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  • 1. Biernacki, Arkadiusz
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Comparative Performance Study of LTE Downlink Schedulers2014In: Wireless personal communications, ISSN 0929-6212, E-ISSN 1572-834X, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 585-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long time evolution (LTE) represents an emerging and promising technology for providing broadband, mobile Internet access. Because of the limitation of available spectrum resource, high spectrum efficiency technologies such as channel-aware scheduling need to be explored. In this work, we evaluate the performance of three scheduling algorithms proposed for LTE downlink transmission. The evaluation takes place in mixed traffic scenarios and aims at exploring strengths and weaknesses of the proposed algorithms. Simulation results illustrate the importance of real-time traffic awareness by schedulers when a specified level of quality of service is required. The research shows that lack of prioritisation of multimedia traffic will lead to severe degradation of video and VoIP services even with a relatively low network load.

  • 2. Biernacki, Arkadiusz
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Performance of HTTP Video Streaming Under Different Network Conditions2014In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 1143-1166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet video sharing services have been gaining importance and increasing their share in the multimedia market. In order to compete effectively and provide broadcast television with a comparable level of quality, the Internet video should fulfil stringent quality of service (QoS) constraints. However, as the Internet video is based on packet transmission, it is influenced by delays, transmission errors, data losses and bandwidth limitations which can have a devastating influence on the perceived quality of the multimedia content. There are many works which describe the impact of network impairments on the Internet video. Nevertheless, little is known about how network conditions influence the video streamed by the currently popular services such as YouTube, where video is transmitted over reliable TCP/HTTP protocols. Therefore using a network simulator, we conducted an experimental evaluation of theHTTP based video transmission analysing how the network impairments mentioned above influence the streamed video. The experiments were validated against a network emulator supplied with real network traces. As a result of this work, we can state that the buffering strategies implemented by a video player are in many cases able to mitigate unfavourable network conditions what allow to play the streamed video smoothly. The results may serve Internet Service Providers so that they could tune their network characteristics in order to match the demand from HTTP video.

  • 3. Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Graben, Björn auf dem
    Fiedler, Markus
    Arlos, Patrik
    A P2P-based framework for distributed network management2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a novel framework supporting distributed network management using a self-organizing peer-to-peer overlay network. The overlay consists of several Distributed Network Agents which can perform distributed tests and distributed monitoring for fault and performance management. In that way, the concept is able to overcome disadvantages that come along with a central management unit, like lack of scalability and reliability. So far, little attention has been payed to the quality of service experienced by the end user. Our self-organizing management overlay provides a reliable and scalable basis for distributed tests that incorporate the end user. The use of a distributed, self-organizing software will also reduce capital and operational expenditures of the operator since fewer entities have to be installed and operated.

  • 4. Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Graben, Björn auf dem
    Fiedler, Markus
    Arlos, Patrik
    DNA, a P2P-based framework for distributed network management2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    N/A

  • 5. Carlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Chevul, Stefan
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    Obtaining Reliable Bit Rate Measurements in SNMP-Managed Networks2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Simple Network Management Protocol, SNMP, is the most widespread standard for Internet management. As SNMP stacks are available on most equipment, this protocol has to be considered when it comes to performance management, traffic engineering and network control. However, especially when using the predominant version 1, SNMPv1, special care has to be taken to avoid erroneous results when calculating bit rates. In this work, we evalute six off-the-shelf network components. We demonstrate that bit rate measurements can be completely misleading if the sample intervals that are used are either too large or too small. We present solutions and work-arounds for these problems. The devices are evaluated with regards to their updating and response behavior.

  • 6. Fiedler, Markus
    et al.
    Chevul, Stefan
    Isaksson, Lennart
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    The Throughput Utility Function: Assessing network impact on mobile services2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the need for distributed end-to-end quality management for next-generation mobile Internet services, this paper presents a ready-to-deploy quality assessment concept for the impact of the network on the performance of mobile services. We consider the throughput utility function (TUF) as a special case of the network utility function (NUF). These functions combine the observed network utility at the inlet and the outlet of a mobile network. NUF and TUF capture the damping effect of the network onto user-perceived quality from an end-to-end perspective. As opposed to sometimes hard-to-evaluate QoS parameters such as delay and loss, the NUF is highly intuitive due to its mapping to a simple value between 0 and 100 %, which reflects user perception. We demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed TUF by measurements of application-perceived throughput conducted in a mobile, i.e. GPRS and UMTS network.

  • 7. Fiedler, Markus
    et al.
    Chevul, Stefan
    Radtke, Olaf
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    The Network Utility Function: A practicable concept for assessing network impact on distributed services2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the need for distributed end-to-end quality management for next generation Internet services, this paper presents a ready-to-deploy quality assessment concept for the impact of the network on the service performance. The proposed Network Utility Function (NUF) combines the observed network utility at the inlet and the outlet. Thus, it captures the damping effect of the network onto user-perceived quality from an end-to-end perspective. As opposed to incomprehensible QoS parameters such as delay and loss, the NUF is highly intuitive due to its mapping to a simple value between 0 and 1. We demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed concept for a special NUF, the Throughput Utility Function (TUF) by realistic simulation.

  • 8. Fiedler, Markus
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Application of the stochastic fluid flow model for bottleneck identification and classification2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network performance management is facing the challenge of provisioning advanced services with stringent delay and throughput requirements. For this reason, shortage of network capacity implying delay or loss, so-called bottlenecks, have to be identified and to be classified. The latter tasks imply the need for tractable analytical performance models. We identify the stochastic fluid flow model, which is based on bit rates and its statistics, as a possible candidate of being capable of describing qualitative behaviour of bottlenecks. In this work, we show how total and individual bit rate statistics at the output of a bottleneck are calculated via the stochastic fluid flow model. From this, we deduce some general behaviours and classification criteria for bottlenecks.

  • 9. Fiedler, Markus
    et al.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Carlsson, Patrik
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    Identification of performance degradation in IP networks using throughput statistics2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to satisfy their users, interactive applications like video conferences require a certain Quality-of-Service from heterogeneous networks. This paper proposes the use of throughput histograms as Quality-of-Service indicator. These histograms are built from local, unsynchronized, passive measurements of packet streams from the viewpoint of an application. They can easily be exchanged between sender and receiver, and their comparison provides information about severity and type of a potential bottleneck. We demonstrate the usefulness of these indicators for evaluating the transport quality perceived by a video conferencing application and its users in the presence of a bottleneck.

  • 10. Hossfeld, Tobias
    et al.
    Binzenhöfer, Andreas
    Fiedler, Markus
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Measurement and Analysis of Skype VoIP Traffic in 3G UMTS Systems2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voice-over-IP (VoIP) telephony becomes more and more popular in the wired Internet because of easy-to-use applications with high sound quality like Skype. UMTS operators promise to offer large data rates which should also make VoIP possible in a mobile environment. However, the success of those application strongly depends on the user perceived voice quality. In this paper, we therefore analyze the achievable and the actual quality of IP-based telephony calls using Skype. This is done performing measurements in both a real UMTS network and a test environment. The latter is used to emulate rate control mechanisms and changing system conditions of UMTS networks. The results show whether Skype over UMTS is able to keep pace with existing mobile telephony systems and how it reacts to different network characteristics. The investigated performance measures comprise the Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) to evaluate the voice quality, the packet loss, the inter-packet delay, and the throughput to capture networkbased factors. In this context, the concept of the Network Utility Function (NUF) is applied to describe the impact of the network on the voice quality as perceived by the end-user.

  • 11. Hossfeld, Tobias
    et al.
    Hock, David
    Tran-Gia, Phuoc
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Testing the IQX Hypothesis for Exponential Interdependency between QoS and QoE of Voice Codecs iLBC and G.7112008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the growing importance of quantitative relationships between user-perceived Quality of Experience (QoE) and network Quality of Service (QoS), this paper investigates the IQX hypothesis for two voice codecs, iLBC and G.711. This hypothesis expresses QoE as an exponential function of QoS degradation. The experiments are carried out in a controlled environment using the softphone SJPhone, the network emulator NIST Net, and a tool calculating the PESQ (Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality) from sent and received audio files. The IQX hypothesis is confirmed exactly for disturbances perceived on applications level, packet loss and packet reordering, which clearly correlate to the main sensitivities of the used softphone to packet-level disturbances such as loss, jitter and reordering. So, besides of providing a unified relationship between QoE and QoS, the IQX also proved to be capable of identifying the QoS parameters of relevance for QoE degradations. The study also points out interesting tracks for future work in terms of QoS degradations and related QoE evaluations.

  • 12. Infuehr, Johannes
    et al.
    Stezenbach, David
    Hartmann, Mathias
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Raidl, Guenther
    Using Optimized Virtual Network Embedding for Network Dimensioning2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Network Embedding will be one of the key concepts of the Future Internet. For an ISP it is important to know how many additional Virtual Networks (VNs) of a specific application (e.g. web, streaming, P2P, and VoIP) are mappable into the current resource substrate with a certain probability. In this work we calculate this probability with our embedding algorithm which enables us to consider side effects based on remapping of VNs (e.g. due to reduced link delay). Our results show that minimal extra resources can significantly increase embedding probability of additional VNs.

  • 13.
    Llewellyn, Tim
    et al.
    nVISO SA, CHE.
    Milagro Fernández Carrobles, María del
    University of Castilla-La Mancha, ESP.
    Deniz, Oscar
    University of Castilla-La Mancha, ESP.
    Fricker, Samuel
    i4Ds Centre for Requirements Engineering, CHE.
    Storkey, Amos
    University of Edinburgh, GBR.
    Pazos, Nuria
    Haute Ecole Specialisee de Suisse, CHE.
    Velikic, Gordana
    RT-RK, SRB.
    Leufgen, Kirsten
    SCIPROM SARL, CHE.
    Dahyot, Rozenn
    Trinity College Dublin, IRL.
    Koller, Sebastian
    Technical University Munich, DEU.
    Goumas, Georgios
    Technical University of Athens, GRC.
    Leitner, Peter
    SYNYO GmbH, AUT.
    Dasika, Ganesh
    ARM Ltd., GBR.
    Wang, Lei
    ZF Friedrichshafen AG, DEU.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    BONSEYES: Platform for Open Development of Systems of Artificial Intelligence2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bonseyes EU H2020 collaborative project aims to develop a platform consisting of a Data Marketplace, a Deep Learning Toolbox, and Developer Reference Platforms for organizations wanting to adopt Artificial Intelligence. The project will be focused on using artificial intelligence in low power Internet of Things (IoT) devices ("edge computing"), embedded computing systems, and data center servers ("cloud computing"). It will bring about orders of magnitude improvements in efficiency, performance, reliability, security, and productivity in the design and programming of systems of artificial intelligence that incorporate Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). In addition, it will solve a causality problem for organizations who lack access to Data and Models. Its open software architecture will facilitate adoption of the whole concept on a wider scale. To evaluate the effectiveness, technical feasibility, and to quantify the real-world improvements in efficiency, security, performance, effort and cost of adding AI to products and services using the Bonseyes platform, four complementary demonstrators will be built. Bonseyes platform capabilities are aimed at being aligned with the European FI-PPP activities and take advantage of its flagship project FIWARE. This paper provides a description of the project motivation, goals and preliminary work.

  • 14.
    Maksimov, Yuliyan V.
    et al.
    FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Artifact Compatibility for Enabling Collaboration in the Artificial Intelligence Ecosystem2018In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, 2018, Vol. 336, p. 56-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of software components and data have to be combined to solve an artificial intelligence challenge. An emerging marketplace for these components will allow for their exchange and distribution. To facilitate and boost the collaboration on the marketplace a solution for finding compatible artifacts is needed. We propose a concept to define compatibility on such a marketplace and suggest appropriate scenarios on how users can interact with it to support the different types of required compatibility. We also propose an initial architecture that derives from and implements the compatibility principles and makes the scenarios feasible. We matured our concept in focus group workshops and interviews with potential marketplace users from industry and academia. The results demonstrate the applicability of the concept in a real-world scenario.

  • 15.
    Mehri, Vida. A.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Ilie, Dragos
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Designing a Secure IoT System Architecture from a Virtual Premise for a Collaborative AI Lab2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IoT systems are increasingly composed out of flexible, programmable, virtualised, and arbitrarily chained IoT elements and services using portable code. Moreover, they might be sliced, i.e. allowing multiple logical IoT systems (network + application) to run on top of a shared physical network and compute infrastructure. However, implementing and designing particularly security mechanisms for such IoT systems is challenging since a) promising technologies are still maturing, and b) the relationships among the many requirements, technologies and components are difficult to model a-priori.

    The aim of the paper is to define design cues for the security architecture and mechanisms of future, virtualised, arbitrarily chained, and eventually sliced IoT systems. Hereby, our focus is laid on the authorisation and authentication of user, host, and code integrity in these virtualised systems. The design cues are derived from the design and implementation of a secure virtual environment for distributed and collaborative AI system engineering using so called AI pipelines. The pipelines apply chained virtual elements and services and facilitate the slicing of the system. The virtual environment is denoted for short as the virtual premise (VP). The use-case of the VP for AI design provides insight into the complex interactions in the architecture, leading us to believe that the VP concept can be generalised to the IoT systems mentioned above. In addition, the use-case permits to derive, implement, and test solutions. This paper describes the flexible architecture of the VP and the design and implementation of access and execution control in virtual and containerised environments. 

  • 16.
    Mehri, Vida. A.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Flexible Privacy and High Trust in the Next Generation Internet: The Use Case of a Cloud-based Marketplace for AI2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloudified architectures facilitate resource ac-cess and sharing which is independent from physical lo-cations. They permit high availability of resources at lowoperational costs. These advantages, however, do not comefor free. End users might fear that they lose control overthe location of their data and, thus, of their autonomy indeciding to whom the data is communicate to. Thus, strongprivacy and trust concerns arise for end users.In this work we will review and investigate privacy andtrust requirements for Cloud systems in general and for acloud-based marketplace (CMP) for AI in particular. We willinvestigate whether and how the current privacy and trustdimensions can be applied to Clouds and for the design ofa CMP. We also propose the concept of a "virtual premise"for enabling "Privacy-by-Design" [1] in Clouds. The ideaof a "virtual premise" might probably not be a universalsolution for any privacy requirement. However, we expectthat it provides flexibility in designing privacy in Cloudsand thus leading to higher trust.

  • 17.
    Mehri, Vida. A.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Privacy and trust in cloud-based marketplaces for AI and data resources2017In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Springer New York LLC , 2017, Vol. 505, p. 223-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The processing of the huge amounts of information from the Internet of Things (IoT) has become challenging. Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques have been developed to handle this task efficiently. However, they require annotated data sets for training, while manual preprocessing of the data sets is costly. The H2020 project “Bonseyes” has suggested a “Market Place for AI”, where the stakeholders can engage trustfully in business around AI resources and data sets. The MP permits trading of resources that have high privacy requirements (e.g. data sets containing patient medical information) as well as ones with low requirements (e.g. fuel consumption of cars) for the sake of its generality. In this abstract we review trust and privacy definitions and provide a first requirement analysis for them with regards to Cloud-based Market Places (CMPs). The comparison of definitions and requirements allows for the identification of the research gap that will be addressed by the main authors PhD project. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2017.

  • 18. Metzger, Florian
    et al.
    Rafetseder, Albert
    Romirer-Maierhofer, Peter
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Exploratory Analysis of a GGSN’s PDP Context Signaling Load2014In: Journal of Computer Networks and Communications, ISSN 2090-7141, E-ISSN 2090-715X, Vol. 2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes an exploratory look on control plane signaling in a mobile cellular core network. In contrast to most contributions in this field, our focus does not lie on the wireless or user-oriented parts of the network, but on signaling in the core network. In an investigation of core network data we take a look at statistics related to GTP tunnels and their signaling. Based on the results thereof we propose a definition of load at the GGSN and create an initial load queuingmodel.We find signs of user devices putting burden on the core network through their behavior

  • 19. Michel, Oliver
    et al.
    Stezenbach, David
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Multihoming and Adaptive Multipath Transmission Using Off-the-shelf Components in Preclinical Medical Care2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Rafetseder, Albert
    et al.
    Metzger, Florian
    Puehringer, Lukas
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Zhuang, Yanyan
    Cappos, Justin
    Sensorium – A Generic Sensor Framework2013In: PIK - Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und Kommunikation, ISSN 1865-8342, Vol. 36, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern computing devices, including smartphones, laptops, and tablet computers, are equipped with a number of sensors and data sources, ranging from accelerometers to 3G radio information. But different platforms (eg Android or iOS) use different interfaces for sensors access. There is no common way to access this data. Privacy is another issue hardly tackled on any platform, other than in a crude allow or deny way.

  • 21.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Institute of Computer ScienceUniversity of Würzburg, DEU.
    A Measurement-based Traffic Profile of the eDonkey Filesharing Service2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer-to-peer file sharing applications have evolved to one of the major traffic sources in the Internet. In particular, the eDonkey file sharing system and its derivatives are causing high amounts of traffic volume in today’s networks. The eDonkey system is typically used for exchanging very large files like audio/video CDs or even DVD images. In this report we provide a measurement based traffic profile of the eDonkey service. Furthermore, we discuss how this type of service increases the ”mice and elephants” phenomenon in the Internet traffic characteristics.

  • 22.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Ahmadi Mehri, Vida
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Chivukula, Krishna Varaynya
    CityNetwork Webbhotell AB.
    Johan, Christenson
    CityNetwork Webbhotell AB.
    On Resource Description Capabilities of On-Board Tools for Resource Management in Cloud Networking and NFV Infrastructures2016In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS WORKSHOPS (ICC), 2016, p. 442-447Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid adoption of networks that are based on "cloudification" and Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) comes from the anticipated high cost savings of up to 70% in their build and operation. The high savings are founded in the use of general standard servers, instead of single-purpose hardware, and by efficiency resource sharing through virtualisation concepts. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of resource description of "on-board" tools, i.e. using standard Linux commands, to enable OPEX savings. We put a focus on monitoring resources on small time-scales and on the variation observed on such scales. We introduce a QoE-based comparative concept that relates guest and host views on "utilisation" and "load" for the analysis of the variations. We describe the order of variations in "utilisation" and "load" by measurement and by graphical analysis of the measurements. We do these evaluations for different host operating systems and monitoring tools.

  • 23.
    Tutschku, Kurt Tutschku
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Ahmadi Mehri, Vida
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Towards Multi-layer Resource Management in Cloud Networking and NFV Infrastructures2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud Networking (CN) and related conceptsoffer appealing novelties to Cloud Computing (CC) customers.They can do a one-stop-shopping for network-enhanced cloudservices. In addition, the costs of such services might below due to multiple customers sharing the infrastructures.Moreover, telecommunication network operators are adopt-ing the CN in theirNetwork Functions Virtualisation (NFV)framework for reducing costs and increasing the flexibility oftheir networks. The technical appeal of CN comes from thetight integration of CC and smart networks. The economicalattractiveness results from avoiding dedicated hardware, shar-ing of resources, and simplified resource management (RM) asseen by the users respectively by the applications. The visionof cheap and integrated CN services is obviously attractive,but it is also evident that it will require more complex RMprocedures for efficiently balancing the usage of all resources.In this contribution, we suggest an initial architecture forintegrated and practical RM in CN and NFV systems. TheRM concept aims at locating and analysing performancebottlenecks, efficiency problems, and eventually discover un-used resources. The suggested architecture is based on alayered view on the system. Moreover, we detail difficultiesin practical resources usage monitoring which, in turn, definerequirements for a RM architecture. The requirement analysisis based on measurements in a CN infrastructure.

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