Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12 1 - 50 av 88
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    A Systematic Mapping Study on Non-Functional Search-Based Software Testing2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    A systematic review of search-based testing for non-functional system properties2009Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 957-976Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing is the application of metaheuristic search techniques to generate software tests. The test adequacy criterion is transformed into a fitness function and a set of solutions in the search space are evaluated with respect to the fitness function using a metaheuristic search technique. The application of metaheuristic search techniques for testing is promising due to the fact that exhaustive testing is infeasible considering the size and complexity of software under test. Search-based software testing has been applied across the spectrum of test case design methods; this includes white-box (structural), black-box (functional) and grey-box (combination of structural and functional) testing. In addition, metaheuristic search techniques have also been applied to test non-functional properties. The overall objective of undertaking this systematic review is to examine existing work into non-functional search-based software testing (NFSBST). We are interested in types of non-functional testing targeted using metaheuristic search techniques, different fitness functions used in different types of search-based non-functional testing and challenges in the application of these techniques. The systematic review is based on a comprehensive set of 35 articles obtained after a multi-stage selection process and have been published in the time span 1996-2007. The results of the review show that metaheuristic search techniques have been applied for non-functional testing of execution time, quality of service, security, usability and safety. A variety of metaheuristic search techniques are found to be applicable for non-functional testing including simulated annealing, tabu search, genetic algorithms, ant colony methods, grammatical evolution, genetic programming (and its variants including linear genetic programming) and swarm intelligence methods. The review reports on different fitness functions used to guide the search for each of the categories of execution time, safety, usability, quality of service and security; along with a discussion of possible challenges in the application of metaheuristic search techniques.

  • 3. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Prediction of fault count data using genetic programming2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software reliability growth modeling helps in deciding project release time and managing project resources. A large number of such models have been presented in the past. Due to the existence of many models, the models' inherent complexity, and their accompanying assumptions; the selection of suitable models becomes a challenging task. This paper presents empirical results of using genetic programming (GP) for modeling software reliability growth based on weekly fault count data of three different industrial projects. The goodness of fit (adaptability) and predictive accuracy of the evolved model is measured using five different measures in an attempt to present a fair evaluation. The results show that the GP evolved model has statistically significant goodness of fit and predictive accuracy.

  • 4.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Resampling Methods in Software Quality Classification2012Ingår i: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, ISSN 0218-1940, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 203-223Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the presence of a number of algorithms for classification and prediction in software engineering, there is a need to have a systematic way of assessing their performances. The performance assessment is typically done by some form of partitioning or resampling of the original data to alleviate biased estimation. For predictive and classification studies in software engineering, there is a lack of a definitive advice on the most appropriate resampling method to use. This is seen as one of the contributing factors for not being able to draw general conclusions on what modeling technique or set of predictor variables are the most appropriate. Furthermore, the use of a variety of resampling methods make it impossible to perform any formal meta-analysis of the primary study results. Therefore, it is desirable to examine the influence of various resampling methods and to quantify possible differences. Objective and method: This study empirically compares five common resampling methods (hold-out validation, repeated random sub-sampling, 10-fold cross-validation, leave-one-out cross-validation and non-parametric bootstrapping) using 8 publicly available data sets with genetic programming (GP) and multiple linear regression (MLR) as software quality classification approaches. Location of (PF, PD) pairs in the ROC (receiver operating characteristics) space and area under an ROC curve (AUC) are used as accuracy indicators. Results: The results show that in terms of the location of (PF, PD) pairs in the ROC space, bootstrapping results are in the preferred region for 3 of the 8 data sets for GP and for 4 of the 8 data sets for MLR. Based on the AUC measure, there are no significant differences between the different resampling methods using GP and MLR. Conclusion: There can be certain data set properties responsible for insignificant differences between the resampling methods based on AUC. These include imbalanced data sets, insignificant predictor variables and high-dimensional data sets. With the current selection of data sets and classification techniques, bootstrapping is a preferred method based on the location of (PF, PD) pair data in the ROC space. Hold-out validation is not a good choice for comparatively smaller data sets, where leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) performs better. For comparatively larger data sets, 10-fold cross-validation performs better than LOOCV.

  • 5. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Search-based prediction of fault count data2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbolic regression, an application domain of genetic programming (GP), aims to find a function whose output has some desired property, like matching target values of a particular data set. While typical regression involves finding the coefficients of a pre-defined function, symbolic regression finds a general function, with coefficients, fitting the given set of data points. The concepts of symbolic regression using genetic programming can be used to evolve a model for fault count predictions. Such a model has the advantages that the evolution is not dependent on a particular structure of the model and is also independent of any assumptions, which are common in traditional time-domain parametric software reliability growth models. This research aims at applying experiments targeting fault predictions using genetic programming and comparing the results with traditional approaches to compare efficiency gains.

  • 6. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Gorschek, Tony
    Genetic programming for cross-release fault count predictions in large and complex software projects2010Ingår i: Evolutionary Computation and Optimization Algorithms in Software Engineering: Applications and Techniques / [ed] Chis, Monica, Hershey: IGI Global, Hershey, USA , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software fault prediction can play an important role in ensuring software quality through efficient resource allocation. This could, in turn, reduce the potentially high consequential costs due to faults. Predicting faults might be even more important with the emergence of short-timed and multiple software releases aimed at quick delivery of functionality. Previous research in software fault prediction has indicated that there is a need i) to improve the validity of results by having comparisons among number of data sets from a variety of software, ii) to use appropriate model evaluation measures and iii) to use statistical testing procedures. Moreover, cross-release prediction of faults has not yet achieved sufficient attention in the literature. In an attempt to address these concerns, this paper compares the quantitative and qualitative attributes of 7 traditional and machine-learning techniques for modeling the cross-release prediction of fault count data. The comparison is done using extensive data sets gathered from a total of 7 multi-release open-source and industrial software projects. These software projects together have several years of development and are from diverse application areas, ranging from a web browser to a robotic controller software. Our quantitative analysis suggests that genetic programming (GP) tends to have better consistency in terms of goodness of fit and accuracy across majority of data sets. It also has comparatively less model bias. Qualitatively, ease of configuration and complexity are less strong points for GP even though it shows generality and gives transparent models. Artificial neural networks did not perform as well as expected while linear regression gave average predictions in terms of goodness of fit and accuracy. Support vector machine regression and traditional software reliability growth models performed below average on most of the quantitative evaluation criteria while remained on average for most of the qualitative measures.

  • 7. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Prediction of faults-slip-through in large software projects: an empirical evaluation2014Ingår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 51-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software test process. Therefore, determination of which software test phases to focus improvement work on has considerable industrial interest. We evaluate a number of prediction techniques for predicting the number of faults slipping through to unit, function, integration, and system test phases of a large industrial project. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different test phases by striving toward finding the faults in the right phase. The results show that a range of techniques are found to be useful in predicting the number of faults slipping through to the four test phases; however, the group of search-based techniques (genetic programming, gene expression programming, artificial immune recognition system, and particle swarm optimization-based artificial neural network) consistently give better predictions, having a representation at all of the test phases. Human predictions are consistently better at two of the four test phases. We conclude that the human predictions regarding the number of faults slipping through to various test phases can be well supported by the use of search-based techniques. A combination of human and an automated search mechanism (such as any of the search-based techniques) has the potential to provide improved prediction results.

  • 8. Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Feldt, Robert
    Wikstrand, Greger
    Search-based prediction of fault-slip-through in large software projects2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large percentage of the cost of rework can be avoided by finding more faults earlier in a software testing process. Therefore, determination of which software testing phases to focus improvements work on, has considerable industrial interest. This paper evaluates the use of five different techniques, namely particle swarm optimization based artificial neural networks (PSO-ANN), artificial immune recognition systems (AIRS), gene expression programming (GEP), genetic programming (GP) and multiple regression (MR), for predicting the number of faults slipping through unit, function, integration and system testing phases. The objective is to quantify improvement potential in different testing phases by striving towards finding the right faults in the right phase. We have conducted an empirical study of two large projects from a telecommunication company developing mobile platforms and wireless semiconductors. The results are compared using simple residuals, goodness of fit and absolute relative error measures. They indicate that the four search-based techniques (PSO-ANN, AIRS, GEP, GP) perform better than multiple regression for predicting the fault-slip-through for each of the four testing phases. At the unit and function testing phases, AIRS and PSO-ANN performed better while GP performed better at integration and system testing phases. The study concludes that a variety of search-based techniques are applicable for predicting the improvement potential in different testing phases with GP showing more consistent performance across two of the four test phases.

  • 9. Ahmad, Ehsan
    et al.
    Raza, Bilal
    Feldt, Robert
    Assessment and support for software capstone projects at the undergraduate level: A survey and rubrics2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering and computer science students conduct a capstone project during the final year of their degree programs. These projects are essential in validating that students have gained required knowledge and they can synthesize and use that knowledge to solve real world problems. However, the external requirements on educational programs often do not provide detailed guidelines for how to conduct or support these capstone projects, which may lead to variations among universities. This paper presents the results from a survey conducted at 19 different Pakistani universities of the current management practices and assessment criteria used for the capstone project courses at Undergraduate level. Based upon the results of this survey and similar work on Master Thesis capstone projects in Sweden, we present assessment rubrics for software-related undergraduate capstone projects. We also present recommendations for the continuous improvement of capstone projects.

  • 10. Alegroth, Emil
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Kolstrom, Pirjo
    Maintenance of automated test suites in industry: An empirical study on Visual GUI Testing2016Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, s. 66-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Verification and validation (V&V) activities make up 20-50% of the total development costs of a software system in practice. Test automation is proposed to lower these V&V costs but available research only provides limited empirical data from industrial practice about the maintenance costs of automated tests and what factors affect these costs. In particular, these costs and factors are unknown for automated GUI-based testing. Objective: This paper addresses this lack of knowledge through analysis of the costs and factors associated with the maintenance of automated GUI-based tests in industrial practice. Method: An empirical study at two companies, Siemens and Saab, is reported where interviews about, and empirical work with, Visual GUI Testing is performed to acquire data about the technique's maintenance costs and feasibility. Results: 13 factors are observed that affect maintenance, e.g. tester knowledge/experience and test case complexity. Further, statistical analysis shows that developing new test scripts is costlier than maintenance but also that frequent maintenance is less costly than infrequent, big bang maintenance. In addition a cost model, based on previous work, is presented that estimates the time to positive return on investment (ROI) of test automation compared to manual testing. Conclusions: It is concluded that test automation can lower overall software development costs of a project while also having positive effects on software quality. However, maintenance costs can still be considerable and the less time a company currently spends on manual testing, the more time is required before positive, economic, ROI is reached after automation. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 11. Alegroth, Emil
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Ryrholm, Lisa
    Visual GUI testing in practice: challenges, problems and limitations2015Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 694-744Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi presenterar utmaningar med att använda visuell GUI testning i industriell programvaruteknik.

  • 12.
    Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, SWE.
    On the long-term use of visual gui testing in industrial practice: a case study2017Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 2937-2971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual GUI Testing (VGT) is a tool-driven technique for automated GUI-based testing that uses image recognition to interact with and assert the correctness of the behavior of a system through its GUI as it is shown to the user. The technique’s applicability, e.g. defect-finding ability, and feasibility, e.g. time to positive return on investment, have been shown through empirical studies in industrial practice. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the usefulness and challenges associated with VGT when used long-term (years) in industrial practice. This paper evaluates how VGT was adopted, applied and why it was abandoned at the music streaming application development company, Spotify, after several years of use. A qualitative study with two workshops and five well chosen employees is performed at the company, supported by a survey, which is analyzed with a grounded theory approach to answer the study’s three research questions. The interviews provide insights into the challenges, problems and limitations, but also benefits, that Spotify experienced during the adoption and use of VGT. However, due to the technique’s drawbacks, VGT has been abandoned for a new technique/framework, simply called the Test interface. The Test interface is considered more robust and flexible for Spotify’s needs but has several drawbacks, including that it does not test the actual GUI as shown to the user like VGT does. From the study’s results it is concluded that VGT can be used long-term in industrial practice but it requires organizational change as well as engineering best practices to be beneficial. Through synthesis of the study’s results, and results from previous work, a set of guidelines are presented that aim to aid practitioners to adopt and use VGT in industrial practice. However, due to the abandonment of the technique, future research is required to analyze in what types of projects the technique is, and is not, long-term viable. To this end, we also present Spotify’s Test interface solution for automated GUI-based testing and conclude that it has its own benefits and drawbacks.

  • 13.
    Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    SAAB AB, SWE.
    Ivarsson, Henrik
    SAAB AB, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Replicating Rare Software Failures with Exploratory Visual GUI Testing2017Ingår i: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 53-59, artikel-id 8048660Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Saab AB developed software that had a defect that manifested itself only after months of continuous system use. After years of customer failure reports, the defect still persisted, until Saab developed failure replication based on visual GUI testing. © 1984-2012 IEEE.

  • 14. Axelsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Baca, Dejan
    Feldt, Robert
    Sidlauskas, Darius
    Kacan, Denis
    Detecting Defects with an Interactive Code Review Tool Based on Visualisation and Machine Learning2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Code review is often suggested as a means of improving code quality. Since humans are poor at repetitive tasks, some form of tool support is valuable. To that end we developed a prototype tool to illustrate the novel idea of applying machine learning (based on Normalised Compression Distance) to the problem of static analysis of source code. Since this tool learns by example, it is rivially programmer adaptable. As machine learning algorithms are notoriously difficult to understand operationally (they are opaque) we applied information visualisation to the results of the learner. In order to validate the approach we applied the prototype to source code from the open-source project Samba and from an industrial, telecom software system. Our results showed that the tool did indeed correctly find and classify problematic sections of code based on training examples.

  • 15. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Runeson, Per
    Borg, Markus
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Engström, Emelie
    Regnell, Björn
    Sabaliauskaite, Giedre
    Loconsole, Annabella
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Challenges and Practices in Aligning Requirements with Verification and Validation: A Case Study of Six Companies2014Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 1809-1855Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Weak alignment of requirements engineering (RE) with verification and validation (VV) may lead to problems in delivering the required products in time with the right quality. For example, weak communication of requirements changes to testers may result in lack of verification of new requirements and incorrect verification of old invalid requirements, leading to software quality problems, wasted effort and delays. However, despite the serious implications of weak alignment research and practice both tend to focus on one or the other of RE or VV rather than on the alignment of the two. We have performed a multi-unit case study to gain insight into issues around aligning RE and VV by interviewing 30 practitioners from 6 software developing companies, involving 10 researchers in a flexible research process for case studies. The results describe current industry challenges and practices in aligning RE with VV, ranging from quality of the individual RE and VV activities, through tracing and tools, to change control and sharing a common understanding at strategy, goal and design level. The study identified that human aspects are central, i.e. cooperation and communication, and that requirements engineering practices are a critical basis for alignment. Further, the size of an organisation and its motivation for applying alignment practices, e.g. external enforcement of traceability, are variation factors that play a key role in achieving alignment. Our results provide a strategic roadmap for practitioners improvement work to address alignment challenges. Furthermore, the study provides a foundation for continued research to improve the alignment of RE with VV.

  • 16. Bäumer, Martin
    et al.
    Siedler, Patrick
    Torkar, Richard
    Tomaszewski, Piotr
    Damm, Lars-Ola
    Feldt, Robert
    Predicting Fault Inflow in Iterative Software Development Processes: An Industrial Evaluation2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Chunduri, Annapurna
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Adenmark, Mikael
    Scania AB, SWE.
    An effective verification strategy for testing distributed automotive embedded software functions: A case study2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Amasaki S.,Mikkonen T.,Felderer M.,Abrahamsson P.,Duc A.N.,Jedlitschka A., 2016, s. 233-248Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration testing of automotive embedded software functions that are distributed across several Electronic Control Unit (ECU) system software modules is a complex and challenging task in today’s automotive industry. They neither have infinite resources, nor have the time to carry out exhaustive testing of these functions. On the other hand, the traditional approach of implementing an ad-hoc selection of test scenarios based on the testers’ experience typically leads to both test gaps and test redundancies. Here, we address this challenge by proposing a verification strategy that enhances the process in order to identify and mitigate such gaps and redundancies in automotive system software testing. This helps increase test coverage by taking more data-driven decisions for integration testing of the functions. The strategy was developed in a case study at a Swedish automotive company that involved multiple data collection steps. After static validation of the proposed strategy it was evaluated on one distributed automotive software function, the Fuel Level Display, and found to be both feasible and effective. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  • 18.
    Clark, David
    et al.
    UCL, GBR.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Poulding, Simon
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Yoo, Shin
    UCL, GBR.
    Information Transformation: An Underpinning Theory for Software Engineering2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE/ACM 37th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Vol 2, IEEE , 2015, s. 599-602Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering lacks underpinning scientific theories both for the software it produces and the processes by which it does so. We propose that an approach based on information theory can provide such a theory, or rather many theories. We envision that such a benefit will be realised primarily through research based on the quantification of information involved and a mathematical study of the limiting laws that arise. However, we also argue that less formal but more qualitative uses for information theory will be useful. The main argument in support of our vision is based on the fact that both a program and an engineering process to develop such a program are fundamentally processes that transform information. To illustrate our argument we focus on software testing and develop an initial theory in which a test suite is input/output adequate if it achieves the channel capacity of the program as measured by the mutual information between its inputs and its outputs. We outline a number of problems, metrics and concrete strategies for improving software engineering, based on information theoretical analyses. We find it likely that similar analyses and subsequent future research to detail them would be generally fruitful for software engineering.

  • 19.
    de Oliveira Neto, Francisco Gomes
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Torkar, Richard
    Göteborgs universitet, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gren, Lucas
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Furia, Carlo Alberto
    Universitá della Svizzera italiana, ITA.
    Huang, Z.
    Göteborgs universitet, SWE.
    Evolution of statistical analysis in empirical software engineering research: Current state and steps forward2019Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, s. 246-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering research is evolving and papers are increasingly based on empirical data from a multitude of sources, using statistical tests to determine if and to what degree empirical evidence supports their hypotheses. To investigate the practices and trends of statistical analysis in empirical software engineering (ESE), this paper presents a review of a large pool of papers from top-ranked software engineering journals. First, we manually reviewed 161 papers and in the second phase of our method, we conducted a more extensive semi-automatic classification of papers spanning the years 2001–2015 and 5196 papers. Results from both review steps was used to: i) identify and analyse the predominant practices in ESE (e.g., using t-test or ANOVA), as well as relevant trends in usage of specific statistical methods (e.g., nonparametric tests and effect size measures) and, ii) develop a conceptual model for a statistical analysis workflow with suggestions on how to apply different statistical methods as well as guidelines to avoid pitfalls. Lastly, we confirm existing claims that current ESE practices lack a standard to report practical significance of results. We illustrate how practical significance can be discussed in terms of both the statistical analysis and in the practitioner's context. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 20.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    et al.
    Malardalens hogskola, Software Testing Laboratory, Vasteras, Sweden .
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Čaušević, Adnan
    Malardalens hogskola, Vasteras, Sweden .
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Malardalens hogskola, Vasteras, Sweden .
    Mutation-based test generation for PLC embedded software using model checking2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) / [ed] Wotawa F.,Kushik N.,Nica M., 2016, Vol. 9976, s. 155-171Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is an important activity in engineering of industrial embedded software. In certain application domains (e.g., railway industry) engineering software is certified according to safety standards that require extensive software testing procedures to be applied for the development of reliable systems. Mutation analysis is a technique for creating faulty versions of a software for the purpose of examining the fault detection ability of a test suite. Mutation analysis has been used for evaluating existing test suites, but also for generating test suites that detect injected faults (i.e., mutation testing). To support developers in software testing, we propose a technique for producing test cases using an automated test generation approach that operates using mutation testing for software written in IEC 61131-3 language, a programming standard for safety-critical embedded software, commonly used for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). This approach uses the Uppaal model checker and is based on a combined model that contains all the mutants and the original program. We applied this approach in a tool for testing industrial PLC programs and evaluated it in terms of cost and fault detection. For realistic validation we collected industrial experimental evidence on how mutation testing compares with manual testing as well as automated decision-coverage adequate test generation. In the evaluation, we used manually seeded faults provided by four industrial engineers. The results show that even if mutation-based test generation achieves better fault detection than automated decision coverage-based test generation, these mutation-adequate test suites are not better at detecting faults than manual test suites. However, the mutation-based test suites are significantly less costly to create, in terms of testing time, than manually created test suites. Our results suggest that the fault detection scores could be improved by considering some new and improved mutation operators (e.g., Feedback Loop Insertion Operator (FIO)) for PLC programs as well as higher-order mutations.

  • 21.
    Felderer, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Gomes De Oliveira Neto, Francisco
    Chalmers Univ Technol, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    A testability analysis framework for non-functional properties2018Ingår i: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 54-58Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents background, the basic steps and an example for a testability analysis framework for non-functional properties.

  • 22.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Do System Test Cases Grow Old?2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies increasingly use either manual or automated system testing to ensure the quality of their software products. As a system evolves and is extended with new features the test suite also typically grows as new test cases are added. To ensure software quality throughout this process the test suite is continously executed, often on a daily basis. It seems likely that newly added tests would be more likely to fail than older tests but this has not been investigated in any detail on large-scale, industrial software systems. Also it is not clear which methods should be used to conduct such an analysis. This paper proposes three main concepts that can be used to investigate aging effects in the use and failure behavior of system test cases: test case activation curves, test case hazard curves, and test case half-life. To evaluate these concepts and the type of analysis they enable we apply them on an industrial software system containing more than one million lines of code. The data sets comes from a total of 1,620 system test cases executed a total of more than half a million times over a time period of two and a half years. For the investigated system we find that system test cases stay active as they age but really do grow old; they go through an infant mortality phase with higher failure rates which then decline over time. The test case half-life is between 5 to 12 months for the two studied data sets.

  • 23. Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Ahmad, Ehsan
    Raza, Bilal
    Hult, Erika
    Nordebäck, T.
    Evolving the ECSS standards and their use: Experience based on industrial case studies2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces two case studies conducted at two Swedish companies developing software for the space industry. The overall goal of the project is to evaluate if current use of ECSS is cost efficient and if there are ways to make the process leaner while maintaining quality. The case studies reported on here focused on how the ECSS standard was used by the companies and how that affected software development processes and software quality. This paper describes the results and recommendations based on identified challenges.

  • 24. Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Torkar, Richard
    Samuelsson, Maria
    Links between the personalities, views and attitudes of software engineers2010Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849 , Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 611-624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful software development and management depends not only on the technologies, methods and processes employed but also on the judgments and decisions of the humans involved. These, in turn, are affected by the basic views and attitudes of the individual engineers. The objective of this paper is to establish if these views and attitudes can be linked to the personalities of software engineers. We summarize the literature on personality and software engineering and then describe an empirical study on 47 professional engineers in ten different Swedish software development companies. The study evaluated the personalities of these engineers via the IPIP 50-item five-factor personality test and prompted them on their attitudes towards and basic views on their professional activities. We present extensive statistical analyses of their responses to show that there are multiple, significant associations between personality factors and software engineering attitudes. The tested individuals are more homogeneous in personality than a larger sample of individuals from the general population. Taken together, the methodology and personality test we propose and the associated statistical analyses can help find and quantify relations between complex factors in software engineering projects in both research and practice.

  • 25. Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Höst, Martin
    Lüders, Frank
    Generic Skills in Software Engineering Master Thesis Projects: Towards Rubric-Based Evaluation2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been much recent interest in how to help students in higher education develop their generic skills, especially since this is a focus of the Bologna process that aims to standardize European higher education. However, even though the Master thesis is the final and often crucial part of a graduate degree and requires many generic skills very little research has directly focused on them. In particular, there is a lack of such knowledge for engineering education programs. In this paper we present results from a survey where we asked 23 students from three different Swedish universities about which generic skills are needed and developed in a Master thesis project in Software Engineering. One outcome of our analysis is that there is a lack of understanding on how to define, and thus examine, generic skills in software engineering thesis projects.

  • 26. Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Marculescu, Bogdan
    Schulte, Jan
    Torkar, Richard
    Preissing, Philip
    Hult, Erika
    Optimizing Verification and Validation Activities for Software in the Space Industry2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software for space applications has special requirements in terms of reliability and dependability and the verification & validation activities (VAs) of these systems often account for more than 50% of the develop- ment effort. The industry is also faced with political and market pressure to deliver software faster and cheaper. Thus new ways are needed to optimize these activities so that high quality can be retained even with reduced costs and effort. Here we present a framework for the management and optimization of verification & validation activities (VAMOS). An initial evaluation of the framework based on historical data as well as data extracted with a new tool has been done and are described briefly.

  • 27.
    Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Poulding, Simon M.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Clark, David
    UCL, GBR.
    Yoo, Shin
    Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, KOR.
    Test Set Diameter: Quantifying the Diversity of Sets of Test Cases2016Ingår i: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 223-233Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common and natural intuition among software testers is that test cases need to differ if a software system is to be tested properly and its quality ensured. Consequently, much research has gone into formulating distance measures for how test cases, their inputs and/or their outputs differ. However, common to these proposals is that they are data type specific and/or calculate the diversity only between pairs of test inputs, traces or outputs. We propose a new metric to measure the diversity of sets of tests: the test set diameter (TSDm). It extends our earlier, pairwise test diversity metrics based on recent advances in information theory regarding the calculation of the normalized compression distance (NCD) for multisets. A key advantage is that TSDm is a universal measure of diversity and so can be applied to any test set regardless of data type of the test inputs (and, moreover, to other test-related data such as execution traces). But this universality comes at the cost of greater computational effort compared to competing approaches. Our experiments on four different systems show that the test set diameter can help select test sets with higher structural and fault coverage than random selection even when only applied to test inputs. This can enable early test design and selection, prior to even having a software system to test, and complement other types of test automation and analysis. We argue that this quantification of test set diversity creates a number of opportunities to better understand software quality and provides practical ways to increase it.

  • 28. Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Ahmad, Ehsan
    Raza, Bilal
    Challenges with Software Verification and Validation Activities in the Space Industry2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing software for high-dependable space applications and systems is a formidable task. With new political and market pressures on the space industry to deliver more software at a lower cost, optimization of their methods and standards need to be investigated. The industry has to follow standards that strictly set quality goals and prescribes engineering processes and methods to fulfill them. The overall goal of this study is to evaluate if current use of the standards from the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) is cost efficient and if there are ways to make the process leaner while still maintaining quality and to analyze if their verification and validation (V&V) activities can be optimized. This paper presents results from two industrial case studies of companies in the European space industry that are following ECSS standards in various V&V activities. The case studies reported here focus on how ECSS standards are used by the companies, how that affects their processes and, in the end, how their V&V activities can be further optimized.

  • 29. Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Samuelsson, Maria
    Towards Individualized Software Engineering: Empirical Studies Should Collect Psyhometrics2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30. Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Gorschek, Tony
    Afzal, Wasif
    Searching for Cognitively Diverse Tests: Towards Universal Test Diversity Metrics2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Search-based software testing (SBST) has shown a potential to decrease cost and increase quality of testingrelated software development activities. Research in SBST has so far mainly focused on the search for isolated tests that are optimal according to a fitness function that guides the search. In this paper we make the case for fitness functions that measure test fitness in relation to existing or previously found tests; a test is good if it is diverse from other tests. We present a model for test variability and propose the use of a theoretically optimal diversity metric at variation points in the model. We then describe how to apply a practically useful approximation to the theoretically optimal metric. The metric is simple and powerful and can be adapted to a multitude of different test diversity measurement scenarios. We present initial results from an experiment to compare how similar to human subjects, the metric can cluster a set of test cases. To carry out the experiment we have extended an existing framework for test automation in an object-oriented, dynamic programming language.

  • 31. Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Torstensson, Niclas
    Hult, Erika
    Green, L.G.
    Analyzing the cost of complying to the ECSS standards for software development2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Software for space applications has special requirements in terms of reliability and dependability. Standards are one of the primary mechanisms to ensure a sufficient quality level, with the European Cooperation on Space Standardization (ECSS) standards being the main ones. The use of standards is not only a benefit since they can incur considerable costs in terms of, for example, additional documentation and activities. For making the right decisions on which development and quality assurance activities to focus on it is important to know not only their added value but also their costs. Here we present a method for analyzing the cost of standard compliance (CoSC) in software development. It is based on a model which divides the costs into four different types based on their primary value: development, quality-adding, confidence-adding and adherence. The adherence costs are those costs that are incurred by or follows from the use of a standard but does not add any immediate value to either the functionality, quality or quality assurance of the software. Initial results from applying the method in an industrial company adhering to ECSS is presented.

  • 32.
    Feldt, Robert
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Zimmermann, T.
    Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA.
    Bergersen, G. R.
    University of Oslo, NOR.
    Falessi, D.
    California Polytechnic State University, USA.
    Jedlitschka, A.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Experimental Software Engineering, DEU.
    Juristo, N.
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ESP.
    Münch, J.
    Reutlingen University, DEU.
    Oivo, M.
    University of Oulu, FIN.
    Runeson, P.
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Shepperd, M.
    Brunel University, GBR.
    Sjøberg, D. I. K.
    University of Oslo, NOR.
    Turhan, B.
    Monash University, AUS.
    Four commentaries on the use of students and professionals in empirical software engineering experiments2018Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 3801-3820Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Feldt, Robert
    Wohlin, Claes
    Mattsson, Michael
    1st International Global Requirements Engineering Worskshop: GREW´072008Ingår i: Software Engineering Notes, ISSN 0163-5948 , Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 29-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    GREW´07 was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Global Software Engineering in Munich Germany. The aim was to bring researchers and industry practitioners together to discuss the area of global product development from a requirements engineering and product management perspective. The workshop aimed to analyze selected challenges put forward by accepted papers from both industry and academia. The session discussions then focused on identifying future needs for research, the relevance of which was assured by good industry presence at the workshop. The workshop resulted in a number of findings that can play an important role to further develop the field of global product management and requirements engineering.

  • 34.
    Gren, Lucas
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Group development and group maturity when building agile teams: A qualitative and quantitative investigation at eight large companies2017Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 124, s. 104-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The agile approach to projects focuses more on close-knit teams than traditional waterfall projects, which means that aspects of group maturity become even more important. This psychological aspect is not much researched in connection to the building of an “agile team.” The purpose of this study is to investigate how building agile teams is connected to a group development model taken from social psychology. We conducted ten semi-structured interviews with coaches, Scrum Masters, and managers responsible for the agile process from seven different companies, and collected survey data from 66 group-members from four companies (a total of eight different companies). The survey included an agile measurement tool and the one part of the Group Development Questionnaire. The results show that the practitioners define group developmental aspects as key factors to a successful agile transition. Also, the quantitative measurement of agility was significantly correlated to the group maturity measurement. We conclude that adding these psychological aspects to the description of the “agile team” could increase the understanding of agility and partly help define an “agile team.” We propose that future work should develop specific guidelines for how software development teams at different maturity levels might adopt agile principles and practices differently.

  • 35. Gren, Lucas
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Group Maturity and Agility, Are They Connected?: – A Survey Study2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 41st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), IEEE, 2015, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus on psychology has increased within software engineering due to the project management innovation "agile development processes". The agile methods do not explicitly consider group development aspects; they simply assume what is described in group psychology as mature groups. This study was conducted with 45 employees and their twelve managers (N=57) from two SAP customers in the US that were working with agile methods, and the data were collected via an online survey. The selected Agility measurement was correlated to a Group Development measurement and showed significant convergent validity, i.e., a more mature team is also a more agile team. This means that the agile methods probably would benefit from taking group development into account when its practices are being introduced.

  • 36. Gren, Lucas
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Work motivational challenges regarding the interface between agile teams and a non-agile surrounding organization: A case study2014Ingår i: 2014 AGILE CONFERENCE (AGILE), IEEE Press, 2014, s. 11-15Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 37. Höst, Martin
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Lüders, Frank
    Support for Different roles in Software Engineering Master Thesis Projects2010Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Education, ISSN 0018-9359 , Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 288-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Like many engineering programs in Europe, the final part of most Swedish software engineering programs is a longer project in which the students write a Master’s thesis. These projects are often conducted in cooperation between a university and industry, and the students often have two supervisors, one at the university and one in industry. In particular, the Bologna Process that is currently underway to align different higher educational programs in Europe, discusses industrial Master’s theses as a major type of thesis project. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how best to support these projects and the different stakeholders involved. This paper presents a study where students and supervisors from software engineering Master’s thesis projects at three different Swedish universities are interviewed. The intention of the study is to explore what the major problems of different stakeholders are during a project, and to investigate what type of support is needed. Based on the interview results, a support model is defined, which outlines the different types of support that are needed for different roles in Master’s thesis projects.

  • 38. Kashfi, P.
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nilsson, A.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    A conceptual ux-aware model of requirements2016Ingår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer, 2016, Vol. 9856 LNCS, s. 234-245Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    User eXperience (UX) is becoming increasingly important for success of software products. Yet, many companies still face various challenges in their work with UX. Part of these challenges relate to inadequate knowledge and awareness of UX and that current UX models are commonly not practical nor well integrated into existing Software Engineering (SE) models and concepts. Therefore, we present a conceptual UX-aware model of requirements for software development practitioners. This layered model shows the interrelation between UX and functional and quality requirements. The model is developed based on current models of UX and software quality characteristics. Through the model we highlight the main differences between various requirement types in particular essentially subjective and accidentally subjective quality requirements. We also present the result of an initial validation of the model through interviews with 12 practitioners and researchers. Our results show that the model can raise practitioners’ knowledge and awareness of UX in particular in relation to requirement and testing activities. It can also facilitate UX-related communication among stakeholders with different backgrounds. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2016.

  • 39.
    Kashfi, Pariya
    et al.
    Chalmers; Gothenburg Univ, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Nilsson, Agneta
    Chalmers; Gothenburg Univ, SWE.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Evidence-based Timelines for User eXperience Software Process Improvement Retrospectives2016Ingår i: 2016 42ND EUROMICRO CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS (SEAA), IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 59-62Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a retrospective meeting at a case company to reflect on its decade of Software Process Improvement (SPI) activities for enhancing UX integration. We supported the meeting by a pre-generated timeline of the main activities. This approach is a refinement of a similar approach that is used in Agile projects to improve effectiveness and decrease memory bias of retrospective meetings. The method is evaluated through gathering practitioners' view using a questionnaire. We conclude that UX research and practice can benefit from the SPI body of knowledge. We also argue that a cross-section evidence-based timeline retrospective meeting is useful for enhancing UX work in companies, especially for identifying and reflecting on `organizational issues'. This approach also provides a cross-section longitudinal overview of the SPI activities that cannot easily be gained in other common SPI learning approaches.

  • 40. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Feldt, Robert
    A Controlled Experiment of a Method for Early Requirements Triage Utilizing Product Strategies2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] In market-driven product development of software intensive products large numbers of requirements threaten to overload the development organization. It is critical for product management to select the requirements aligned with the overall business goals, product strategies and discard others as early as possible. Thus, there is a need for an effective and efficient method that deals with this challenge and supports product managers in the continuous effort of early requirements triage [1, 2] based on product strategies. This paper evaluates such a method - A Method for Early Requirements Triage Utilizing Product Strategies (MERTS), which is built based on the needs identified in literature and industry. [Question/problem] The research question answered in this paper is "If two groups of subjects have a product strategy, one group in NL format and one in MERTS format, will there be a difference between the two groups with regards to effectiveness and efficiency of requirements triage?" The effectiveness and efficiency of the MERTS were evaluated through controlled experiment in a lab environment with 50 software engineering graduate students as subjects. [Principal ideas/results] It was found through results that MERTS method is highly effective and efficient. [Contribution] The contribution of this paper is validation of effectiveness and efficiency of the product strategies created through MERTS method for requirements triage, prior to industry trials. A major limitation of the results is that the experiment was performed with the graduate students and not the product managers. However, the results showed that MERTS is ready for industry trials.

  • 41. Kosti, Makrina Viola
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Archetypal personalities of software engineers and their work preferences: a new perspective for empirical studies2016Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 1509-1532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42. Kosti, Makrina Viola
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för datavetenskap och kommunikation.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Personality, emotional intelligence and work preferences in software engineering: An empirical study2014Ingår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 56, nr 8, s. 973-990Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: There is an increasing awareness among Software Engineering (SE) researchers and practitioners that more focus is needed on understanding the engineers developing software. Previous studies show significant associations between the personalities of software engineers and their work preferences. Objective: Various studies on personality in SE have found large, small or no effects and there is no consensus on the importance of psychometric measurements in SE. There is also a lack of studies employing other psychometric instruments or using larger datasets. We aim to evaluate our results in a larger sample, with software engineers in an earlier state of their career, using advanced statistics. Method: An operational replication study where extensive psychometric data from 279 master level students have been collected in a SE program at a Swedish University. Personality data based on the Five-Factor Model, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and Self-compassion have been collected. Statistical analysis investigated associations between psychometrics and work preferences and the results were compared to our previous findings from 47 SE professionals. Results: Analysis confirms existence of two main clusters of software engineers; one with more "intense" personalities than the other. This corroborates our earlier results on SE professionals. The student data also show similar associations between personalities and work preferences. However, for other associations there are differences due to the different population of subjects. We also found connections between the emotional intelligence and work preferences, while no associations were found for self-compassion. Conclusion: The associations can help managers to predict and adapt projects and tasks to available staff. The results also show that the Emotional Intelligence instrument can be predictive. The research methods and analytical tools we employ can detect subtle associations and reflect differences between different groups and populations and thus can be important tools for future research as well as industrial practice.

  • 43. Larsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Bertilsson, Håkan
    Feldt, Robert
    Challenges and Solutions in Test Staff Relocations within a Software Consultancy Company2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wallgren, Lars-Göran
    Göteborgs Universitet, SWE.
    An initial analysis of differences in software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change2016Ingår i: Proceedings - 9th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, CHASE 2016, ACM Press, 2016, s. 1-7Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to manage change is important in software engineering organizations, where rapid progress in technologies and constantly evolving methodologies create a turbulent environment. Research has identified employees’ attitudes towards organizational change as a key factor in the change process. Nonetheless, few studies exist that explore such attitudes in a software engineering context. The nature of change efforts is such that they often do not equally affect the various roles in the organization, which indicates that the roles may hold different attitudes. This study aimed to verify the existence of these presumed differences in attitudes towards organizational change between roles in a software engineering organization and to identify factors that contribute to these differences. The result of a survey (N=51) confirmed that there were significant differences, and that the software developers had a more positive attitude towards change and had deeper knowledge about the intended outcome compared to the line managers. The result of in-depth interviews (N=11) revealed that the software engineers evaluate the planned change in relation to the norms, values and standards of their peer group, meaning that an employee will have a positive attitude towards a change if its result is likely to make, or has made, it easier for him/her to uphold the peer group’s norms and values.

  • 45. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wallgren, Lars Goran
    Behavioral software engineering: A definition and systematic literature review2015Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 107, s. 15-37Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of software engineering, the human aspects have repeatedly been recognized as important. Even though research that investigates them has been growing in the past decade, these aspects should be more generally considered. The main objective of this study is to clarify the research area concerned with human aspects of software engineering and to create a common platform for future research. In order to meet the objective, we propose a definition of the research area behavioral software engineering (BSE) and present results from a systematic literature review based ori the definition. The result indicates that there are knowledge gaps in the research area of behavioral software engineering and that earlier research has been focused on a few concepts, which have been applied to a limited number of software engineering areas. The individual studies have typically had a narrow perspective focusing on few concepts from a single unit of analysis. Further, the research has rarely been conducted in collaboration by researchers from both software engineering and social science. Altogether, this review can help put a broader set of human aspects higher on the agenda for future software engineering research and practice. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 46. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wallgren, Lars Göran
    Human Factors Related Challenges in Software Engineering: An Industrial Perspective2015Ingår i: 2015 IEEE/ACM 8TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COOPERATIVE AND HUMAN ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING CHASE, IEEE Press, 2015, s. 43-49Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 47. Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Wallgren, Lars-Göran
    Towards a Behavioral Software Engineering2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the history of Software Engineering (SE) it has been repeatedly found that the humans involved, i.e. the engineers and developers in addition to other stakeholders, are a key factor in determining project outcomes and success. However, the amount of research that focuses on human aspects has been limited compared to research with technology or process focus. With increasing maturity of the field, interest in agile methods and a growing dissatisfaction with the continued challenges of developing high-quality software on time, the amount of SE research putting human aspect in primary focus has increased. In this paper we argue that a synthesized view of the emerging human-focused SE research is needed and can add value through giving focus, direction and help identify gaps. Taking cues from the addition of Behavioral Economics as an important part of the area of Economics we propose the term Behavioral Software Engineering (BSE) as an umbrella concept for research that focus on behavioral and social aspects in the work activities of software engineers. We propose that a model based on three units of analysis can give structure and point to concepts that are important for BSE. To add detail to this model we are conducting a systematic review to map out what is currently known. To exemplify the model and the area we here present the results from a subset of the identified concepts.

  • 48.
    Lenberg, Per
    et al.
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Wallgren Tengberg, Lars Göran
    Göteborgs Universitet, SWE.
    Feldt, Robert
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    An initial analysis of software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change2017Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 2179-2205Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Employees’ attitudes towards organizational change are a critical determinant in the change process. Researchers have therefore tried to determine what underlying concepts that affect them. These extensive efforts have resulted in the identification of several antecedents. However, no studies have been conducted in a software engineering context and the research has provided little information on the relative impact and importance of the identified concepts. In this study, we have combined results from previous social science research with results from software engineering research, and thereby identified three underlying concepts with an expected significant impact on software engineers’ attitudes towards organizational change, i.e. their knowledge about the intended change outcome, their understanding of the need for change, and their feelings of participation in the change process. The result of two separate multiple regression analysis, where we used industrial questionnaire data (N=56), showed that the attitude concept openness to change is predicted by all three concepts, while the attitude concept readiness for change is predicted by need for change and participation. Our research provides an empirical baseline to an important area of software engineering and the result can be a starting-point for future organizational change research. In addition, the proposed model prescribes practical directions for software engineering organizations to adopt in improving employees’ responses to change and, thus, increase the probability of a successful change.

  • 49. Lucas, Gren
    et al.
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    Robert, Feldt
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för datavetenskaper, Institutionen för programvaruteknik.
    The prospects of a quantitative measurement of agility: A validation study on an agile maturity model2015Ingår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 107, s. 38-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile development has now become a well-known approach to collaboration in professional work life. Both researchers and practitioners want validated tools to measure agility. This study sets out to validate an agile maturity measurement model with statistical tests and empirical data. First, a pretest was conducted as a case study including a survey and focus group. Second, the main study was conducted with 45 employees from two SAP customers in the US. We used internal consistency (by a Cronbach’s alpha) as the main measure for reliability and analyzed construct validity by exploratory principal factor analysis (PFA). The results suggest a new categorization of a subset of items existing in the tool and provides empirical support for these new groups of factors. However, we argue that more work is needed to reach the point where a maturity models with quantitative data can be said to validly measure agility, and even then, such a measurement still needs to include some deeper analysis with cultural and contextual items.

  • 50. Mairhofer, Stefan
    et al.
    Feldt, Robert
    Torkar, Richard
    Search-based software testing and complex test data generation in a dynamic programming language2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manually creating test cases is time consuming and error prone. Search-based software testing can help automate this process and thus reduce time and effort and increase quality by automatically generating relevant test cases. Previous research has mainly focused on static programming languages and simple test data inputs such as numbers. This is not practical for dynamic programming languages that are increasingly used by software developers. Here we present an approach for search-based software testing for dynamically typed programming languages that can generate test scenarios and both simple and more complex test data. The approach is implemented as a tool, RuTeG, in and for the dynamic programming language Ruby. It combines an evolutionary search for test cases that give structural code coverage with a learning component to restrict the space of possible types of inputs. The latter is called for in dynamic languages since we cannot always know statically which types of objects are valid inputs. Experiments on 14 cases taken from real-world Ruby projects show that RuTeG achieves full or higher statement coverage on more cases and does so faster than randomly generated test cases.

12 1 - 50 av 88
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf