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  • 1. Adams, Liz
    et al.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    What It's Like to Participate in an ITiCSE Working Group2011In: ACM SIGCSE Bulletin, Vol. 43, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2. Adams, R.
    et al.
    Fincher, S.
    Pears, A.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Bousted, J.
    Dalenius, P.
    Eken, G.
    Heyer, T.
    Jacobsson, A.
    Lindberg, V.
    Molin, B.
    Moström, J.-E.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wiggberg, M.
    What is the Word for Engineering in Swedish: Swedish Students' Conceptions of their Discipline2007Report (Other academic)
  • 3. Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Dagiéne, Valentina
    Forword to the Special Section on the ECOOP'06 Workshop on Pedagogies and Tools for the Teaching and Learning of Object-Oriented Concepts2007In: Informatics in Education, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    An Evolutionary Perspective on Socio-Technical Congruence:The Rubber Band Effect2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conway’s law assumes a strong association between the system’s architecture and the organization’s communication structure that designs it. In the light of contemporary software development, when many companies rely on geographically distributed teams, which often turn out to be temporarily composed and thus having an often changing communication structure, the importance of Conway’s law and its inspired work grows. In this paper, we examine empirical research related to Conway’s law and its application for cross-site coordination. Based on the results obtained we conjecture that changes in the communication structure alone sooner or later trigger changes in the design structure of the software products to return the sociotechnical system into the state of congruence. This is further used to formulate a concept of a rubber band effect and propose a replication study that goes beyond the original idea of Conway’s law by investigating the evolution of socio-technical congruence over time.

  • 5.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An Empirical Investigation on Effort Estimation in Agile Global Software Development2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE 10th International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2015, p. 38-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effort estimation is a project management activity that is mandatory for the execution of softwareprojects. Despite its importance, there have been just a few studies published on such activities within the Agile Global Software Development (AGSD) context. Their aggregated results were recently published as part of a secondary study that reported the state of the art on effort estimationin AGSD. This study aims to complement the above-mentioned secondary study by means of anempirical investigation on the state of the practice on effort estimation in AGSD. To do so, a survey was carried out using as instrument an on-line questionnaire and a sample comprising softwarepractitioners experienced in effort estimation within the AGSD context. Results show that the effortestimation techniques used within the AGSD and collocated contexts remained unchanged, with planning poker being the one employed the most. Sourcing strategies were found to have no or a small influence upon the choice of estimation techniques. With regard to effort predictors, globalchallenges such as cultural and time zone differences were reported, in addition to factors that are commonly considered in the collocated context, such as team experience. Finally, many challenges that impact the accuracy of the effort estimates were reported by the respondents, such as problems with the software requirements and the fact that the communication effort between sites is not properly accounted.

  • 6.
    Britto, Ricardo
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Lars-Ola, Damm
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Learning and Performance Evolution of Immature Remote Teams in Large-ScaleSoftware Projects: An Industrial Case StudyIn: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Large-scale distributed software projects with long life cycles often involve a considerable amount ofcomplex legacy code. The combination of scale and distribution challenges, and the diculty to acquire knowledgeabout large amounts of complex legacy code may make the onboarding of new developers/teams problematic. Thismay lead to extended periods of low performance.Objective: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the learning processes and performance evolutions (teamproductivity and team autonomy) of remote software development teams added late to a large-scale legacy softwareproduct development, and to propose recommendations to support the learning of remote teams.Method: We conducted a case study in Ericsson, collecting data through archival research, semi-structured interviews,and workshops. We analyzed the collected data using descriptive, inferential and graphical statistics and softqualitative analysis.Results: The results show that the productivity and autonomy of immature remote teams are on average 3.67 and2.27 times lower than the ones of mature teams, respectively. Furthermore, their performance had a steady increaseduring almost the entire first year and dropped (productivity) or got stagnated (autonomy) for a great part of the secondyear. In addition to these results, we also identified four challenges that aected the learning process and performanceevolution of immature remote teams: complexity of the product and technology stack, distance to the main source ofproduct knowledge, lack of team stability, and training expectation misalignment.Conclusion: The results indicate that scale, distribution and complex legacy code may make learning more dicultand demand a long period to achieve high performance. To support the learning of remote teams, we put forward fiverecommendations. We believe that our quantitative analysis, as well as the identified factors and recommendationscan help other companies to onboard new remote teams in large-scale legacy product development projects.

  • 7.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Classes or Objects? CRC-cards Considered Harmful: Extended Abstract2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    CRC-Cards and Roleplay Diagrams--Informal Tools to Teach OO Thinking2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Improving CRC-Card Role-Play with Role-Play Diagrams2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Killer Examples Workshop: Expression of Interest2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Through Scenario Role-Play2004Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Objektorientiertes Programmieren--Machen wir irgendwas falsch?2007In: Didaktik der Informatik in Theorie und Praxis / [ed] Sigrid Schubert, 2007, p. 9-20Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden2006Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Tenth workshop on pedagogies and tools for the teaching and learning of object-oriented concepts2007In: Object-oriented technology: ECOOP 2006 workshop reader / [ed] Mario Südholt & Charles Consel, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2007, p. 147-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the results of the tenth workshop on pedagogies and tools for the teaching and learning of object-oriented concepts. The focus of this year’s workshop was on examples, modelling and abstraction. Participants agreed that carefully developed scaffolded examples are a key element for learning to program. For the teaching of modelling and abstraction this area, however, seems badly neglected. The workshop gathered 12 participants, all from academia, from 10 different countries.

  • 15.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Using Role-Play Diagrams to Improve Scenario Role-Play2010In: Graph Transformations and Model-Driven Engineering: Essays Dedicated to Manfred Nagl on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday / [ed] Gregor Engels, Claus Lewerentz, Wilhelm Schäfer, Andy Schürr, Bernhard Westfechtel, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg , 2010, p. 309-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CRC-cards are a common lightweight approach to collaborative object-oriented analysis and design. They have been adopted by many educators and trainers to teach object-oriented modelling. In our experience, we have noticed many subtle problems and issues that have largely gone unnoticed in the literature. Two of the major issues are related to the CRC-card role-play as described in the literature. Although CRC-cards are representing classes, they are also utilized as substitutes for the actual objects during the scenario role-play. Furthermore; it is quite difficult to document or trace the scenario role-play. We propose using Role-Play Diagrams (RPDs) to overcome these problems. Our experience so far is quite positive. Novices have fewer problems with role-play activities when using these diagrams. Teaching and learning the new type of diagram adds only little overhead to the overall CRC-approach. Although our improvements specifically target the teaching and learning of object-oriented modelling, we believe that RPDs can be successfully applied in professional software development.

  • 16.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Bay, Omer Faruk
    Baturay, Meltem
    Trapp, Sonja
    Heintz, Matthias
    Weber, Sebastian
    embed4Auto-A PLE for Software Modelling2010In: ITICSE 2010: proceedings of the 2010 ACM SIGCSE annual conference on innovation and technology in computer science education, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2010, p. 322-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed courseware for UML/SysML modelling based on the needs of the European embedded/automotive industry. The courseware supports interactive modelling exercises. First evaluations show promising results.

  • 17.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Caspersen, Michael E.
    Nordström, Marie
    Beauty and the Beast: on the readability of object-oriented example programs2016In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 231-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some solutions to a programming problem are more elegant or more simple than others and thus more understandable for students. We review desirable properties of example programs from a cognitive and a measurement point of view. Certain cognitive aspects of example programs are captured by common software measures, but they are not sufficient to capture a key aspect of understandability: readability. We propose and discuss a simple readability measure for software, SRES, and apply it to object-oriented textbook examples. Our results show that readability measures correlate well with human perceptions of quality. Compared with other readability measures, SRES is less sensitive to commenting and white-space. These results also have implications for software maintainability measures.

  • 18.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Caspersen, Michael E.
    Nordström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Beauty and the Beast--Toward a Measurement Framework for Example Program Quality2007Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Christensen, Henrik B
    Nordström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kallin Westin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Moström, Jan Erik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Caspersen, Michael E
    Evaluating OO Example Programs for CS12008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Dranidis, Dimitris
    Ramollari, Ervin
    Trapp, Sonja
    Heintz, Matthias
    Weber, Sebastian
    Sharing and discussing UML modeling exercises in a PLE2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present courseware for UML/SysML modelling that supports collaborative learning at a distance. Learners can solve interactive modelling exercises and discuss their solutions. First evaluations show promising results.

  • 21.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Hadar, Irit
    Eleventh workshop on pedagogies and tools for the teaching and learning of object-oriented concepts2008In: Object-oriented technology. ECOOP 2007 workshop reader: ECOOP 2007 workshops, Berlin, Germany, July 30-31, 2007, final reports / [ed] Michael Cebulla, Berlin: Springer , 2008, p. 182-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the results of the eleventh workshop on pedagogies and tools for the teaching and learning of object-oriented concepts. The focus of this year's workshop was on desirable properties of examples and the usage of simple tools. The workshop gathered 17 participants, all from academia, from 7 different countries.

  • 22.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Hall, Mark S
    University of Wisconsin.
    Nordström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Paterson, James H
    Glasgow Caledonian University.
    Sanders, Kate
    Rhode Island College.
    Schulte, Carsten
    Freie Universität Berlin.
    Thomas, Lynda
    Aberystwyth University.
    An evaluation of object oriented example programs in introductory programming textbooks2009In: SIGCSE Bulletin inroads, ISSN 0097-8418, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 126-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hilburn, Thomas B.
    Team Projects in Computing Education2015In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 16:1-16:4, article id 16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Team projects are a way to expose students to conflicting project objectives, and "[t]here should be a strong real-world element … to ensure that the experience is realistic" [ACM/IEEE-CS 2015b]. Team projects provide students an opportunity to put their education into practice and prepare them for their professional careers. The aim of this special issue is to collect and share evidence about the state-of-practice of team projects in computing education and to help educators in designing and running team projects. From a record number of 69 submitted abstracts, 19 were invited to submit a full paper. Finally, nine papers were accepted for publication in this and a subsequent issue. The articles presented in the present issue cover the following topics: real projects for real clients, open source projects, multidisciplinary team projects, student and team assessment, and cognitive and psychological aspects of team projects.

  • 24.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hilburn, Thomas B.
    Team Projects in Computing Education II2016In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 4:1-4:4, article id 4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Team projects are a way to expose students to conflicting project objectives, and "[t]here should be a strong real-world element … to ensure that the experience is realistic" [ACM/IEEE-CS 2015b]. Team projects provide students an opportunity to put their education into practice and prepare them for their professional careers. The aim of this special issue is to collect and share evidence about the state-of-practice of team projects in computing education and to help educators in designing and running team projects. From a record number of 69 submitted abstracts, 19 were invited to submit a full paper. Finally, nine papers were accepted for publication in this and a subsequent issue. The articles presented in the present issue cover the following topics: real projects for real clients, open source projects, multidisciplinary team projects, student and team assessment, and cognitive and psychological aspects of team projects.

  • 25.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Kuzniarz, Ludwik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Alphonse, Carl
    Sanders, Bill
    Smialek, Michal
    Teaching Software Modeling in Computing Curricula2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling is a key skill in software development. The ability to develop, manipulate and understand models for software is therefore an important learning objective in many CS/SE courses. In this working group, we investigated how and when (software) modeling is taught to help us better understand the key issues in teaching (software) modeling. Several shortcomings were found in common curricula, both in their understanding of the term "modeling" and in how they address its teaching. This WG report summarizes the fi ndings and formulates recommendations on the inclusion of software modeling courses in future CS/SE curricula.

  • 26.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Michiels, Isabel
    ECOOP 2004 Workshop Report: Eigth Workshop on Pedagogies and Tools for the Teaching and Learning of Object-Oriented Concepts2004In: Object-Oriented Technology: ECOOP 2004 Workshop Reader, Springer , 2004, p. 36-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Michiels, Isabel
    Bruce, Kim
    Lindholm, Morten
    Ninth Workshop on Pedagogies and Tools for the Teaching and Learning of Object-Oriented Concepts2006In: ECOOP 2005 Workshop Reader, Springer , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Nordström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kallin Westin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Moström, Jan Erik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Christensen, Henrik B.
    Bennedsen, Jens
    An Evaluation Instrument for Object-Oriented Example Programs for Novices2008Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Nordström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kallin Westin, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Moström, Jan Erik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Eliasson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Transitioning to OOP/Java: A never ending story2008In: Reflections on the teaching of programming, Springer , 2008, p. 80-97Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Nordström, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Paterson, James H
    Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland, UK.
    On the quality of examples in introductory Java textbooks2011In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-21, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Example programs play an important role in the teaching and learning of programming. Students as well as teachers rank examples as the most important resources for learning to program. Ex- ample programs work as role models and must therefore always be consistent with the principles and rules we are teaching.

    However, it is difficult to find or develop examples that are fully faithful to all principles and guidelines of the object-oriented paradigm and also follow general pedagogical principles and practices. Unless students are able to engage with good examples, they will not be able to tell desirable from undesirable properties in their own and others’ programs.

    In this paper we report on a study in which experienced educators evaluated the quality of object-oriented example programs for novices from popular Java textbooks. The evaluation was accomplished using an on-line checklist that elicited responses on the technical, object-oriented, and didactic quality of examples.

    In total 25 reviewers contributed 215 reviews to our data set, based on 38 example programs from 13 common introductory programming textbooks. Results show that the evaluation instru- ment is reliable in terms of inter-rater agreement. Overall, example quality was not as good as one might expect from common textbooks, in particular regarding certain object-oriented properties.

    We conclude that educators should be careful when taking examples straight out of a textbook.

  • 31.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Paech, Barbara
    The Role of Method Chains and Comments in Software Readability and Comprehension – An Experiment2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 886-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software readability and comprehension are important factors in software maintenance. There is a large body of research on software measurement, but the actual factors that make software easier to read or easier to comprehend are not well understood. In the present study, we investigate the role of method chains and code comments in software readability and comprehension. Our analysis comprises data from 104 students with varying programming experience. Readability and comprehension were measured by perceived readability, reading time and performance on a simple cloze test. Regarding perceived readability, our results show statistically significant differences between comment variants, but not between method chain variants. Regarding comprehension, there are no significant differences between method chain or comment variants. Student groups with low and high experience, respectively, show significant differences in perceived readability and performance on the cloze tests. Our results do not show any significant relationships between perceived readability and the other measures taken in the present study. Perceived readability might therefore be insufficient as the sole measure of software readability or comprehension. We also did not find any statistically significant relationships between size and perceived readability, reading time and comprehension.

  • 32.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Schulte, Carsten
    Teaching Object Oriented Modelling with CRC Cards and Roleplaying Games2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Störrle, Harald
    QAware GmbH, DEU.
    Toll, Daniel
    Linné University, SWE.
    van Assema, Jelle
    University of Amsterdam, NLD.
    Duran, Rodrigo
    Aalto University, FIN.
    Hooshangi, Sara
    George Washington University, USA.
    Jeuring, Johan
    Utrecht University, NLD.
    Keuning, Hieke
    Windesheim University of Applied Sciences, NLD.
    Kleiner, Carsten
    University of Applied Sciences & Arts Hannover, DEU.
    MacKellar, Bonnie
    St John’s University, USA.
    “I know it when I see it”: Perceptions of Code Quality2018In: ITiCSE-WGR 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ITiCSE Conference on Working Group ReportsVolume 2018-January, 30 January 2018, ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 70-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Code quality is a key issue in software development. The ability to develop high quality software is therefore a key learning goal of computing programs. However, there are no universally accepted measures to assess the quality of code and current standards are considered weak. Furthermore, there are many facets to code quality. Defining and explaining the concept of code quality is therefore a challenge faced by many educators.

    Objectives. In this working group, we investigated code quality as perceived by students, educators, and professional developers, in particular, the differences in their views of code quality and which quality aspects they consider as more or less important. Furthermore, we investigated their sources for information about code quality and its assessment.

    Methods. We interviewed 34 students, educators and professional developers regarding their perceptions of code quality. For the interviews they brought along code from their own experience to discuss and exemplify code quality.

    Results. There was no common definition of code quality among or within these groups. Quality was mostly described in terms of indicators that could measure an aspect of code quality. Among these indicators, readability was named most frequently by all groups. The groups showed significant differences in the sources they use for learning about code quality with education ranked lowest in all groups.

    Conclusions. Code quality should be discussed more thoroughly in educational programs.

  • 34. Edwards, S. H.
    et al.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Cassel, L. N.
    Hall, Mark
    Hollingsworth, S.
    Developing a Common Format for Sharing Assignments2008In: SIGCSE Bulletin inroads, ISSN 0097-8418, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 167-182Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    The FAR Approach−Functional Analysis/Allocation and Requirements Flowdown Using Use Case Realizations2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Use Cases for Systems Engineering—An Approach and Empirical Validation2008In: Journal of Systems Engineering, ISSN 0938-7706, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 39-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    A systems product line approach2009In: Applied Software Product-Line Engineering / [ed] Kyo C. Kang, Vijayan Sugumaran, Sooyong Park, Taylor & Francis , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    Anchoring the Product Line Process---Tailoring the RUP Life-Cycle Model to Software Product Line Development2007Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    BAE Systems Hägglunds AB, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Managing requirements specifications for product lines: An approach and industry case study2009In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 435-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product line development has emerged as a leading approach for software reuse. This paper describes an approach to manage natural-language requirements specifications in a software product line context. Variability in such product line specifications is modeled and managed using a feature model. The proposed approach has been introduced in the Swedish defense industry. We present a multiple-case study covering two different product lines with in total eight product instances. These were compared to experiences from previous projects in the organization employing clone-and-own reuse. We conclude that the proposed product line approach performs better than clone-and-own reuse of requirements specifications in this particular industrial context.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    Marrying Features and Use Cases for Product Line Requirements Modeling of Embedded Systems2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    Performing Functional Analysis/Allocation and Requirements Flowdown Using Use Case Realizations---An Empirical Evaluation2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    Software Product Line Modeling Made Practical: An Example from the Swedish Defense Industry2006In: Communications of the ACM, ISSN 0001-0782, E-ISSN 1557-7317, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 49-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    The PLUSS Toolkit--Domain Modeling with Features, Use Cases and Use Case Realizations2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Morast, Henrik
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    An Empirical Evaluation of the PLUSS Toolkit2006Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Morast, Henrik
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Borg, Kjell
    The PLUSS Toolkit: Extending Telelogic Doors and IBM-Rational Rose to Support Product Line Use Case Modeling2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PLUSS approach (Product Line Use case modeling for Systems and Software engineering) is a domain modeling method tailored towards the development of long lived software intensive systems. PLUSS provides means to maintain a common and complete use case model for a whole family of systems. In this paper, we describe how the commercial requirements management tool Telelogic DOORS and the UML modeling tool IBM-Rational Rose can be extended and used for managing system family models in accordance with the PLUSS approach

  • 46.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Seyff, Norbert
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ethical considerations in research on user feedback2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 194-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collecting and using user feedback as a method to support requirements engineering, might undermine user rights. This becomes apparent when looking at related areas, e.g., research in user experience, where collecting user feedback also plays an important role. In such settings, researchers need to ensure that the stakeholders' rights and integrity are respected. This paper identifies and discusses some of the ethical challenges and issues a researcher can face, using an example case. Focusing on user feedback, this case can serve as an example for CrowdRE, i.e. several of our findings might apply to CrowdRE in general. However, further research is needed as our work mainly reflects the challenges experienced by the authors of this paper. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 47.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Torkar, Richard
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Information Sources and their Importance to Prioritize Test Cases in the Heterogeneous Systems Context2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Testing techniques proposed in the literature rely on various sources of information for test case selection (e.g., require- ments, source code, system structure, etc.). The challenge of test selection is amplified in the context of heterogeneous systems, where it is unknown which information/data sources are most important. Contribution: (1) Achieve in-depth understanding of test processes in heterogeneous systems; (2) Elicit information sources for test selection in the context of heterogeneous systems. (3) Capture the relative importance of the identified information sources. Method: Case study research is used for the elicitation and understanding of which information sources are relevant for test case privatization, followed by an exploratory survey capturing the relative importance of information sources for testing heterogeneous systems. Results: We classified different information sources that play a vital role in the test selection process, and found that their importance differs largely for the different test levels observed in heterogeneous testing. However, overall all sources were considered essential in test selection for heterogeneous systems. Conclusion: Heterogeneous system testing requires solutions that take all information sources into account when suggesting test cases for selection. Such approaches need to be developed and compared with existing solutions.

  • 48.
    Ghazi, Ahmad Nauman
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Heterogeneous Systems Testing Techniques: An Exploratory Survey2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneous systems comprising sets of inherent subsystems are challenging to integrate. In particular, testing for interoperability and conformance is a challenge. Furthermore, the complexities of such systems amplify traditional testing challenges. We explore (1) which techniques are frequently discussed in literature in context of heterogeneous system testing that practitioners use to test their heterogeneous systems; (2) the perception of the practitioners on the usefulness of the techniques with respect to a defined set of outcome variables. For that, we conducted an exploratory survey. A total of 27 complete survey answers have been received. Search-based testing has been used by 14 out of 27 respondents, indicating the practical relevance of the approach for testing heterogeneous systems, which itself is relatively new and has only recently been studied extensively. The most frequently used technique is exploratory manual testing, followed by combinatorial testing. With respect to the perceived performance of the testing techniques, the practitioners were undecided regarding many of the studied variables. Manual exploratory testing received very positive ratings across outcome variables.

  • 49. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Borg, Andreas
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Loconsole, AnnaBella
    Sandahl, Kristian
    A Controlled Empirical Evaluation of a Requirements Abstraction Model2007In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849 , Vol. 49, no 7, p. 790-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirement engineers in industry are faced with the complexity of handling large amounts of requirements as development moves from traditional bespoke projects towards market-driven development. There is a need for usable and useful models that recognize this reality and support the engineers in a continuous effort of choosing which requirements to accept and which to dismiss off hand using the goals and product strategies put forward by management. This paper presents an evaluation of such a model that is built based on needs identified in industry. The evaluation's primary goal is to test the model's usability and usefulness in a lab environment prior to large scale industry piloting, and is a part of a large technology transfer effort. The evaluation uses 179 subjects from three different Swedish Universities, which is a large portion of the university students educated in requirements engineering in Sweden during 2004 and 2005. The results provide a strong indication that the model is indeed both useful and usable and ready for industry trials.

  • 50. Ihantola, Petri
    et al.
    Vihavainen, Arto
    Ahadi, Alireza
    Butler, Matthew
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Edwards, Stephen H.
    Isohanni, Essi
    Korhonen, Ari
    Petersen, Andrew
    Rivers, Kelly
    Rubio, Miguel Ángel
    Sheard, Judy
    Skupas, Bronius
    Spacco, Jaime
    Szabo, Claudia
    Toll, Daniel
    Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics in Programming: Literature Review and Case Studies2016In: Proceedings of the 2015 ITiCSE on Working Group Reports, ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 41-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational data mining and learning analytics promise better understanding of student behavior and knowledge, as well as new information on the tacit factors that contribute to student actions. This knowledge can be used to inform decisions related to course and tool design and pedagogy, and to further engage students and guide those at risk of failure. This working group report provides an overview of the body of knowledge regarding the use of educational data mining and learning analytics focused on the teaching and learning of programming. In a literature survey on mining students' programming processes for 2005-2015, we observe a significant increase in work related to the field. However, the majority of the studies focus on simplistic metric analysis and are conducted within a single institution and a single course. This indicates the existence of further avenues of research and a critical need for validation and replication to better understand the various contributing factors and the reasons why certain results occur. We introduce a novel taxonomy to analyse replicating studies and discuss the importance of replicating and reproducing previous work. We describe what is the state of the art in collecting and sharing programming data. To better understand the challenges involved in replicating or reproducing existing studies, we report our experiences from three case studies using programming data. Finally, we present a discussion of future directions for the education and research community.

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