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  • 1. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Jeffery, RossWohlin, ClaesHandzic, Meliha
    Managing Software Engineering Knowledge2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 2. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Petersson, Håkan
    Wohlin, Claes
    State-of-the-art: Software Inspections after 25 Years2002In: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 133-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software inspections, which were originally developed by Michael Fagan in 1976, are an important means to verify and achieve sufficient quality in many software projects today. Since Fagan's initial work, the importance of software inspections has been long recognized by software developers and many organizations. Various proposals have been made by researchers in the hope of improving Fagan's inspection method. The proposals include structural changes to the process and several types of support for the inspection process. Most of the proposals have been empirically investigated in different studies. This is a review paper focusing on the software inspection process in the light of Fagan's inspection method and it summarizes and reviews other types of software inspection processes that have emerged in the last 25 years. This paper also addresses important issues related to the inspection process and examines experimental studies and their findings that are of interest with the purpose of identifying future avenues of research in software inspection.

  • 3. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Value-Based Approach in Requirements Engineering: Explaining Some of the Fundamental Concepts2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aligning Requirements with Business Objectives: A Framework for Requirements Engineering Decisions2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As software development continues to increase in complexity, involving far-reaching consequences, there is a need for decision support to improve the decision making process in requirements engineering (RE) activities. This research begins with a detailed investigation of the complexity of decision making during RE activities on organizational, product and project levels. Secondly, it presents a conceptual model which describes the RE decision making environment in terms of stakeholders, information requirements, decision types and business objectives. The purpose of this model is to facilitate the development of decision support systems in RE and to help further structure and analyse the decision making process in RE.

  • 5. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Applying Decision-Making Models in Requirements Engineering.2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    The Fundamental Nature of Requirements Engineering Activities as a Decision-Making Process2003In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 45, no 14, p. 945-954Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirements engineering (RE) process is a decision-rich complex problem solving activity. This paper examines the elements of organization-oriented macro decisions as well as process-oriented micro decisions in the RE process and illustrates how to integrate classical decision-making models with RE process models. This integration helps in formulating a common vocabulary and model to improve the manageability of the RE process, and contributes towards the learning process by validating and verifying the consistency of decision-making in RE activities.

  • 7. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Petersson, Håkan
    Increasing the Understanding of Effectiveness in Software Inspections Using Published Data Sets2005In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, ISSN 1443-458X , Vol. 37, no 3, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its inception into software engineering software inspection has been viewed as a cost-effective way of increasing software quality. Despite this many questions remain unanswered regarding, for example, ideal team size or cost effectiveness. This paper addresses some of these questions by performing an analysis using 30 published data sets from empirical experiments of software inspections. The main question is concerned with determining a suitable team size for software inspections. The effectiveness of different team sizes is also studied. Furthermore, the differences in mean effectiveness between different team sizes are investigated based on the inspection environmental context, document types and reading technique. It is concluded that it is possible to choose a suitable team size based on the effectiveness of inspections. This can be used as a tool to assist in the planning of inspections. A particularly interesting result is that variation in the effectiveness between different teams is considerably higher for certain types of documents than for others. Our findings contain important information for anyone planning, controlling or managing software inspections.

  • 8. Aurum, Aybüke
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Porter, A.
    Aligning Software Project Decisions: A Case Study2006In: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940 , Vol. 16, no 6, p. 795-818Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Claes, Wohlin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kai, Petersen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Component Decision-making: In-house, OSS, COTS or Outsourcing: A Systematic Literature Review2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 121, p. 105-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software systems require decisions on component origins for acquiring components. A component origin is an alternative of where to get a component from. Objective: To identify factors that could influence the decision to choose among different component origins and solutions for decision-making (For example, optimization) in the literature. Method: A systematic review study of peer-reviewed literature has been conducted. Results: In total we included 24 primary studies. The component origins compared were mainly focused on in-house vs. COTS and COTS vs. OSS. We identified 11 factors affecting or influencing the decision to select a component origin. When component origins were compared, there was little evidence on the relative (either positive or negative) effect of a component origin on the factor. Most of the solutions were proposed for in-house vs. COTS selection and time, cost and reliability were the most considered factors in the solutions. Optimization models were the most commonly proposed technique used in the solutions. Conclusion: The topic of choosing component origins is a green field for research, and in great need of empirical comparisons between the component origins, as well of how to decide between different combinations of them.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-01 12:16
  • 10.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-01 12:19
  • 11.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Bayesian Synthesis for Knowledge Translation in Software Engineering: Method and Illustration2016In: 2016 42th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic literature reviews in software engineering are necessary to synthesize evidence from multiple studies to provide knowledge and decision support. However, synthesis methods are underutilized in software engineering research. Moreover, translation of synthesized data (outcomes of a systematic review) to provide recommendations for practitioners is seldom practiced. The objective of this paper is to introduce the use of Bayesian synthesis in software engineering research, in particular to translate research evidence into practice by providing the possibility to combine contextualized expert opinions with research evidence. We adopted the Bayesian synthesis method from health research and customized it to be used in software engineering research. The proposed method is described and illustrated using an example from the literature. Bayesian synthesis provides a systematic approach to incorporate subjective opinions in the synthesis process thereby making the synthesis results more suitable to the context in which they will be applied. Thereby, facilitating the interpretation and translation of knowledge to action/application. None of the synthesis methods used in software engineering allows for the integration of subjective opinions, hence using Bayesian synthesis can add a new dimension to the synthesis process in software engineering research.

  • 12.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Guidelines for Knowledge Translation in Software EngineeringIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Experiences from Using Snowballing and Database Searches in Systematic Literature Studies2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Systematic literature studies are commonly used in software engineering. There are two main ways of conducting the searches for these type of studies; they are snowballing and database searches. In snowballing, the reference list (backward snowballing - BSB) and citations (forward snowballing - FSB) of relevant papers are reviewed to identify new papers whereas in a database search, different databases are searched using predefined search strings to identify new papers. Objective: Snowballing has not been in use as extensively as database search. Hence it is important to evaluate its efficiency and reliability when being used as a search strategy in literature studies. Moreover, it is important to compare it to database searches. Method: In this paper, we applied snowballing in a literature study, and reflected on the outcome. We also compared database search with backward and forward snowballing. Database search and snowballing were conducted independently by different researchers. The searches of our literature study were compared with respect to the efficiency and reliability of the findings. Results: Out of the total number of papers found, snowballing identified 83% of the papers in comparison to 46% of the papers for the database search. Snowballing failed to identify a few relevant papers, which potentially could have been addressed by identifying a more comprehensive start set. Conclusion: The efficiency of snowballing is comparable to database search. It can potentially be more reliable than a database search however, the reliability is highly dependent on the creation of a suitable start set.

  • 14. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Hu, Ganglan
    Wohlin, Claes
    Creating Software Product Value in China2009In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459 , Vol. 26, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    China has become a formidable player and continues to grow strongly in what has become a dynamic global market for software development. In this highly competitive environment it has never been more difficult or important to maximize the creation of software product value. But each key stakeholder group – purchasers, users, software managers and developers – has a different notion of value when looking at a software product. As the value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils, we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. The value of a software product is largely derived through the requirements it fulfils. To help understand how value is created we looked at the criteria used to select and prioritise requirements for a release of software, and the perspectives that motivate them. We studied three groups of software development companies operating in China – Chinese companies with a domestic market, Chinese companies with an international market, and western companies operating in China. The results were similar for all three groups, except After-sales Support was a significantly greater concern for Chinese companies with an international market.

  • 15. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Product Management Challenge: Creating Software Product Value through Requirements Selection2008In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 576-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for a software company to maximize value creation for a given investment. The purpose of requirements engineering activities is to add business value that is accounted for in terms of return on investment of a software product. This paper provides insight into the release planning processes used in the software industry to create software product value, by presenting three case studies. It examines how IT professionals perceive value creation through requirements engineering and how the release planning process is conducted to create software product value. It also presents to what degree the major stakeholders' perspectives are represented in the decision-making process. Our findings show that the client and market base of the software product represents the most influential group in the decision to implement specific requirements. This is reflected both in terms of deciding the processes followed and the decision-making criteria applied when selecting requirements for the product. Furthermore, the management of software product value is dependant on the context in which the product exists. Factors, such as the maturity of the product, the marketplace in which it exists, and the development tools and methods available, influence the criteria that decide whether a requirement is included in a specific project or release.

  • 16. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    A product management challenge: Creating software product value through requirements selection2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for a software company to maximize value creation for a given investment. The purpose of requirements engineering activities is to add business value that is accounted for in terms of return on investment of a software product. This paper provides insight into the release planning processes used in the software industry to create software product value, by presenting three case studies. It examines how IT professionals perceive value creation through requirements engineering and how the release planning process is conducted to create software product value. It also presents to what degree the major stakeholders' perspectives are represented in the decision-making process. Our findings show that the client and market base of the software product represents the most influential group in the decision to implement specific requirements. This is reflected both in terms of deciding the processes followed and the decision-making criteria applied when selecting requirements for the product. Furthermore, the management of software product value is dependant on the context in which the product exists. Factors, such as the maturity of the product, the marketplace in which it exists, and the development tools and methods available, influence the criteria that decide whether a requirement is included in a specific project or release. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 17. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Quest for a Silver Bullet: Creating Software Product Value through Requirements Selection2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    The Relative Importance of Aspects of Intellectual Capital for Software Companies2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intellectual capital (IC) is both the key input and tool used in the development of software today. It covers the value provided to an organisation by the employees, the processes and products that support the organisation, and the knowledge held in the relationships between the organisation and external parties – covering human capital, structural capital, and relationship capital respectively. This paper presents a method that seeks to understand the level of alignment between the different success-critical stakeholders in the importance of different aspects of intellectual capital. The method is applied in a case study and provides a number of interesting insights, with the authors concluding that the groups do not necessarily need to be aligned as each groups has a different informational role within the organisation to fulfil.

  • 19.
    Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Mohankumar, Varun
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Software quality across borders: Three case studies on company internal alignment2014In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 20-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software quality issues are commonly reported when offshoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Objective: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholder groups within a company on the priority given to aspects of software quality developed as part of an offshoring relationship. Furthermore, the study aims to identify factors impacting the levels of alignment identified. Method: Three case studies were conducted, with representatives of key stakeholder groups ranking aspects of software quality in a hierarchical cumulative exercise. The results are analysed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients and inertia. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding of the issues impacting alignment. Results: Various levels of alignment were found between the various groups. The reasons for misalignment were found to include cultural factors, control of quality in the development process, short-term versus long-term orientations, understanding of cost-benefits of quality improvements, communication and coordination. Conclusions: The factors that negatively affect alignment can vary greatly between different cases. The work emphasises the need for greater support to align company internal success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when offshoring software development.

  • 20. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Alignment of Software Product Quality Goals in Two Outsourcing Relationships2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Issues with software product quality are commonly reported when organisations engage in outsourcing relationships. To address this issue, value-based software engineering literature emphasises the need for all success-critical stakeholder groups to work towards a mutually agreed goal. Aim: This paper presents a case study that aims to compare and contrast the priority two groups place on software product quality — stakeholders internal to the development organisation, and stakeholders from outsourcing relationships. Method: A model of software product quality was developed and used for this study based on ISO 9126 standard. Questionnaires were collected from 38 representatives of the two key stakeholder groups, in which each person rates the relative importance of aspects of software product quality using the hierarchical cumulative voting (HCV) technique. The results of these two groups were then analysed and compared. Results: The results show the stakeholders priorities to be a merging of the priorities from both the software development organsiation, and the firm providing the outsourced services. Further, stakeholders from outsourced relationships had greater difficulty define an ideal future balance of software product qualities. Conclusions: One of the keys to success when outsourcing is to ensure both the internal and external groups understand the needs of each other — and ensure they can work towards a sufficiently compatible goal. It may be necessary to change the way work is outsourced to align the goals of both firms to be compatible.

  • 21. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software Product Quality: Ensuring a Common Goal2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software qualities are in many cases tacit and hard to measure. Thus, there is a potential risk that they get lower priority than deadlines, cost and functionality. Yet software qualities impact customers, profits and even developer efficiency. This paper presents a method to evaluate the priority of software qualities in an industrial context. The method is applied in an exploratory case study, where the ISO 9126 model for software quality is combined with Theory-W to create a process for evaluating the alignment between success- critical stakeholder groups in the area of software product quality. The results of the case study using this tool is then presented and discussed. It is shown that the method provides valuable information about software qualities.

  • 22. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Balancing Software Product Investments2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term sustainability of a software product depends on more than developing features. Priorities are placed on aspects that support the development of software, like software product quality (eg. ISO 9126), project constraints -- time and cost, and even the development of intellectual capital (IC). A greater focus on any one aspect takes priority from another, but as each aspects delivers a different type of value managers have trouble comparing and balancing these aspects. This paper presents a method to help determine the balance between key priorities in the software development process. The method is applied to a new case study, that also combines with results from previous studies. The results show it is possible to compare features, quality, time, cost and IC in a comprehensive way, with the case study showing that participants perceive a change from a shorter-term product perspective to a longer-term organisation beneficial to the business.

  • 23. Barney, Sebastian
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Offshore insourcing: A case study on software quality alignment2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Software quality issues are commonly reported when off shoring software development. Value-based software engineering addresses this by ensuring key stakeholders have a common understanding of quality. Aim: This work seeks to understand the levels of alignment between key stakeholders on aspects of software quality for two products developed as part of an offshore in sourcing arrangement. The study further aims to explain the levels of alignment identified. Method: Representatives of key stakeholder groups for both products ranked aspects of software quality. The results were discussed with the groups to gain a deeper understanding. Results: Low levels of alignment were found between the groups studied. This is associated with insufficiently defined quality requirements, a culture that does not question management and conflicting temporal reflections on the product's quality. Conclusion: The work emphasizes the need for greater support to align success-critical stakeholder groups in their understanding of quality when off shoring software development

  • 24. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Differences in Views between Development Roles in Software Process Improvement: A Quantitative Comparison2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quantitative study that evaluates how different roles in a software development organization view different issues in software process improvement. The study is conducted in a large Swedish telecommunication organization with the traditional roles of software development. The respondents of the study got five different questions related to process improvement. The result was that the different roles disagreed in three of the questions while they agreed in two of the questions. The disagreement was related to issues about importance of improvement, urgency of problems, and threat against successful process management, while the questions where the roles agreed focused on communication of the processes (documentation and teaching). It is concluded that it is important to be aware and take into account the different needs of different roles and that looking into other areas (e.g. marketing) could be beneficial when conducting process improvements.

  • 25. Berander, Patrik
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Identification of Key Factors in Software Process Management: A Case Study2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When conducting process related work within an organization, it is important to be aware of which factors that are most important to consider. This paper presents an empirical study that was performed in order to find the key success factors in process management. One factor, namely synchronization of processes, was considered as much more important within the studied organization than within the studied literature. This shows that more research might be needed in this area. The study further shows that it is important to relate process improvement work to the properties of the affected organization and that the key factors identified are highly interrelated.

  • 26. Berntsson-Svensson, R.
    et al.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Wohlin, Claes
    Hu, Ganglan
    Successful Software Project and Products: An Empirical Investigation Comparing Australia and Sweden2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Alignment of business, architecture, process, and organisation in a software development context2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate the current state of work regarding alignment of Business, Architecture, Process, and Organisation (BAPO) perspectives in a software product development context. We planned to do that by conducting a systematic literature study to capture the state of the art in alignment of BAPO in software development. But, as it turned out we found that almost no substantial information is available about the alignment of BAPO in software development. Thus, based on the available literature and a small qualitative study, we defined a conceptual model of the alignment of BAPO including five levels of alignment that can be used as a basis for future empirical studies.

  • 28.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    An Evolutionary Perspective on Socio-Technical Congruence:The Rubber Band Effect2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conway’s law assumes a strong association between the system’s architecture and the organization’s communication structure that designs it. In the light of contemporary software development, when many companies rely on geographically distributed teams, which often turn out to be temporarily composed and thus having an often changing communication structure, the importance of Conway’s law and its inspired work grows. In this paper, we examine empirical research related to Conway’s law and its application for cross-site coordination. Based on the results obtained we conjecture that changes in the communication structure alone sooner or later trigger changes in the design structure of the software products to return the sociotechnical system into the state of congruence. This is further used to formulate a concept of a rubber band effect and propose a replication study that goes beyond the original idea of Conway’s law by investigating the evolution of socio-technical congruence over time.

  • 29.
    bin Ali, Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A systematic literature review on the industrial use of software process simulation2014In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context Software process simulation modelling (SPSM) captures the dynamic behaviour and uncertainty in the software process. Existing literature has conflicting claims about its practical usefulness: SPSM is useful and has an industrial impact; SPSM is useful and has no industrial impact yet; SPSM is not useful and has little potential for industry. Objective To assess the conflicting standpoints on the usefulness of SPSM. Method A systematic literature review was performed to identify, assess and aggregate empirical evidence on the usefulness of SPSM. Results In the primary studies, to date, the persistent trend is that of proof-of-concept applications of software process simulation for various purposes (e.g. estimation, training, process improvement, etc.). They score poorly on the stated quality criteria. Also only a few studies report some initial evaluation of the simulation models for the intended purposes. Conclusion There is a lack of conclusive evidence to substantiate the claimed usefulness of SPSM for any of the intended purposes. A few studies that report the cost of applying simulation do not support the claim that it is an inexpensive method. Furthermore, there is a paramount need for improvement in conducting and reporting simulation studies with an emphasis on evaluation against the intended purpose.

  • 30. Bratthall, Lars
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Is it Possible to Decorate Graphical Software Design and Architecture Models with Qualitative Information?: An Experiment2002In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 1181-1193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems evolve over time and it is often difficult to maintain them. One reason for this is often that it is hard to understand the previous release. Further, even if architecture and design models are available and up to date, they primarily represent the functional behaviour of the system. To evaluate whether it is possible to also represent some non-functional aspects, an experiment has been conducted. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate the cognitive suitability of some visual representations that can be used to represent a control relation, software component size and component external and internal complexity. Ten different representations are evaluated in a controlled environment using 35 subjects. The results from the experiment show that it representations with low cognitive accessibility weight can be found. In an example, these representations are used to illustrate some qualities in an SDL block diagram. It is concluded that the incorporation of these representations in architecture and design descriptions is both easy and probably worthwhile. The incorporation of the representations should enhance the understanding of previous releases and hence help software developers in evolving and maintaining complex software systems.

  • 31.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Specialized Global Software Engineering Taxonomy for Effort Estimation2016In: International Conference on Global Software Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 154-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by Global Software Engineering (GSE) researchers and practitioners, the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification scheme has been identified, and as a consequence, a taxonomy and an extension were proposed. In addition, one systematic literature review and a survey on respectively the state of the art and practice of effort estimation in GSE were conducted, showing that despite its importance in practice, the GSE effort estimation literature is rare and reported in an ad-hoc way. Therefore, this paper proposes a specialized GSE taxonomy for effort estimation, which was built on the recently proposed general GSE taxonomy (including the extension) and was also based on the findings from two empirical studies and expert knowledge. The specialized taxonomy was validated using data from eight finished GSE projects. Our effort estimation taxonomy for GSE can help both researchers and practitioners by supporting the reporting of new GSE effort estimation studies, i.e. new studies are to be easier to identify, compare, aggregate and synthesize. Further, it can also help practitioners by providing them with an initial set of factors that can be considered when estimating effort for GSE projects.

  • 32.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    An Extended Global Software Engineering Taxonomy2016In: Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development, ISSN 2195-1721, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Global Software Engineering (GSE), the need for a common terminology and knowledge classification has been identified to facilitate the sharing and combination of knowledge by GSE researchers and practitioners. A GSE taxonomy was recently proposed to address such a need, focusing on a core set of dimensions; however its dimensions do not represent an exhaustive list of relevant GSE factors. Therefore, this study extends the existing taxonomy, incorporating new GSE dimensions that were identified by means of two empirical studies conducted recently.

  • 33. Buisman, J.
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Using Game Theory to Study Bidding for Software Projects2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Dept Informat, GR-54006 Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Dept Informat, GR-54006 Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Barney, Sebastian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An experience-based framework for evaluating alignment of software quality goals2015In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 567-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient quality management of software projects requires knowledge of how various groups of stakeholders involved in software development prioritize the product and project goals. Agreements or disagreements among members of a team may originate from inherent groupings, depending on various professional or other characteristics. These agreements are not easily detected by conventional practices (discussions, meetings, etc.) since the natural language expressions are often obscuring, subjective, and prone to misunderstandings. It is therefore essential to have objective tools that can measure the alignment among the members of a team; especially critical for the software development is the degree of alignment with respect to the prioritization goals of the software product. The paper proposes an experience-based framework of statistical and graphical techniques for the systematic study of prioritization alignment, such as hierarchical cluster analysis, analysis of cluster composition, correlation analysis, and closest agreement-directed graph. This framework can provide a thorough and global picture of a team's prioritization perspective and can potentially aid managerial decisions regarding team composition and leadership. The framework is applied and illustrated in a study related to global software development where 65 individuals in different roles, geographic locations and professional relationships with a company, prioritize 24 goals from individual perception of the actual situation and for an ideal situation.

  • 35. Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Barney, Sebastian
    Wohlin, Claes
    Software product quality in global software development: Finding groups with aligned goals2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a software product in an organization involves various groups of stakeholders who may prioritize the qualities of the product differently. This paper presents an empirical study of 65 individuals in different roles and in different locations, including on shoring, outsourcing and off shoring, prioritizing 24 software quality aspects. Hierarchical cluster analysis is applied to the prioritization data, separately for the situation today and the ideal situation, and the composition of the clusters, regarding the distribution of the inherent groupings within each of them, is analyzed. The analysis results in observing that the roles are not that important in the clustering. However, compositions of clusters regarding the onshore-offshore relationships are significantly different, showing that the offshore participants have stronger tendency to cluster together. In conclusion, stakeholders seem to form clusters of aligned understanding of priorities according to personal and cultural views rather than their roles in software development.

  • 36. Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Rovegård, Per
    Wohlin, Claes
    Prioritization of issues and requirements by cumulative voting: A compositional data analysis framework2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cumulative Voting (CV), also known as Hundred-Point Method, is a simple and straightforward technique, used in various prioritization studies in software engineering. Multiple stakeholders (users, developers, consultants, marketing representatives or customers) are asked to prioritize issues concerning requirements, process improvements or change management in a ratio scale. The data obtained from such studies contain useful information regarding correlations of issues and trends of the respondents towards them. However, the multivariate and constrained nature of data requires particular statistical analysis. In this paper we propose a statistical framework; the multivariate Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) for analyzing data obtained from CV prioritization studies. Certain methodologies for studying the correlation structure of variables are applied to a dataset concerning impact analysis issues prioritized by software professionals under different perspectives. These involve filling of zeros, transformation using the geometric mean, principle component analysis on the transformed variables and graphical representation by biplots and ternary plots.

  • 37. Damm, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Wohlin, Claes
    A model for software rework reduction through a combination of anomaly metrics 2008In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 81, no 11, p. 1968-1982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of anomalies reported during testing of a project can tell a lot about how well the processes and products work. Still, organizations rarely use anomaly reports for more than progress tracking although projects commonly spend a significant part of the development time on finding and correcting faults. This paper presents an anomaly metrics model that organizations can use for identifying improvements in the development process, i.e. to reduce the cost and lead-time spent on rework-related activities and to improve the quality of the delivered product. The model is the result of a four year research project performed at Ericsson. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 38. Damm, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Wohlin, Claes
    Determining the Improvement Potential of a Software Development Organization through Fault Analysis: A Method and a Case Study2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful software process improvement depends on the ability to analyze past projects and determine which parts of the process that could become more efficient. One typical data source is the faults that are reported during product development. From an industrial need, this paper provides a solution based on a measure called faults-slip-through, i.e. the measure tells which faults that should have been found in earlier phases. From the measure, the improvement potential of different parts of the development process is estimated by calculating the cost of the faults that slipped through the phase where they should have been found. The usefulness of the method was demonstrated by applying it on two completed development projects at Ericsson AB. The results show that the implementation phase had the largest improvement potential since it caused the largest faults-slip-through cost to later phases, i.e. 81 and 84 percent of the total improvement potential in the two studied projects.

  • 39. Damm, Lars-Ola
    et al.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Wohlin, Claes
    Faults-slip-through – A Concept for Measuring the Efficiency of the Test Process2006In: Software Process: Improvement and Practice, ISSN 1077-4866 , Vol. 11, no 1, p. 47-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Egorova, E
    et al.
    Torchiano, M
    Morisio, M
    Wohlin, Claes
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Svensson, Richard Berntsson
    Stakeholders´ Perception of Success: An Empirical Investigation2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different stakeholders involved in the software development may attribute success to different indicators. Analogously they may support different factors considered the root of successful projects. The study presented in this paper explores how different stakeholders perceive project success and what they deem the effect of specific factors on the project outcome. The study highlighted both commonalities and differences among three main stakeholder classes. A substantial agreement was observed concerning the characteristics that make a project or product successful. As far as the factors that could lead to success are concerned, more bias emerged.

  • 41.
    Falessi, Davide
    et al.
    CalPoly, USA.
    Juristo, Natalia
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ESP.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Turhan, Burak
    Oulun Yliopisto, FIN.
    Münch, Jürgen
    Helsingin Yliopisto, FIN.
    Jedlitschka, Andreas
    Fraunhofer-Institut fur Experimentelles Software Engineering, DEU.
    Oivo, Markku
    Oulun Yliopisto, FIN.
    Empirical software engineering experts on the use of students and professionals in experiments2018In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 452-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context] Controlled experiments are an important empirical method to generate and validate theories. Many software engineering experiments are conducted with students. It is often claimed that the use of students as participants in experiments comes at the cost of low external validity while using professionals does not. [Objective] We believe a deeper understanding is needed on the external validity of software engineering experiments conducted with students or with professionals. We aim to gain insight about the pros and cons of using students and professionals in experiments. [Method] We performed an unconventional, focus group approach and a follow-up survey. First, during a session at ISERN 2014, 65 empirical researchers, including the seven authors, argued and discussed the use of students in experiments with an open mind. Afterwards, we revisited the topic and elicited experts’ opinions to foster discussions. Then we derived 14 statements and asked the ISERN attendees excluding the authors, to provide their level of agreement with the statements. Finally, we analyzed the researchers’ opinions and used the findings to further discuss the statements. [Results] Our survey results showed that, in general, the respondents disagreed with us about the drawbacks of professionals. We, on the contrary, strongly believe that no population (students, professionals, or others) can be deemed better than another in absolute terms. [Conclusion] Using students as participants remains a valid simplification of reality needed in laboratory contexts. It is an effective way to advance software engineering theories and technologies but, like any other aspect of study settings, should be carefully considered during the design, execution, interpretation, and reporting of an experiment. The key is to understand which developer population portion is being represented by the participants in an experiment. Thus, a proposal for describing experimental participants is put forward.

  • 42. Ghapanchi, Amir H.
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Aurum, Aybüke
    Resources Contributing to Gaining Competitive Advantage for Open Source Software Projects: An Application of Resource-Based Theory2014In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 139-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) is an important asset in today’s software-intensive society. The success of OSS projects is highly dependent on a number of factors. These factors must be understood and managed as an OSS project progresses. Thus, project management of an OSS project has a decisive role in ensuring the success of its software. The objective of the research is to increase the understanding of the resources affecting the competitiveness of OSS projects. Herewith, the responsiveness of OSS projects to users’ needs is assessed via an investigation of the defect-fixing process. A Resource-Based View of the firm (RBV) is used to build theoretical justifications for a set of hypotheses proposed in this study. Data gathered from 427 OSS projects confirmed that developers’ interest in and users’ contribution to the project as well as frequently updating and releasing the software affect the project’s ability to gain competitive advantage through effective defect-fixing. It is also shown that OSS projects that are more popular and have a higher level of organizational communication than others are more likely to gain competitive advantage through effective defect-fixing. Finally, implications of the results for practitioners and the research community are presented.

  • 43. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Feldt, Robert
    Wohlin, Claes
    Mattsson, Michael
    1st International Global Requirements Engineering Worskshop: GREW´072008In: Software Engineering Notes, ISSN 0163-5948 , Vol. 33, no 2, p. 29-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GREW´07 was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Global Software Engineering in Munich Germany. The aim was to bring researchers and industry practitioners together to discuss the area of global product development from a requirements engineering and product management perspective. The workshop aimed to analyze selected challenges put forward by accepted papers from both industry and academia. The session discussions then focused on identifying future needs for research, the relevance of which was assured by good industry presence at the workshop. The workshop resulted in a number of findings that can play an important role to further develop the field of global product management and requirements engineering.

  • 44. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Garre, Per
    Larsson, Stig
    Wohlin, Claes
    A Model for Technology Transfer in Practice2006In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 88-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology transfer, and thus industry-relevant research, involves more than merely producing research results and delivering them in publications and technical reports. It demands close cooperation and collaboration between industry and academia throughout the entire research process. During research conducted in a partnership between Blekinge Institute of Technology and two companies, Danaher Motion Saro AB (DHR) and ABB, we devised a technology transfer model that embodies this philosophy. We initiated this partnership to conduct industry-relevant research in requirements engineering and product management. Technology transfer in this context is a prerequisite: it validates academic research results in a real setting, and it provides a way to improve industry development and business processes

  • 45. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Garre, Per
    Larsson, Stig
    Wohlin, Claes
    Industry Evaluation of the Requirements Abstraction Model2007In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 163-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software requirements are often formulated on different levels and hence they are difficult to compare to each other. To address this issue, a model that allows for placing requirements on different levels has been developed. The model supports both abstraction and refinement of requirements, and hence requirements can both be compared with each other and to product strategies. Comparison between requirements will allow for prioritization of requirements, which in many cases is impossible if the requirements are described on different abstraction levels. Comparison to product strategies will enable early and systematic acceptance or dismissal of requirements, minimizing the risk for overloading. This paper presents an industrial evaluation of the model. It has been evaluated in two different companies, and the experiences and findings are presented. It is concluded that the requirements abstraction model provides helpful improvements to the industrial requirements engineering process.

  • 46. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Identification of Improvement Issues Using a Lightweight Triangulation Approach2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges in requirements engineering is the ability to improve the process and establish one that is “good-enough”. The objective of this paper is to present a lightweight approach to identify process improvement issues. The approach is developed to capture both the views of different stakeholders and different sources of information. An industrial investigation from a small company is presented. In the investigation both projects and the line organization have been interviewed and documentation from them has been studied to capture key issues for improvement. The issues identified from one source are checked against other sources. The dependencies between the issues have been studied. In total nine issues for improvement of the requirements engineering work at the company were identified. It is concluded that the approach is effective in capturing issues, and that the approach helps different stakeholders to get their view represented in the process improvement work.

  • 47. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Packaging Software Process Improvement Issues: a Method and a Case Study2004In: Software, practice & experience, ISSN 0038-0644, E-ISSN 1097-024X, Vol. 34, no 14, p. 1311-1344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software process improvement is a challenge in general and in particular for small- and medium-sized companies. Assessment is one important step in improvement. However, given that a list of improvement issues has been derived, it is often very important to be able to prioritize the improvement proposals and also look at the potential dependencies between them. This paper comes from an industrial need to enable prioritization of improvement proposals and to identify their dependencies. The need was identified in a small- and medium-sized software development company. Based on the need, a method for prioritization and identification of dependencies of improvement proposals was developed. The prioritization part of the method is based on a multi-decision criteria method and the dependencies are identified using a dependency graph. The developed method has been successfully applied in the company, where people with different roles applied the method. The paper presents both the method as such and the successful application of it. It is concluded that the method worked as a means for prioritization and identification of dependencies. Moreover, the method also allowed the employees to discuss and reason about the improvement actions to be taken in a structured and systematic way.

  • 48. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Requirements Abstraction Model2006In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software requirements arrive in different shapes and forms to development organizations. This is particularly the case in market-driven requirements engineering, where the requirements are on products rather than directed towards projects. This results in challenges related to making different requirements comparable. In particular, this situation was identified in a collaborative effort between academia and industry. A model, with four abstraction levels, was developed as a response to the industrial need. The model allows for placement of requirements on different levels and supports abstraction or break down of requirements to make them comparable to each other. The model was successfully validated in several steps at a company. The results from the industrial validation point to the usefulness of the model. The model will allow companies to ensure comparability between requirements, and hence it generates important input to activities such as prioritization and packaging of requirements before launching a development project.

  • 49. Henningsson, Kennet
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Assuring Fault Classification Agreement – An Empirical Evaluation2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Henningsson, Kennet
    et al.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Monitoring Fault Classification Agreement in an Industrial Context2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on prior investigations and the request from a collaborative research partner, UIQ Technology, an investigation to develop an improved and more informative fault classification scheme was launched. The study investigates the level of agreement, a prerequisite for using a fault classification, between classifiers in an industrial setting. The method used is an experimental approach performed in an industrial setting for determining the agreement among classifiers facilitating for example Kappa statistics for determining the agreement. From the study it is concluded that the agreement within the industrial setting is higher than obtained in a previous study within an academic setting, but it is still in need of improvement. This leads to the conclusion that the experience within industry as well as the improved information structure in relation to the previous study aids agreement, but to reach a higher level of agreement, additional education is believed to be needed at the company.

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