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  • 1.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, s. 88-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

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  • 2.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    An Evolutionary Perspective on Socio-Technical Congruence:The Rubber Band Effect2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conway’s law assumes a strong association between the system’s architecture and the organization’s communication structure that designs it. In the light of contemporary software development, when many companies rely on geographically distributed teams, which often turn out to be temporarily composed and thus having an often changing communication structure, the importance of Conway’s law and its inspired work grows. In this paper, we examine empirical research related to Conway’s law and its application for cross-site coordination. Based on the results obtained we conjecture that changes in the communication structure alone sooner or later trigger changes in the design structure of the software products to return the sociotechnical system into the state of congruence. This is further used to formulate a concept of a rubber band effect and propose a replication study that goes beyond the original idea of Conway’s law by investigating the evolution of socio-technical congruence over time.

  • 3.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cruzes, Daniella
    SINTEF Digital, NOR.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Onboarding Software Developers and Teams in Three Globally Distributed Legacy Projects: A Multi-Case Study2018Ingår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, nr 4, artikel-id e1921Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Onboarding is the process of supporting new employees regarding their social and performance adjustment to their new job. Software companies have faced challenges with recruitment and onboarding of new team members and there is no study that investigates it in a holistic way. In this paper, we conducted a multi-case study to investigate the onboarding of software developers/teams, associated challenges, and areas for further improvement in three globally distributed legacy projects. We employed Bauer's model for onboarding to identify the current state of the onboarding strategies employed in each case. We learned that the employed strategies are semi-formalized. Besides, in projects with multiple sites, some functions are executed locally and the onboarding outcomes may be hard to control. We also learned that onboarding in legacy projects is especially challenging and that decisions to distribute such projects across multiple locations shall be approached carefully. In our cases, the challenges to learn legacy code were further amplified by the project scale and the distance to the original sources of knowledge. Finally, we identified practices that can be used by companies to increase the chances of being successful when onboarding software developers and teams in globally distributed legacy projects.

  • 4.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Ericsson AB.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Damm, Lars Ola
    Ericsson AB.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Evaluating and strategizing the onboarding of software developers in large-scale globally distributed projects2020Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 169, artikel-id 110699Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of scale and distribution in software projects makes the onboarding of new developers problematic. To the best of our knowledge, there is no research on the relationship between onboarding strategies and the performance evolution of newcomers in large-scale, globally distributed projects. Furthermore, there are no approaches to support the development of strategies to systematically onboard developers. In this paper, we address these gaps by means of an industrial case study. We identified that the following aspects seem to be related to the observed onboarding results: the distance to mentors, the formal training approach used, the allocation of large and distributed tasks in the early stages of the onboarding process, and team instability. We conclude that onboarding must be planned well ahead and should consider avoiding the aspects mentioned above. Based on the results of this investigation, we propose a process to strategize and evaluate onboarding. To develop the process, we used business process modeling. We conducted a static validation of the proposed process utilizing interviews with experts. The static validation of the process indicates that it can help companies to deal with the challenges associated with the onboarding of newcomers through more systematic, effective, and repeatable onboarding strategies. © 2020 Elsevier Inc.

  • 5.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Software Architects in Large-Scale Distributed Projects: An Ericsson Case Study2016Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 48-55, artikel-id 7725230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architects are key assets for successful development projects. However, not much research has investigated the challenges they face in large-scale distributed projects. So, researchers investigated how architects at Ericsson were organized, their roles and responsibilities, and the effort they spent guarding and governing a large-scale legacy product developed by teams at multiple locations. Despite recent trends such as microservices and agile development, Ericsson had to follow a more centralized approach to deal with the challenges of scale, distribution, and monolithic architecture of a legacy software product. So, the architectural decisions were centralized to a team of architects. The team extensively used code reviews to not only check the code's state but also reveal defects that could turn into maintainability problems. The study results also suggest that the effort architects spend designing architecture, guarding its integrity and evolvability, and mentoring development teams is directly related to team maturity. In addition, significant investment is needed whenever new teams and locations are onboarded.

  • 6.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Performance Evolution of Newcomers in Large-Scale Distributed Software Projects: An Industrial Case Study2019Ingår i: Proceedings - 2019 ACM/IEEE 14th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, s. 1-11, artikel-id 8807643Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount of complex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges and the difficulty in acquiring knowledge about massive amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. These problems may lead to extended periods of low performance. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the performance evolution of offshore newcomers onboarded in a large-scale globally distributed project and how it relates to the employed onboarding strategy. To achieve our objective, we conducted a case study in Ericsson. We identified that the following aspects in the onboarding strategy employed in the investigated case seem to be related to the unexpectedly low performance evolution: i) the distance to mentors; ii) the used formal training approach, which did not fit the sociocultural background of the newcomers; iii) allocation of large and distributed tasks in the early stages of the onboarding process; and iv) team instability. We conclude that the onboarding of newcomers in globally distributed projects must be planned well ahead and should consider avoiding the aspects mentioned above. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 7.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Experiences from Measuring Learning and Performance in Large-Scale Distributed Software Development2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, ACM Digital Library, 2016, artikel-id 17Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Developers and development teams in large-scale software development are often required to learn continuously. Organizations also face the need to train and support new developers and teams on-boarded in ongoing projects. Although learning is associated with performance improvements, experience shows that training and learning does not always result in a better performance or significant improvements might take too long.

    Aims: In this paper, we report our experiences from establishing an approach to measure learning results and associated performance impact for developers and teams in Ericsson.

    Method: Experiences reported herein are a part of an exploratory case study of an on-going large-scale distributed project in Ericsson. The data collected for our measurements included archival data and expert knowledge acquired through both unstructured and semi-structured interviews. While performing the measurements, we faced a number of challenges, documented in the form of lessons learned.

    Results: We aggregated our experience in eight lessons learned related to collection, preparation and analysis of data for further measurement of learning potential and performance in large-scale distributed software development.

    Conclusions: Measuring learning and performance is a challenging task. Major problems were related to data inconsistencies caused by, among other factors, distributed nature of the project. We believe that the documented experiences shared herein can help other researchers and practitioners to perform similar measurements and overcome the challenges of large-scale distributed software projects, as well as proactively address these challenges when establishing project measurement programs.

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  • 8.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Learning and Performance Evolution of Immature Remote Teams in Large-ScaleSoftware Projects: An Industrial Case StudyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount ofcomplex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges, and the diculty to acquire knowledgeabout large amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. Thismay lead to extended periods of low performance.Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the learning processes and performance evolutions (teamproductivity and team autonomy) of remote software development teams added late to a large-scale legacy softwareproduct development, and to propose recommendations to support the learning of remote teams.Method: We conducted a case study in Ericsson, collecting data through archival research, semi-structured interviews,and workshops. We analyzed the collected data using descriptive, inferential and graphical statistics and softqualitative analysis.Results: The results show that the productivity and autonomy of immature remote teams are on average 3.67 and2.27 times lower than the ones of mature teams, respectively. Furthermore, their performance had a steady increaseduring almost the entire first year and dropped (productivity) or got stagnated (autonomy) for a great part of the secondyear. In addition to these results, we also identified four challenges that aected the learning process and performanceevolution of immature remote teams: complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source ofproduct knowledge, lack of team stability, and training expectation misalignment.Conclusion: The results indicate that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make learning more dicultand demand a long period to achieve high performance. To support the learning of remote teams, we put forward fiverecommendations. We believe that our quantitative analysis, as well as the identified factors and recommendationscan help other companies to onboard new remote teams in large-scale legacy product development projects.

  • 9.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    When and who leaves matters: Emerging results from an empirical study of employee turnover2018Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON EMPIRICAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND MEASUREMENT (ESEM 2018), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, artikel-id a53Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Employee turnover in GSD is an extremely important issue, especially in Western companies offshoring to emerging nations. Aims: In this case study we investigated an offshore vendor company and in particular whether the employees' retention is related with their experience. Moreover, we studied whether we can identify a threshold associated with the employees' tendency to leave the particular company. Method: We used a case study, applied and presented descriptive statistics, contingency tables, results from Chi-Square test of association and post hoc tests. Results: The emerging results showed that employee retention and company experience are associated. In particular, almost 90% of the employees are leaving the company within the first year, where the percentage within the second year is 50-50%. Thus, there is an indication that the 2 years' time is the retention threshold for the investigated offshore vendor company. Conclusions: The results are preliminary and lead us to the need for building a prediction model which should include more inherent characteristics of the projects to aid the companies avoiding massive turnover waves. © 2018 ACM.

  • 10.
    Diebold, Philipp
    et al.
    Fraunhofer IESE, GER.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Technische Universitat Munchen, GER.
    Wagner, Stefan
    Universitat Stuttgart, GER.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Results of the 2nd international workshop on the impact of agile practices (ImpAct 2017)2017Ingår i: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, Vol. F129907Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, agile development is a dominating development process in software engineering. Yet, due to different contexts, also agile methods require adaptations (e.g. Scrum-but). Since adaptation means adding, modifying or dropping some agile elements, it is important to know what the effects and importance of these elements are. Given the weak state of empirical evidence in this area, we initiated the workshop series on the Impact of Agile Practices (ImpAct). This paper provides a summary of the second workshop of this series, especially its lightning talks and discussions. The major outcomes include interesting observations such as negatively rated practices and contradicting experiences as well as follow-up activities ordered in a roadmap. © 2017 ACM.

  • 11. Dingsoyr, Torgeir
    et al.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Managing Knowledge in Global Software Development Projects2014Ingår i: IT Professional Magazine, ISSN 1520-9202, E-ISSN 1941-045X, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 22-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How should knowledge be managed in global software development projects? To answer this question, the authors draw on established software engineering research and study three focus groups in two global companies, discussing which knowledge management approaches are appropriate.

  • 12.
    Dorner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Czerwonka, Jacek
    Microsoft Research, USA.
    Only Time Will Tell: Modelling Information Diffusion in Code Review with Time-Varying Hypergraphs2022Ingår i: ESEM '22: Proceedings of the 16th ACM / IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement / [ed] Madeiral F., Lassenius C., Lassenius C., Conte T., Mannisto T., Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, s. 195-204Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Modern code review is expected to facilitate knowledge sharing: All relevant information, the collective expertise, and meta-information around the code change and its context become evident, transparent, and explicit in the corresponding code review discussion. The discussion participants can leverage this information in the following code reviews; the information diffuses through the communication network that emerges from code review. Traditional time-aggregated graphs fall short in rendering information diffusion as those models ignore the temporal order of the information exchange: Information can only be passed on if it is available in the first place.

    Aim: This manuscript presents a novel model based on time-varying hypergraphs for rendering information diffusion that overcomes the inherent limitations of traditional, time-aggregated graph-based models. 

    Method: In an in-silico experiment, we simulate an information diffusion within the internal code review at Microsoft and show the empirical impact of time on a key characteristic of information diffusion: the number of reachable participants. 

    Results: Time-aggregation significantly overestimates the paths of information diffusion available in communication networks and, thus, is neither precise nor accurate for modelling and measuring the spread of information within communication networks that emerge from code review. 

    Conclusion: Our model overcomes the inherent limitations of traditional, static or time-aggregated, graph-based communication models and sheds the first light on information diffusion through code review. We believe that our model can serve as a foundation for understanding, measuring, managing, and improving knowledge sharing in code review in particular and information diffusion in software engineering in general.

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  • 13. Galviņa, Zane
    et al.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Low Degree of Separation does not Guarantee Easy Coordination2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the times of increased global competition, software companies are forced to search for more effective development practices and often team up with onshore and offshore partners to development faster and better products. Research literature in the field of offshore software development highlights a lot of various benefits, which organizations may gain. However, the warnings of potential problems are many more. Tough experiences with offshore development problems may suggest that low degree of separation, e.g. collaboration within the nation boundaries, minimizes the problems inherited in offshore collaborations. In reality, some of the problems, however, still occur. In this paper we empirically explore a highly distributed onshore development project with a complex coordination structure. Our findings demonstrate that onshore development projects are not protected from coordination and communication challenges and task allocation complexities. Previously reported qualitative findings regarding organizational problems in this paper are supplemented with quantitative measurements of the true coordination delays and additional analysis of coordination patterns and their evolution.

  • 14.
    Guo, Hong
    et al.
    Anhui University, CHN.
    Li, Jingyue
    Norwegian University of Science & Technology, NOR.
    Gao, Shang
    Örebro University.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A Method for Enterprise Architecture Model Slicing2022Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 19, artikel-id 9604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) has been applied widely in industry as it brings substantial benefits to ease communication and improve business-IT alignment. However, due to its high complexity and cost, EA still plays a limited role in many organizations. Existing research recommends realizing more of the EA potential. EA can be developed for specific purposes, accumulated in a digital repository, and reused when needed later. Due to the diversity and inconsistency of the repository, it is challenging to find relevant EA data and reuse it. In the present research, we propose using slicing techniques to extract EA models for reuse. We validate the method with an official EA repository hosted by The Open Group. The result shows that the method could facilitate extracting existing EA model components for developing new EA artifacts to save cost, alleviate maintenance effort, and help keep the repository consistent for future (re)use.

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  • 15.
    Guo, Hong
    et al.
    Anhui Univ, CHN.
    Li, Jingyue
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NOR.
    Gao, Shang
    Orebro Univ, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Agile Enterprise Architecture by Leveraging Use Cases2021Ingår i: ENASE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EVALUATION OF NOVEL APPROACHES TO SOFTWARE ENGINEERING / [ed] Ali, R, Kaindl, H, Maciaszek, L, SciTePress, 2021, nr 16th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE), s. 501-509Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite benefits Enterprise Architecture (EA) has brought, EA has also been challenged due to its complexity, heavy workload demands, and poor user acceptance. Researchers and practitioners proposed to use EA in an agile and "business outcome-driven" way. This means that EA should not primarily be developed and used according to a pre-defined framework. Instead, EA should be developed and used for specific business purposes and by means of concrete deliverables. By doing so, a more effective and efficient way of EA application could be enabled. However, there is no common agreement on what types of business goals can be expected to be achieved by using EA (The What) and how to achieve these goals through EA solutions (The How). To address these issues, we analysed the information provided by leading EA tool vendors available on their websites to get inspiration. The results showed that Use Cases (UCs) are used generally to motivate potential EA users by focusing on specific business issues. Then, EA solutions to address such business requirements or challenges are scoped and derived accordingly. We expect relevant findings could bring inspiration to agile EA engineering, change the EA heavy-weight" reputation, and improve the application of EA even among its sceptics.

  • 16.
    Guo, Hong
    et al.
    Anhui Univ, CHN.
    Li, Jingyue
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NOR.
    Gao, Shang
    Orebro Univ, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Boost the Potential of EA: Essential Practices2021Ingår i: ICEIS: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS - VOL 2 / [ed] Filipe, J, Smialek, M, Brodsky, A, Hammoudi, S, SciTePress, 2021, nr 23rd International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS), s. 735-742Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) has been applied widely in industry as it brings important benefits to ease communication and improve business-IT alignment. However, various challenges were also reported due to the difficulty and complexity of applying it. Some empirical studies showed that EA stilled played a limited role in many organizations. In this research, we showed other findings where the potential of EA could be better used. They are derived from our analysis of advanced EA tool recommendations. Based on these findings, we proposed four essential EA practices and the rationales behind them in order to improve the understanding of current practices and bring insights for future studies to boost the potential of EA.

  • 17.
    Guo, Hong
    et al.
    Anhui University, CHN.
    Li, Jingyue
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NOR.
    Gao, Shang
    Örebro University, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Understanding How Enterprise Architecture Contributes to Organizational Alignment2021Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Dennehy D., Griva A., Pouloudi N., Dwivedi Y.K., Dwivedi Y.K., Pappas I., Pappas I., Mantymaki M., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, s. 383-396Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alignment is one of the most important benefits that Enterprise Architecture (EA) could bring to organizations. However, it is still unclear what mechanism EA uses to help organizations achieve alignment. Related research is very scattered, making it difficult to accumulate relevant knowledge and experiences, and thus, the more successful EA application is hindered. To address this issue, the present research examines essential requirements of alignment and mechanisms with which underlying EA deliverable models impact organizations. By doing so, we proposed a conceptual framework explaining how EA modeling activities contribute to organizational alignment. We demonstrated the use of this framework with three use cases. The results show that EA could help organizations achieve alignment in quite different ways, and our proposed framework helped us examine and understand the mechanisms. We expect this research could establish an essential common understanding of how EA enables organizational alignment, thereby facilitating academia to move forward in this field. © 2021, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  • 18.
    Guo, Hong
    et al.
    Anhui University, CHN.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Li, Jingyue
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NOR.
    Gao, Shang
    Örebro University, SWE.
    Enterprise Architecture and Agility: A Systematic Mapping Study2021Ingår i: BUSINESS MODELING AND SOFTWARE DESIGN (BMSD 2021) / [ed] Shishkov B., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, Vol. 422, s. 296-305Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a systematic mapping study of published scientific papers on Enterprise Architecture (EA) and agility. More specifically, we reviewed studies on applying agile practices to EA and applying EA to the organization’s agility. A categorical structure is proposed for classifying the research results based on the extracted topics discussed. The categories include agile traits (i.e., principles and practices), EA practices, and organizational contexts. By mapping the published works and analyzing them, the article also highlights some trends and indicates some obstacles and needs for future research and practice. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 19. Hanssen, Geir Kjetil
    et al.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Signs of agile trends in global software engineering research: A tertiary study2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present preliminary findings from a tertiary study on global software engineering. In particular, we observe current trends in the software engineering research and perform an investigation of the role of agile topics in the GSE research literature. Our findings indicate that agility is one of the topics attracting attention in the research agenda for global software companies. In contrast to recent beliefs that agile and distributed are two incompatibilities Global Agile development becomes more and more accepted, a trend which we also see from the growing amount of research on GSE and agile. Finally we conclude that there are indications that both globalization and "agilization" of software companies are stable trends for the future but that there is a strong need for further studies on the particular challenges that distribution of work imposes on the principles of agile development.

  • 20.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Empirical Evidence on the Link between Object-Oriented Measures and External Quality Attributes: A Systematic Literature Review2015Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 640-693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a plethora of studies investigating object-oriented measures and their link with external quality attributes, but usefulness of the measures may differ across empirical studies. This study aims to aggregate and identify useful object-oriented measures, specifically those obtainable from the source code of object-oriented systems that have gone through such empirical evaluation. By conducting a systematic literature review, 99 primary studies were identified and traced to four external quality attributes: reliability, maintainability, effectiveness and functionality. A vote-counting approach was used to investigate the link be- tween object-oriented measures and the attributes, and to also assess the consistency of the relation reported across empirical studies. Most of the studies investigate links between object-oriented measures and proxies for reliability attributes, followed by proxies for maintainability. The least investigated attributes were: effectiveness and functionality. Measures from the C&K measurement suite were the most popular across studies. Vote-counting results suggest that complexity, cohesion, size and coupling measures have a better link with reliability and maintainability than inheritance measures. However, inheritance measures should not be overlooked during quality assessment initiatives; their link with reliability and maintainability could be context dependent. There were too few studies traced to effectiveness and functionality attributes; thus a meaningful vote-counting analysis could not be conducted for these attributes. Thus, there is a need for diversification of quality attributes investigated in empirical studies. This would help with identifying useful measures during quality assessment initiatives, and not just for reliability and maintainability aspects.

  • 21.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Visualization of Defect Inflow and Resolution Cycles: Before, During and After Transfer2013Ingår i: 2013 20TH ASIA-PACIFIC SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CONFERENCE (APSEC 2013), VOL 1 / [ed] Muenchaisri, P; Rothermel, G, IEEE Computer Society Press , 2013, Vol. 1, s. 289-298Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The link between maintenance and product quality, as well as the high cost of software maintenance, highlights the importance of efficient maintenance processes. Sustaining maintenance work efficiency in a global software development setting that involves a transfer is a challenging endeavor. Studies report on the negative effect of transfers on efficiency. However, empirical evidence on the magnitude of the change in efficiency is scarce. In this study we used a lean indicator to visualize variances in defect resolution cycles for two large products during evolution, before, during and after a transfer. Focus group meetings were also held for each product. Study results show that during and immediately after the transfer the defect inflow is higher, bottlenecks are more visible, and defect resolution cycles are longer, as compared to before the transfer. Furthermore we highlight the factors that influenced the change in defect resolution cycles before, during, and after the transfer.

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  • 22.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A method for investigating the quality of evolving object-oriented software using defects in global software development projects2016Ingår i: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 28, nr 8, s. 622-641Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Global software development (GSD) projects can have distributed teams that work independently in different locations or team members that are dispersed. The various development settings in GSD can influence quality during product evolution. When evaluating quality using defects as a proxy, the development settings have to be taken into consideration. Objective: The aim is to provide a systematic method for supporting investigations of the implication of GSD contexts on defect data as a proxy for quality. Method: A method engineering approach was used to incrementally develop the proposed method. This was done through applying the method in multiple industrial contexts and then using lessons learned to refine and improve the method after application. Results: A measurement instrument and visualization was proposed incorporating an understanding of the release history and understanding of GSD contexts. Conclusion: The method can help with making accurate inferences about development settings because it includes details on collecting and aggregating data at a level that matches the development setting in a GSD context and involves practitioners at various phases of the investigation. Finally, the information that is produced from following the method can help practitioners make informed decisions when planning to develop software in comparable circumstances. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 23.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    An Exploratory Study of Software Evolution and Quality: Before, During and After a Transfer2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of globalization it is not uncommon that different teams from different locations get involved in the development of a software product during its evolution. However, empirical evidence that demonstrates the effect of changing team members on software quality is scarce. In this paper, we investigate quality of a software product, across subsequent software releases, that was first developed in one location of Ericsson, a large multinational corporation, then jointly with an offshore location of the same company, and finally transferred offshore. To get a better understanding multiple data sources are used in the analysis: qualitative data, consisting of interviews and documentation, and quantitative data, consisting of release history and defect statistics. Our findings confirm an initial decline in efficiency and quality after a transfer, and highlight the areas of concern for companies that are considering transferring their product development from experienced teams to those having limited or no previous engagement with the product.

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  • 24. jabangwe, Ronald
    et al.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Decision support for offshore insourcing software development2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Proximity to customers and the possibility of accessing new and prospective markets are some of the factors that compel companies to consider various sourcing options and go global. One sourcing option that has consequently become popular is Offshore insourcing. Though it is appealing as a business strategy due to the perceived benefits, there are some strategies that may inexplicably impact software quality. The objective of this research work is to focus on producing empirical evidence that is valuable input to support decision-making during offshore insourcing projects. The input will help with evaluating different strategies on their impact on quality.

  • 25.
    Jabangwe, Ronald
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. Lero / Regulated Software Research Centre.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Hessbo, Emil
    Distributed Software Development in an Offshore Outsourcing Project: A Case Study of Source Code Evolution and Quality2016Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 72, s. 125-136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Offshore outsourcing collaborations can result in distributed development, which has been linked to quality-related concerns. However, there are few studies that focus on the implication of distributed development on quality, and they report inconsistent findings using different proxies for quality. Thus, there is a need for more studies, as well as to identify useful proxies for certain distributed contexts. The presented empirical study was performed in a context that involved offshore outsourcing vendors in a multisite distributed development setting.

    Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate how quality changes during evolution in a distributed development environment that incurs organizational changes in terms of number of companies involved.

    Method: A case study approach is followed in the investigation. Only post-release defects are used as a proxy for external quality due to unreliable defect data found pre-release such as those reported during integration. Focus group meetings were also held with practitioners.

    Results: The results suggest that practices that can be grouped into product, people, and process categories can help ensure post-release quality. However, post-release defects are insufficient for showing a conclusive impact on quality of the development setting. This is because the development teams worked independently as isolated distributed teams, and integration defects would help to better reflect on the impact on quality of the development setting.

    Conclusions: The mitigation practices identified can be useful information to practitioners that are planning to engage in similar globally distributed development projects. Finally, it is important to take into consideration the arrangement of distributed development teams in global projects, and to use the context to identify appropriate proxies for quality in order to draw correct conclusions about the implications of the context. This would help with providing practitioners with well-founded findings about the impact on quality of globally distributed development settings.

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  • 26. Jalali, Samireh
    et al.
    Gencel, Cigdem
    Šmite, Darja
    Trust Dynamics in Global Software Engineering2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trust is one of the key factors that determines success or failure of any software project. However, achieving and maintaining trust in distributed software projects, when team members are geographically, temporally and culturally distant from each other, is a remarkable challenge. This paper explores the dynamics of trust and best practices performed in software organizations to address trust-related issues in global software engineering. Semistructured interviews were conducted in six different distributed software development organizations and a resulting trust dynamics model is presented. Based on the findings, the paper also provides suggestions for the industry to achieve trust in distributed collaborations.

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  • 27. Kiani, Zia U. R.
    et al.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Riaz, Aamer
    Measuring Awareness in Cross-Team Collaborations – Distance Matters2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing and maintaining team awareness within and across teams working in the same project helps team members in aligning their activities and facilitates implicit coordination. This requires both task and presence awareness. In this paper, we share our findings from a survey in which we measured the level of team awareness in cross-team collaborations with varying degree of separation. To measure the levels of awareness we asked questions like who is who, who knows what, who is on a vacation, who depends on whom and alike. Results from surveying 17 pairs of teams from 15 organizations indicate that level of awareness in cross-team collaborations is generally lower than that within the teams. We also found that task and presence awareness levels are independent and can vary. In addition to distance, we identified a few other factors with potential positive and negative influence on team awareness.

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  • 28.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Stray, Viktoria
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik. SINTEF, Norway.
    Mikalsen, Marius
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Attractive Workplaces: What Are Engineers Looking for?2023Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 85-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Competing for talents requires a conscious effort to offer an attractive workplace, which, until recently, involved increasing employee empowerment and engagement and offering opportunities for bottom-up innovation. Today, this is not sufficient, pushing tech companies to harmonize existing strategies with remote work.

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  • 29. Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Hanssen, Geir Kjetil
    From Offshore Outsourcing to Offshore Insourcing: Three Stories2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most large software companies are involved in offshore development of some sort, and now the trend is that small and medium sized companies are also going global. While empirical research suggests that offshoring are not always successful, evidence explaining the reasons for terminated collaborations is scarce, especially for small and medium sized companies. In this paper we explore the stories of three Scandinavian medium-sized software companies that have terminated their offshore outsourcing relationships and changed to offshore insourcing arrangements. The main reason for termination was disappointing low quality of the software delivered, being caused by insufficient domain knowledge, high turnover and a lack of motivation among the remote and external developers. We apply the theory of single-loop and double-loop learning in order to explain why the companies failed to correct the experienced problems, and the theory of escalating commitment to explain why the companies did not correct the failing course of action earlier. Finally we describe the change in the choice of the principle sourcing strategy from outsourcing to insourcing.

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  • 30.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Hanssen, Geir Kjetil
    Barney, Hamish
    From offshore outsourcing to insourcing and partnerships: four failed outsourcing attempts2014Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 1225-1258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most large software companies are involved in offshore development, now small and medium-sized companies are starting to undertake global sourcing too. Empirical research suggests that offshoring is not always successful; however, only a few comprehensive failure stories have been reported. The objective of our study has been to understand why small and medium-sized companies terminate their offshore outsourcing relationships and what alternative arrangements they undertake afterwards. Therefore, we designed a multiple case study of four medium-sized Scandinavian software companies that have terminated their offshore outsourcing relationships. Our results are based on data collected through semi-structured interviews, informal dialogues and analysis of company documents. We found that all companies terminated their offshore contracts because of low quality of the software being developed. This was caused by an inability to build the necessary human and social capital. The companies reported challenges with domain knowledge, a lack of commitment of external developers, cultural clashes, poor communication and high turnover, which only amplified the problems. After termination all four companies changed their sourcing strategy from offshore outsourcing to offshore insourcing and partnerships. We conclude that successful offshore software development requires a change from a cost-driven focus to an intellectual capital driven focus. To prevent continuous investments into contracts that are destined to fail, companies should look for signs of escalating commitments and terminate relationships that cannot be corrected. Those companies that choose outsourcing shall also take into account that mismatch between the size of the offshore contract relative to the vendor may have a negative effect on a relationship.

  • 31.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Paasivaara, Maria
    Aalto University, FIN.
    Lassenius, Casper
    Aalto University, FIN.
    Finding the sweet spot for organizational control and team autonomy in large-scale agile software development2021Ingår i: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 26, nr 5, artikel-id 101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methods and the related concepts of employee empowerment, self-management, and autonomy have reached large-scale software organizations and raise questions about commonly adopted principles for authority distribution. However, the optimum mechanism to balance the need for alignment, quality, and process control with the need or willingness of teams to be autonomous remains an unresolved issue. In this paper, we report our findings from a multiple-case study in two large-scale software development organizations in the telecom industry. We analysed the autonomy of the agile teams in the organizations using Hackman’s classification of unit authority and found that the teams were partly self-managing. Further, we found that alignment across teams can be achieved top-down by management and bottom-up through membership in communities or through dialogue between the team and management. However, the degree of team autonomy was limited by the need for organizational alignment. Top-down alignment and control were maintained through centralized decision-making for certain areas, the use of supervisory roles, mandatory processes, and checklists. One case employed a bottom-up approach to alignment through the formation of a community composed of all teams, experts, and supporting roles, but excluding managers. This community-based alignment involved teams in decision-making and engaged them in alignment initiatives. We conclude that implementation of such bottom-up structures seems to provide one possible mechanism for balancing organizational control and team autonomy in large-scale software development. © 2021, The Author(s).

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  • 32.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šāblis, Aivars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Börjesson, Anne-Lie
    Andréasson, Pia
    Networking in a Large-Scale Distributed Agile Project2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In large-scale distributed software projects the expertise may be scattered across multiple locations. Goal: We describe and discuss a large-scale distributed agile project at Ericsson, a multinational telecommunications company headquartered in Sweden. The project is distributed across four development locations (one in Sweden, one in Korea and two in China) and employs 17 teams. In such a large scale environment the challenge is to have as few dependences between teams as possible, which is one reason why Ericsson introduced crossfunctional feature teams – teams that are capable of taking the full responsibility for implementing one entire feature. To support such teams when solving problems, ensure knowledge sharing within the project and safeguard the quality Ericsson introduced a new role – Technical Area Responsible (TAR). Method: We conducted extensive fieldwork for 9 months at two Ericsson sites in Sweden and China. We interviewed representatives from different roles in the organization, in addition to focus groups and a survey with seven teams. Results: We describe the TAR role, and how the TARs communicate, coordinate and support the teams. Also architects support the teams, however not as closely as the TARs. We found that the TAR is usually a senior developer working halftime or fulltime in the role. We also present measures of the actual knowledge network of three Chinese and three Swedish teams and the TARs position in it. Conclusions: TARs are central in the knowledge network and act as the boundary spanners between the teams and between the sites. We learned that availability of the TARs across sites is lower than that with local TARs. We also found that the size of a team’s knowledge network depends on how long the team members have been working in the company. Finally we discuss the advantages and the challenges of introducing experts in key roles in large scale distributed agile development.

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  • 33. Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    jabangwe, Ronald
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Damian, Daniela
    Risk identification and risk mitigation instruments for global software development: Systematic review and survey results2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research we conducted a systematic reviewon Global Software Development (GSD) literature andperformed a survey to gather challenges associated with GSD projects as well as their mitigation strategies. We reviewedstudies with empirical evidence in GSD. In total there are 86papers included as the primary studies. From the systematicreview we collected 48 challenges and 42 mitigation strategies. These challenges and strategies were also identified by our survey respondents. In addition, 4 additional mitigation strategies were uncovered from the survey. The collected challenges and mitigation strategies are later compiled into checklists which can be employed as risk identification and risk mitigation instruments.

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  • 34.
    Razzak, Mohammad Abdur
    et al.
    Daffodil Int Univ, BGD.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Knowledge Management in Globally Distributed Agile Projects-Lesson Learned2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 10TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GLOBAL SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (ICGSE 2015), IEEE , 2015, s. 81-89Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management (KM) is essential for success in any software project, but especially in global software development where team members are separated by time and space. Software organizations are managing knowledge in various ways to increase transparency and improve software team performance. One way to classify these strategies is proposed by Earl who defined seven knowledge management schools. The objective of this research is to study knowledge creation and sharing practices in a number of distributed agile projects, map these practices to the knowledge management strategies and determine which strategies are most common, which are applied only locally and which are applied globally. This is done by conducting a series of semi-structured qualitative interviews over a period of time span during May, 2012-June, 2013. Our results suggest that knowledge sharing across remote locations in distributed agile projects heavily relies on knowledge codification, i.e. technocratic KM strategies, even when the same knowledge is shared tacitly within the same location, i.e. through behavioral KM strategies.

  • 35. Razzak, Mohammad Abdur
    et al.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Ahmed, Rajib
    Spatial knowledge creation and sharing activities in a distributed agile project2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management (KM) is key to the success of any software organization. KM in software development has been the center of attention for researchers due to its potential to improve productivity. However, the knowledge is not only stored in repositories but is also shared in the office space. Agile software development teams use the benefits of shared space to foster knowledge creation. But it is difficult to create and share this type of knowledge, when team members are distributed. This participatory single-case study indicates that, distributed team members rely heavily on knowledge codification and application of tools for knowledge sharing. We have found that, the studied project did not use any specific software or hardware that would enable spatial knowledge creation and sharing. Therefore parts of the knowledge items not codified were destined to be unavailable for remote team members.

  • 36.
    Sablis, Aivars
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Exploring cross-site networking in large-scale distributed projects2018Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 11271, s. 318-333Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Networking in a distributed large-scale project is complex because of many reasons: time zone problems can make it challenging to reach remote contacts, teams rarely meet face-to-face which means that remote project members are often unfamiliar with each other, and applying activities for growing the network across sites is also challenging. At the same time, networking is one of the primary ways to share and receive knowledge and information important for developing software tasks and coordinating project activities. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to explore the actual networks of teams working in large-scale distributed software development projects and project characteristics that might impact their need for networking. Method: We conducted a multi-case study with three project cases in two companies, with software development teams as embedded units of analysis. We organized 20 individual interviews to characterize the development projects and surveyed 96 members from the total of 14 teams to draw the actual teams networks. Results: Our results show that teams in large-scale projects network in order to acquire knowledge from experts, and to coordinate tasks with other teams. We also learned that regardless of project characteristics, networking between sites in distributed projects is relatively low. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the importance of networking. Therefore, we suggest that similar companies should pay extra attention for cultivating a networking culture in the large to strengthen their cross-site communication. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 37.
    Tkalich, Anastasiia
    et al.
    SINTEF, NOR.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Andersen, Nina Haugland
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NOR.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    SINTEF, NOR.
    What Happens to Psychological Safety When Going Remote?2024Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 113-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological safety is a precondition for learning and success in software teams. But what happens to psychological safety when work becomes remote? In this article, we explore how Norwegian software developers experienced remote work under the pandemic and after restrictions were waved and describe simple behaviors and attitudes related to psychological safety. We pay special attention to work arrangements in which team members alternate days in the office with days working remotely. Our key takeaway is that psychological safety is enabled by spontaneous interaction, which is easy to facilitate in the office and hard to facilitate remotely. Our findings lead us to recommend that team members align their work modes to increase chances for spontaneous interaction in the office while benefiting from the increased focus associated with working remotely. Author

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  • 38.
    Ulfsnes, Rasmus
    et al.
    SINTEF, NOR.
    Stray, Viktoria
    SINTEF, NOR.
    Moe, Nils Brede
    SINTEF, NOR.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Innovation in Large-Scale Agile - Benefits and Challenges of Hackathons When Hacking from Home2021Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Gregory P., Kruchten P., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, Vol. 426, s. 23-32Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hackathons are events in which diverse teams work together to explore and develop solutions, software, or even ideas. Hackathons have been recognized not only as public events for hacking but also as a corporate mechanism for innovation. Hackathons are a way for established large-scale agile organizations to achieve increased employee wellbeing as well as being a curator for innovation and developing new products. The sudden transition to the work-from-home mode caused by the COVID-19 pandemic first put many corporate events requiring collocation, such as hackathons, temporarily on hold and then motivated companies to find ways to hold these events virtually. In this paper, we report our findings from investigating hackathons in the context of a large agile company by first exploring the general benefits and challenges of hackathons and then trying to understand how they were affected by the virtual setup. We conducted nine interviews, surveyed 23 employees, and analyzed a hackathon demo. We found that hackathons provide both individual and organizational benefits of innovation, personal interests, and acquiring new skills and competencies. However, several challenges such as added stress due to stopping the regular work, employees fearing not having enough contribution to deliver, and potential mismatch between individual and organizational goals were also found. With respect to the virtual setup, we found that virtual hackathons are not diminishing the innovation benefits. However, some negative effects surfaced on the social and networking side. © 2021, The Author(s).

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  • 39.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Supporting strategic decision-making for selection of software assets2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Lamprecht A.-L.,Maglyas A., Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, s. 1-15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies developing software are constantly striving to gain or keep their competitive advantage on the market. To do so, they should balance what to develop themselves and what to get from elsewhere, which may be software components or software services. These strategic decisions need to be aligned with business objectives and the capabilities and constraints of possible options. These sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to support decision-makers in selecting appropriate types of origins in a specific case that maximizes the benefits of the selected business strategy. The approach consists of three descriptive models, as well as a decision process and a knowledge repository. The three models are a decision model that comprises three cornerstones (stakeholders, origins and criteria) and is based on a taxonomy for formulating decision models in this context, and two supporting models (property models and context models). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

  • 40.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Classifications of Software Transfers2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies have development sites around the globe. This inevitably means that development work may be transferred between the sites. This paper defines a classification of software transfer types; it divides transfers into three main types: full, partial and gradual transfers to describe the context of a transfer. The differences between transfer types, and hence the need for a classification, are illustrated with staffing curves for two different transfer types. The staffing curves are obtained through a combination of interviews with both high-level management and a group of experts, and an industrial case study. From the empirical work, it is concluded that the distribution of personnel differs for different types of transfer, which means that it is crucial to be clear about different classes of software transfers. If not, it is easy to underestimate the effort needed to transfer software work as well as additional costs related to the transfer as such.

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  • 41.
    Wohlin, Claes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Moe, Nilsbrede
    A general theory of software engineering: Balancing human, social and organizational capitals2015Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 109, s. 229-242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There exists no generally accepted theory in software engineering, and at the same time a scientific discipline needs theories. Some laws, hypotheses and conjectures exist, but yet no generally accepted theory. Several researchers and initiatives emphasize the need for theory in the discipline. The objective of this paper is to formulate a theory of software engineering. The theory is generated from empirical observations of industry practice, including several case studies and many years of experience in working closely between academia and industry. The theory captures the balancing of three different intellectual capitals: human, social and organizational capitals, respectively. The theory is formulated using a method for building theories in software engineering. It results in a theory where the relationships between the three different intellectual capitals are explored and explained. The theory is illustrated based on an industrial case study, where it is shown how decisions made in industry practice are explainable with the formulated theory, and the consequences of the decisions are made explicit. Based on the positive results, it is concluded that the theory may have a good explanatory power, although more evaluations are needed. ©2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierInc.ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense.

  • 42.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A taxonomy of assets for the development of software-intensive products and services2023Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 202, artikel-id 111701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:Developing software-intensive products or services usually involves a plethora of software artefacts. Assets are artefacts intended to be used more than once and have value for organisations; examples include test cases, code, requirements, and documentation. During the development process, assets might degrade, affecting the effectiveness and efficiency of the development process. Therefore, assets are an investment that requires continuous management.

    Identifying assets is the first step for their effective management. However, there is a lack of awareness of what assets and types of assets are common in software-developing organisations. Most types of assets are understudied, and their state of quality and how they degrade over time have not been well-understood.

    Methods:We performed an analysis of secondary literature and a field study at five companies to investigate and identify assets to fill the gap in research. The results were analysed qualitatively and summarised in a taxonomy.

    Results:We present the first comprehensive, structured, yet extendable taxonomy of assets, containing 57 types of assets.

    Conclusions:The taxonomy serves as a foundation for identifying assets that are relevant for an organisation and enables the study of asset management and asset degradation concepts.

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  • 43.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Fagerholm, Fabian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Asset Management Taxonomy: A Roadmap2021Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing a software-intensive product or service can be a significant undertaking, associated with unique challenges in each project stage, from inception to development, delivery, maintenance, and evolution. Each step results in artefacts that are crucial for the project outcome, such as source-code and supporting deliverables, e.g., documentation.

    Artefacts which have inherent value for the organisation are assets, and as assets, they are subject to degradation. This degradation occurs over time, as artefacts age, and can be more immediate or slowly over a period of time, similar to the concept of technical debt. One challenge with the concept of assets is that it seems not to be well-understood and generally delimited to a few types of assets (often code-based), overlooking other equally important assets. 

    To bridge this gap, we have performed a study to formulate a structured taxonomy of assets. We use empirical data collected through industrial workshops and a literature review to ground the taxonomy. The taxonomy serves as foundations for concepts like asset degradation and asset management. The taxonomy can help contextualise, homogenise, extend the concept of technical debt, and serves as a conceptual framework for better identification, discussion, and utilisation of assets.

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  • 44.
    Zabardast, Ehsan
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gonzalez-Huerta, Javier
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Refactoring, Bug Fixing, and New Development Effect on Technical Debt: An Industrial Case Study2020Ingår i: Proceedings - 46th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2020 / [ed] Martini A.,Wimmer M.,Skavhaug A., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, s. 376-384, artikel-id 9226289Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Code evolution, whether related to the development of new features, bug fixing, or refactoring, inevitably changes the quality of the code. One particular type of such change is the accumulation of Technical Debt (TD) resulting from sub-optimal design decisions. Traditionally, refactoring is one of the means that has been acknowledged to help to keep TD under control. Developers refactor their code to improve its maintainability and to repay TD (e.g., by removing existing code smells and anti-patterns in the source code). While the accumulation of the TD and the effect of refactoring on TD have been studied before, there is a lack of empirical evidence from industrial projects on how the different types of code changes affect the TD and whether specific refactoring operations are more effective for repaying TD. To fill this gap, we conducted an empirical study on an industrial project and investigated how Refactoring, Bug Fixing, and New Development affect the TD. We have analyzed 2, 286 commits in total to identify which activities reduced, kept the same, or even increased the TD, further delving into specific refactoring operations to assess their impact. Our results suggest that TD in the studied project is mainly introduced in the development of new features (estimated in 72.8 hours). Counterintuitively, from the commits tagged as refactoring, only 22.90% repay TD (estimated to repay 8.30 hours of the TD). Moreover, while some types of refactoring operations (e.g., Extract Method), help repaying TD, other refactoring operations (e.g., Move Class) are highly prone to introduce more TD. © 2020 IEEE.

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  • 45.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Conflicting Interests in the Hybrid Workplace: Five Perspectives to Consider2023Ingår i: Software Quality: Higher Software Quality through Zero Waste Development / [ed] Mendez D., Winkler D., Winkler D., Kross J., Biffl S., Bergsmann J., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023, Vol. 472, s. 3-13Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One clear legacy from the COVID-19 pandemic is the widespread adoption of remote work and flexible work arrangements, especially in tech companies. However, the practicability of remote working has raised a significant debate. The preferences for remote work vary greatly even among the employees of the same company. Individual wishes for remote vs office work can be often found anywhere on the spectrum from fully remote work to fully onsite with the hybrid working options of a varying degree in the middle. The most obvious common denominator in this situation is full flexibility, i.e., letting people decide when they want to work where. However, such one-fits-all strategy does not really fit anybody. Instead, it gives rise to several inherent conflicts of interest. In this position paper, we summarize opinions and experiences about remote work in five fictional personas as collective images based on extensive research: quantitative data, research interviews, and informal discussions with both employees and managers in tech companies, including Spotify, Ericsson, Telenor, Tieto, SONY, and many others. We conclude that increased flexibility at work leads to the conflict of individual interests of increased personal flexibility, team interest of efficient teamwork and corporate interests of preserving efficiency, company culture, and retaining the talents. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 46.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Distributed Project Management2014Ingår i: Software Project Management in a Changing World / [ed] Ruhe, Guenther; Wohlin, Claes, Springer , 2014, s. 301-320Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47. Šmite, Darja
    What happens, when software product development companies go global?2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization has significantly changed the way the market operates today. In particular, it motivated many software companies expand through acquisitions and utilize skillful resources regardless of their location around the globe. Global software engineering endeavors have been widely explored in the research literature for the past decade and associated with many challenges caused by geographic, temporal and cultural distances. While software development as such is quite a challenging task, involvement of dispersed and diverse software teams created a perceived crisis with respect to, so called, soft issues that have not been targeted in the past. The effect of distribution versus co-location is still under investigation, and the most commonly referred challenges are related to communication, coordination and control. Thus the focus of research to a large extent has shifted from software product as the center, to people developing software.

  • 48. Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Borzovs, Juris
    New Forms of Work in the Light of Globalization in Software Development2009Ingår i: Infonomics for Distributed Business and Decision-Making Environments: Creating Information System Ecology / [ed] Pankowska, Malgorzata; Adamiecki, Karol, Business Science Reference , 2009Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization in software development introduced significant changes in the way organizations operate today. Software is nowadays produced by team members from geographically, temporally and culturally remote sites. Organizations seek for benefits that global market offers and face new challenges. Naturally resistant to change, these organizations often do not realize necessity for tailoring existing methods for distributed collaboration. Our empirical investigation shows a great variety in the ways organizations distribute responsibilities across remote sites and conclude that these can be divided into two main categories: joint collaboration that requires investments in team building and independent collaboration that requires investments in knowledge management and transfer. Finally we discuss practices that are applied in industry to overcome these challenges and emphasize necessity to fully understand the pros and cons of different ways to organize distributed software projects before starting a project in this new environment.

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  • 49.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Van Solingen, Rini
    Delft University of Technology, NLD.
    Calculating the extra costs and the bottom-line hourly cost of offshoring2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, ICGSE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 96-105Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring software development activities to a remote site in another country continues to be one of the key strategies to save development cost. However, the assumed economic benefits of offshoring are often questionable, due to a large number of hidden costs and too simple cost calculations. This study is a continuation of our work on calculating the true hourly cost that includes the extra direct and indirect costs on top of the salary-based hourly rates. We collected data from an empirical case study conducted in a large international corporation. This corporation develops software-intensive systems and has offshored its ongoing product development from Sweden to a recently on-boarded captive company site in India. In this paper, we report a number of extra costs and their impact on the resulting hourly cost as well as the bottom-line cost per work unit. Our analysis includes quantitative data from corporate archives, and expert-based estimates gathered through focus groups and workshops with company representatives from both the onshore and the offshore sites. Our findings show that there is additional cost that can be directly or at least strongly attributed to the transfer of work, working on a distance, and immaturity of the offshore site. Consideration of extra costs increases the hourly cost several times, while the performance gaps between the mature sites and the immature site leads to an even higher difference. As a result, two years after on-boarding of the offshore teams, the mature teams in high-cost locations continue to be 'cheaper' despite the big salary differences, and the most positive hypothetical scenario, in which the company could break even, is unrealistic. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, offshoring of complex ongoing products does not seem to lead to short-term bottom-line economic gains, and may not even reach breakeven within five years. Second, offshoring in the studied case can be justified but merely when initiated for other reasons than cost. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 50.
    Šmite, Darja
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Calefato, Fabio
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Cost Savings in Global Software Engineering Where's the Evidence?2015Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 26-32Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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