI-STAR project and the evaluation aspects recommended by the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine applications (MAST) evaluation framework. The extracted evaluation aspects were used to create questionnaires (for the corresponding patients and health professionals) to evaluate each individual case and the whole of the FI-STAR project.

    Conclusions: The UVON method can provide a relevant set of evaluation aspects for a heterogeneous set of health information systems by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes through ontological structures. Those quality attributes can be either suggested by evaluation models or elicited from the stakeholders of those systems in the form of system requirements. The method continues to be systematic, context sensitive, and relevant across a heterogeneous set of health information systems.

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  • 34.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Design of a Semi-Automated and Continuous Evaluation System: Customized for Application in e-HealthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives

    Survey-based evaluation of a system, such as measuring user’s satisfaction or patient-reported outcomes, entails a set of burdens that limits the feasibility, frequency, extendability, and continuity of the evaluation. Automating the evaluation process, that is reducing the burden of evaluators in questionnaire curation or minimizing the need for explicit user attention when collecting their attitudes, can make the evaluation more feasible, repeatable, extendible, continuous, and even flexible for improvement. An automated evaluation process can be enhanced to include features, such as the ability to handle heterogeneity in evaluation cases. Here, we represent the design of a system that makes it possible to have a semi-automated evaluation system. The design is presented and partially implemented in the context of health information systems, but it can be applied to other contexts of information system usages as well.

    Method

    The system was divided into four components. We followed a design research methodology to design the system, where each component reached a certain level of maturity. Already implemented and validated methods from previous studies were embedded within components, while they were extended with improved automation proposals or new features.

    Results

    A system was designed, comprised of four major components: Evaluation Aspects Elicitation, User Survey, Benchmark Path Model, and Alternative Metrics Replacement. All components have the essential maturity of identification of the problem, identification of solution objectives, and the overall design. In the overall design, the primary flow, process-entities, data-entities, and events for each component are identified and illustrated. Parts of some components have been already verified and demonstrated in real-world cases.

    Conclusion

    A system can be developed to minimize human burden, both for the evaluators and respondants, in survey-based evaluation. This system automates finding items to evaluate, creating questionnaire based on those items, surveying the users' attitude about those items, modeling the relations between the evaluation items, and incrementally changing the model to rely on automatically collected metrics, usually implicit indicators, collected from the users, instead of requiring their explicit expression of their attitudes. The system provides the possibility of minimal human burden, frequent repetition, continuity and real-time reporting, incremental upgrades regarding environmental changes, proper handling of heterogeneity, and a higher degree of objectivity.

  • 35.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Sanmartin Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Most Influential Qualities in Creating Satisfaction Among the Users of Health Information Systems: A Study in Seven EU Countries2018In: JMIR Medical Informatics, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 3-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Several models suggest how the qualities of a product or service influence user satisfaction. Models, such as the Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and Delone and McLean Information Systems Success (D&M IS), demonstrate those relations and have been used in the context of health information systems.

    Objective:

    We want to investigate which qualities foster greater satisfaction among patient and professional users. In addition, we are interested in knowing to what extent improvement in those qualities can explain user satisfaction and if this makes user satisfaction a proxy indicator of those qualities.

    Methods:

    The Unified eValuation using ONtology (UVON) method was utilised to construct an ontology of the required qualities for seven e-health applications being developed in the FI-STAR project, a European Union (EU) project in e-health. The e-health applications were deployed across seven EU countries. The ontology included and unified the required qualities of those systems together with the aspects suggested by the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine applications (MAST) evaluation framework. Two similar questionnaires, for 87 patient users and 31 health professional users, were elicited from the ontology. In the questionnaires, user was asked if the system has improved the specified qualities and if the user was satisfied with the system. The results were analysed using Kendall correlation coefficients matrices, incorporating the quality and satisfaction aspects. For the next step, two Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) path models were developed using the quality and satisfaction measure variables and the latent construct variables that were suggested by the UVON method.

    Results:

    Most of the quality aspects grouped by the UVON method are highly correlated. Strong correlations in each group suggest that the grouped qualities can be measures which reflect a latent quality construct. The PLS-SEM path analysis for the patients reveals that the effectiveness, safety, and efficiency of treatment provided by the system are the most influential qualities in achieving and predicting user satisfaction. For the professional users, effectiveness and affordability are the most influential. The parameters of the PLS-SEM that are calculated allow for the measurement of a user satisfaction index similar to CSI for similar health information systems.

    Conclusions:

    For both patients and professionals, the effectiveness of systems highly contributes to their satisfaction. Patients care about improvements in safety and efficiency, while professionals care about improvements in the affordability of treatments with health information systems. User satisfaction is reflected more in the users' evaluation of system output and fulfilment of expectations, but slightly less in how far the system is from ideal. Investigating satisfaction scores can be a simple, fast way to infer if the system has improved the abovementioned qualities in treatment and care.

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  • 36.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson Askling, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Frank, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Leifer, Larry
    Stanford University, USA.
    How Covid-19 Enabled a Global Student Design Team to Achieve Breakthrough Innovation2021In: Proceedings of the Design Society 2021, Cambridge University Press, 2021, Vol. 1, p. 1705-1714Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative single case study of a geographically distributed student team that experienced a quite different graduate course, compared to previous year's. This was due to the restrictions placed upon them following coronavirus lockdowns. With already ongoing research, and continuous development of the course, the authors had documented individual reflections and identified patterns and behaviours that seemingly determined the quality of the end result, as well as the students expectations and experiences. Semi-structured interviews, surveys and the author's individual reflection notes were already in place as part of the larger research scope and when the student team during the covid-19 year showed unexpected performance and results, the authors decided to pause the larger research scope and focus on this unique single case and capture those learnings. Not knowing how the Covid-19 situation evolves and leaning on insights from previous years, as well as this unique year, the aim with this paper is to describe the unique Covid-19 year amd share knowledge that can help improve and evolve the development of this longlived collaborative graduate student course, and other similar distributed team contexts.

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  • 37.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson Askling, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Leifer, Larry
    Stanford University, USA.
    Guiding global innovation teams on their exploration journey: Learning from aspiring engineersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on insights from an engineering graduate course where problem-based learning is applied, the purpose with this study is to increase the likelihood of success for an innovation team, both in education and in industry. The hypothesis was that a supporting cohort, i.e., a group of individuals providing problem statement, context, and structure, can provide guidance and support to an innovation team on its exploration journey, without interfering. Design research methodology was applied, and the study was performed during the years 2013 to 2020. Results indicate that two potential tools, created based on previous research and empirical data from this study, can assist a supporting cohort to provide the right type of support and guidance at the right time, to innovation teams performing exploration work, addressing the individual learning experiences, the team dynamics, and the team performance.  

  • 38.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson Askling, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Root, Sheryl
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Lost in translation between explore and exploit: From selling products to solving problems in large manufacturing incumbentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As large manufacturing incumbents are adopting digital technologies and shifting their business models from selling products to solving problems, through PSS (product-service-system) solutions, their development processes need to shift as well. Organizational ambidexterity, the ability to both explore new opportunities and exploit existing customer offerings, is considered to be crucial to companies’ current and future success. In this study it is observed that a gap between exploration and exploitation work streams lead to promising conceptual PSS solutions never reaching a revenue generating stage. This is because product-centricity along with exploitation-optimized processes and mindsets are not equipped to carry the integrated solutions further, from proven concept to market ready solution. This article summarizes a multiple case study, where systematic innovation engineering work has resulted in promising conceptual PSS solutions never reaching market launch. In addition to the in-depth case studies, leaders of exploration-oriented teams in manufacturing incumbents shared their insights which confirmed that the problem is common across companies and industries, and several roadblocks are general. One of the authors has been responsible for a successful shift from a product-centric to an integrated solution-oriented organization and contributed insights from that experience to this study. The authors suggest that the gap between explore and exploit, and the shift from product-centric to PSS-oriented can be managed through an approach where ambidexterity is infused into the entire organization and exploration is demystified, enabling a transparent and concerted shift.

  • 39.
    Elfsberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson Askling, Christian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Unlocking the full value of a corporate innovation hub2020In: The Proceedings of ISPIM Connects Global 2020: Celebrating the World of Innovation. ISPIM., LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications , 2020, , p. 9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper covers research about how Corporate Innovation Hubs, CIHs, in Silicon Valley are managed and supported by their corporatemotherships and how their likeliness of success can be increased by consciousand proactive management and support. To embrace the cultural difference as a competitive advantage and learning experience is important. Clear intentions,expectations, team constellation, reporting level and finding the right individualas head of the CIH are identified as crucial factors to consider.

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  • 40. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Bergström, Mattias
    Johansson, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    On the way to knowledge awareness in early design2007In: / [ed] Frank-Lothar Krause, Berlin, Germany: Springer , 2007, p. 607-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses views on decision support in product development to identify factors of relevance when designing computer-based decision sup- port for total offers. Providing services in form of physical artefacts of- fered as ‘functions per unit’ is at the heart of total offers. Total offers gain access to possibilities to ‘design in’ value added characteristics into the physical artefact, e.g., maintenance, monitoring, training, remanufacture. Contemporary computer tools seem to be insufficient to support a GO/NO GO decision for total offers. Relevant factors to take into consideration are to support learning and provide the decision makers with insights in a number of plausible ‘what-if’ scenarios to improve the solution space.

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  • 41. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Bertoni, Marco
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Needs and requirements - How TRIZ may be applied in product-service development2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Product-Service Systems development, understanding of the customers' use of goods seems vital, since the product per se is not sold but rather the performance it brings to the customers' processes in terms of added value. This changed business scenario insists on an integration of a service and a product perspectives in early design phases. However, the approaches to understand customers diverge. In this paper, a need matrix, from the economic theory of needs, and a requirement matrix, from the TRIZ methodology, are used to elaborate on integration aspects to understand customer statements. The comparison of these matrixes made the distinct logics apparent, and gave an indication for the necessity of another type of specification for PSS products. Also, the knowledge base for PSS methodologies has to be extended to encompass a part that visualizes non measurable aspects such as needs.

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  • 42. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    A service perspective on product development - towards functional products2005In: Proceedings of 12th International Product Development Management Conference, IPDM, Copenhagen, Denmark: EIASM , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional products are understood as a combination of hardware, software and services. Based on interviews with employees in manufacturing firms the notion of functional product development is described. The purpose has been to explore the differences between a service perspective and a core product perspective and highlight changes in the management of product development processes that are motivated by the notion of functional products. Exploring the differences between the two perspectives has identified a gap of how the product is viewed at the business level and technical development levels. The integration of services into the hardware development process in the form of a customised product or product life cycle has been highlighted. Internal and external communication about needs has been identified as useful.

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  • 43. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    People, product and process perspectives on product/service-system development2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design, London: Springer , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptation of Product/Service-System calls for new development models. On one side this businesses give the manufacturing firm possibilities to redesign, upgrade and replace the discrete device that provides the performance their customers are asking for. On the other side, this new situation has to address aspects that are normally not addressed in early product development, i.e., services. In this chapter, we will elaborate on product and service development processes models, as well as system models to propose a frame of reference for multiple perspectives on PSS development. These perspectives are people, product and process. Also, this chapter puts forward implications for the development of PSS models.

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  • 44. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology,.
    Expanding the social dimension - Towards a knowledge base for product-service innovation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extension of businesses to incorporate the provision of function as a service in supplement to standalone products is an ongoing movement in manufacturing industry. In short, this means that the development intent should be guided by the need of ‘performance in use’ that the customer wants, e.g. thrust rather than an engine. By this, the established knowledge base challenges the development team. This paper embarks from the assumption that there are three main challenges, i.e. (1) innovation activities, (2) customer data acquisition and (3) the transformation of data into design information. The purpose is to discuss knowledge sharing activities to contribute to product-service innovation. In this study it has been found that contemporary data acquisition activities filter out important dimensions of knowledge. Thus, does not provide a sound base for service provisions.

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  • 45. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    In search of what is missing - needfinding the SIRIUS way2007In: Proceedings of the 4th IASTED International Conference on Knowledge Sharing and Collaborative Engineering, KSCE 2006, St Thomas, US Virgin Islands: ACTA Press , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Listen closely to your customers, and you are more likely to design products that actually meet or even exceed their needs.”: Such statements have come to dominate company innovation strategies in the last decade, but in reality involving customers in product development is not as straightforward as it sounds. Customers, it is becoming clear, cannot always express their needs adequately. Especially, in the case of innovative products where the starting position by definition includes no existing solution, applying a user-orientated approach is paramount. We argue that techniques for ‘needfinding’ must be the point of departure. This has importance both in terms of methodological issues – how to find customer needs? – and for organizational work – who should be engaged in finding customer needs? In our view, engineers must be involved in identifying and understanding those needs. We have learnt through a series of studies, that structured needfinding by engineers during the earliest phases of product development could better support the process of identifying needs and thereby guide design projects. In this way, two basic problems are overcome. Firstly, identifying needs which are otherwise difficult to articulate becomes possible. Secondly, translation difficulties between customers and engineers are eradicated

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  • 46. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Andreas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Larsson, Madelene
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Need driven product development in team-based projects2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, practical activities of Needfinding - an intertwined approach to identifying needs and to visualizing idea concepts in early design - are described and discussed. This is done primarily to gain an increased understanding of the various representations of user needs that are fed into the fuzzy front-end activities of team-based product innovation projects. The empirical basis comes from a study of an eight-month collaborative product development project, performed under realistic conditions by MSc students in close collaboration with their client. Focusing closely on customers and their needs is encouraged within the conceptual framework of Integrated Product Development and is increasingly highlighted as a key enabler in the design of truly innovative products. Despite the fact that identified customer needs are considered as the initial and primary input into such an innovation process, it can be argued that the design teams do not commonly have a sufficient understanding of customer needs and they do not normally interact with customers in their environment. Besides focusing on measurable aspects of user behaviour and requirements, a traditional approach to identifying and managing customer needs usually includes several interpretive stages before being handed over to the design team. In the context of innovative products, the identification and definition of customers and their needs is a non-trivial and difficult exercise. It involves, we suggest, not only Needfinding but also the definition of ‘those who might need the product’, users and customers to co-evolve iteratively in the early phases of design.

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  • 47. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Åström, Peter
    Functional product innovation - Reaping the benefits of simulation driven design2007In: / [ed] Boumedine, M. & Touzet, C., St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands: ACTA Press , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovations are crucial to companies’ competitive strength. Functional Product Development (FPD) is a base for a Functional Product Innovation vision, aiming for a new way to design, develop and sell physical products. The purpose in this paper is to discuss relations between the development process for these products, called FPD, and a simulation-driven approach to design these products, called SDD. FPD consider a holistic approach in early design phases. A life-cycle perspective, cross-company collaboration and a focus on stakeholder needs are examples of issues which are part of the wider view on product development. The SDD approach puts forward an integration of simulations to provide support for designers in FPD. The goal is to take the knowledge domains of engineering, business and production into account in the design to provide for the ability to sell ‘functions per unit’. The combination of FPD and SDD is paramount. The influence of needs plays a leading part in FPD and the use of simulations could create a virtual structure to combine and recombine resources and thus, nurture innovations.

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  • 48. Ericson, Åsa
    et al.
    Nergård, Henrik
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Knowledge exchange challenges within the extended enterprise2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of functional products changes the existing relationship between manufacturing companies. The integration of hardware, software and services in functional products calls for close collaboration with companies having complementary skills. When employees from different companies are involved, strategic resources such as knowledge are shared. From an engineering design perspective, knowledge sharing supported by software systems are useful, though it seems like functional product development insists on integrating multifunctional skills and this is likely to affect the design of software systems. The objective in this paper is to explore knowledge sharing challenges between manufacturing companies, striving to create close functional product collaboration, and hence understand aspects in the design of software systems. In this paper the focus is on Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) systems, these are considered to be internal engineering specific tools, while collaboration and need for knowledge sharing calls for coupled KBE systems between partners. In this context, knowledge sharing challenges within the extended enterprise are recognised to issues about who to trust and what and how to share. This affects how tightly coupled KBE systems can be. In general, this paper contributes to the ongoing discussion concerning collaboration issues in concurrent engineering design, but especially to the overall understanding of what new demands on KBE systems that are motivated by functional product collaboration.

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  • 49. Ericsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Müller, Patrick
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Stark, Rainer
    Product-service systems - From customer needs to requirements in early development phases2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Framed by Product-Service Systems (PSS), this paper discuss how needs and requirements are applied in early phases. In product development literature these and closely related terms are mixed, and a focus on gathering customer information about goods and their use guides the development team. This theoretical study highlights that lifecycle commitments such as PSS insist on the generation of a broader information basis. The application of a divergent view on goods, their use and the customers is likely to provide such information basis. The discussion provides a proposal of a simple model to set needs and requirements in relation.

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  • 50. Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lindgren, Per
    Using Timber in a multi-body design environment to develop reliable embedded software2008In: Society of Automotive Engineers, Incorporated, SAE 2193, Warrendale, PA, USA: Society of Automotive Engineers, Incorporated, SAE 2193 , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the automotive industry is to reduce the development time while meeting quality assessments for their products. This calls for new design methodologies and tools that scale with the increasing amount and complexity of embedded systems in today's vehicles.</p><p>In this paper we undertake an approach to embedded software design based on executable models expressed in the high-level modelling paradigm of Timber. In this paper we extend previous work on Timber with a multi-paradigm design environment, aiming to bridge the gap between engineering disciplines by multi-body co-simulation of vehicle dynamics, embedded electronics, and embedded executable models. Its feasibility is demonstrated on a case study of a typical automotive application (traction control), and its potential advantages are discussed, as highlighted below:</p><ul><li>shorter time to market through concurrent, co-operative distributed engineering, and</li><li>reduced cost through adequate system design and dimensioning, and</li><li>improved efficiency of the design process through migration and reuse of executable software components, and</li><li>reduced need for hardware testing, by specification verification on the executable model early in the design process, and</li><li>improved quality, by opening up for formal methods for verification.</li></ul>

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