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  • 1. Ankre, Rosemarie
    et al.
    Emmelin, Lars
    Zoning and Opportunity Spectrum Planning in a Discontinuous Environment: Planning for Tourism and Outdoor Recreation in the Luleå Archipelago, Sweden2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Zoning is generally used as a planning instrument to handle land use conflicts. In recreation planning in Sweden, zoning systems such as the recreation opportunity spectrum model has been applied in mountain areas. An underlying assumption of the ROS-system is a gradient from the urban to wilderness allowing the planner to provide a spectrum of recreation opportunities. In contrast, the Swedish coastal areas consist of a discontinuous environment which challenges a zoning. Archipelagos are essentially discontinuous with respect to many of the important spatial variables. Zoning in the archipelagos in Sweden has so far followed a zoning logic from physical geography; the assumption being that the gradient from inner, wooded zones to outer treeless would also be a gradient from the more urban or human influenced cultural landscape to a more pristine, “marine wilderness” in the outer. In 2003, a questionnaire survey to visitors was conducted in the Luleå archipelago, Sweden. Based on the results, the study examines the spatialization of the visitor characteristics, the activity patterns etc in relation to the ongoing planning of the area. This paper explores the planning challenges in adapting zoning to cope with recreation and tourism development as well as with the other land and resources uses that municipal comprehensive planning is charged with. Thereby possible conflicts are identified, and the potential of zoning is explored.

  • 2.
    Ankre, Rosemarie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Forsberg, Lena Petersson
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Emmelin, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Silence – an article of short supply in outdoor recreation? Handling noise conflicts in Swedish planning2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outdoor recreation areas are exposed to several causes of conflict. Many interests, along with different types of recreation activities, are competing in the same area. In these areas, conflicts are handled by spatial planning and by the separation in space of different functions. One source of conflict is noise. The lack of noise-free areas in the Swedish coastal areas has become an amenity problem. Does this make noise an important problem to consider in planning? An assumption is that the sound environment is relevant for the visitors’ experience; spending time in nature is associated with peace and quiet, where one should not be disturbed. In this study, it will be investigated how silence and noise actually are considered in the Swedish municipal planning. “Silence” is one of the amenity categories reported in the Swedish tourism data base. Is there a discrepancy between the existing municipal planning and the visitors’ opinions, attitudes and experiences? Furthermore, there will be an analysis of how silence and noise could be handled in spatial planning. One possible method is zoning. By excluding certain outdoor recreation activities from some areas, zoning may handle, or at least reduce, the problem of conflicts. The biosphere reserve concept (where zoning is an important part) will for that reason be discussed as a potential tool. A case study of the Blekinge archipelago, Sweden is the foundation of the study, which data consist of planning documents and questionnaire surveys considering outdoor recreation and nature tourism.

  • 3. Ankre, Rosemarie
    et al.
    Forsberg, Lena Petersson
    Emmelin, Lars
    Silence: an article of short supply in outdoor recreation? Handling noise conflicts in Swedish planning2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Cashmore, Matthew
    et al.
    Richardson, Tim
    Hilding-Ryedvik, Tuija
    Emmelin, Lars
    Evaluating the effectiveness of impact assessment instruments: Theorising the nature and implications of their political constitution2010In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 371-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central role of impact assessment instruments globally in policy integration initiatives has been cemented in recent years. Associated with this trend, but also reflecting political emphasis on greater accountability in certain policy sectors and a renewed focus on economic competitiveness in Western countries, demand has increased for evidence that these instruments are effective (however defined). Resurgent interest in evaluation has not, however, been accompanied by the conceptual developments required to redress longstanding theoretical problems associated with such activities. In order to sharpen effectiveness evaluation theory for impact assessment instruments this article critically examines the neglected issue of their political constitution. Analytical examples are used to concretely explore the nature and significance of the politicisation of impact assessment. It is argued that raising awareness about the political character of impact assessment instruments, in itself, is a vital step in advancing effectiveness evaluation theory. Broader theoretical lessons on the framing of evaluation research are also drawn from the political analysis. We conclude that, at least within the contemporary research context, learning derived from analysing the meaning and implications of plural interpretations of effectiveness represents the most constructive strategy for advancing impact assessment and policy integration theory.

  • 5. Emmelin, Lars
    Att förvalta landskapet. Framtidens förvirrande mångfald och historiens skenbara begriplighet2003In: Vägar till kunskap. Några aspekter på humanvetenskaplig och annan miljöforskning / [ed] Lundgren, Lars J, Symposion , 2003, p. 102-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6. Emmelin, Lars
    Att synas utan att verka – miljömålen som symbolpolitik?2005In: Konflikter, samarbete, resultat. Perspektiv på svensk miljöpolitik. Festskrift till Valfrid Paulsson / [ed] Lundgren, Lars J; Edman, Johan, Brottby: Kassandra , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7. Emmelin, Lars
    Effective Environmental Assessment Tools – critical reflections on concepts and practice2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an anthology from the research programme MiSt - Tools for environmental assessment in strategic decision making. MiSt is an interdisciplinary research programme on tools for environmental assessment in strategic decision making running from 2003 to 2008. The focus of the MiSt-programme is the empirical study of effectiveness of tools of environmental assessment as aid to strategic decision making. Two perspectives running through the programme are public participation and legal regulation of tools. There are three major steps in the programme: • a critical examination of the function of tools • a theory based understanding of their effectiveness • and ultimately a development of prescriptions for effective tool use including effective combinations of tools. MiSt is funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Participating researchers come from a dozen leading Swedish research institutions in the field. The programme was initiated by the Blekinge Institute of Technology.

  • 8. Emmelin, Lars
    EIA follow up2007In: Standards and Thresholds for Impact Assessment / [ed] Glasson, M.; Emmelin, J.; Helbron, L. &; , Springer Verlag. , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9. Emmelin, Lars
    Environmental Impact Assessment in Norway – understanding implementation as a function of professional culture2001In: Environmental Education and Information, ISSN 0144-9281 , Vol. 20, no 4, p. 299-314Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Emmelin, Lars
    Evaluating Environmental Impact Assessment Systems - Part 1: Theoretical and Methodological Considerations1999In: Scandinavian Housing & Planning Research, ISSN 0281-5737 , Vol. 15, no 3, p. 129-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the problem of evaluating the functioning of EIA by relating EIA to professional and organisational cultures in environmental planning and management. The paper offers a model of modes of evaluation and suggests that the understanding of implementation structures is necessary to complement other types of evaluation which tend to focus on systems structure and document structure and to take an insider perspective on effectiveness of EIA.

  • 11. Emmelin, Lars
    Evaluating Nordic Environmental Impact Assessment - Part 2: Professional Culture as an Aid in understanding Implementation1999In: Scandinavian Housing & Planning Research, ISSN 0281-5737 , Vol. 15, no 4, p. 187-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses the functioning of environmental impact assessment, EIA, in the Nordic countries by relating EIA to professional and organisational cultures in environmental management and planning. The article shows that the understanding of professional and organisational culture as part of the implementation structure is an urgent need to complement other types of evaluation.

  • 12. Emmelin, Lars
    Land use planning and SEA – coevolving systems2006Report (Other academic)
  • 13. Emmelin, Lars
    Landscape Impact Analysis: a systematic approach to landscape impacts of policy1996In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 13-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for analysis of landscape impacts has been developed and applied to policy analysis in Sweden and Norway. The method uses scenario techniques to solve the methodological problem om lack of specificity of policies and programmes. The paper describes the main steps of the method and show an example of the application to assessemnt of the impact of policy instruments in Norwegian agricultural policy.

  • 14.
    Emmelin, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Reflections on a dysfunctional SEA-system: the case of Swedish spatial planning2016In: European and International Experiences of Strategic Environmental Assessment: Recent Progress and Future Prospects / [ed] Sadler, B., Dusík, J., Taylor & Francis, 2016, p. 84-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15. Emmelin, Lars
    Strategic Environmental Assessment for Tourism Planning2006Report (Other academic)
  • 16. Emmelin, Lars
    Tools for environmental assessment in strategic decision making2006In: BTH Research Report 2006:03 / [ed] Emmelin, Lars, Karlskrona: BTH , 2006, p. 4-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the conceptual basis of the research in the MiSt-programme looking especially at the concept of tools and a simple model for the interaction of tools with their context of application and implicit background factors.

  • 17. Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Ankre, Rosemarie
    Planning for a Mosaic of Values in a Discontinuous Landscape: Planning for Recreation in the Luleå Archipelago2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The coastal areas’ physical environment and their activities have a great power of attraction on visitors which encourage further development of tourism and recreation. At the same time, these areas consist of vulnerable nature and culture which cause conflicts of land and water use. Zoning is generally used as a planning instrument to handle land use conflicts where a gradient from the urban to wilderness allows the planner to provide a spectrum of recreation opportunities. In recreation planning in Sweden, zoning systems such as the recreation opportunity spectrum model are being applied in wilderness areas. However, the archipelagos consist of discontinuous landscapes which challenge a zoning logic. This paper explores the potential of geographical zoning in coastal areas where the continuum of spectrum is replaced by mosaic. In 2003, a questionnaire survey to visitors was conducted in the Luleå archipelago, Sweden. Based on the results, this paper will identify conflicts in coastal areas in relation to place attachment and the spatialization of the visitor characteristics. The application of zoning as a mosaic instead of spectrum is explored by investigating the correlation of place attachment and the visitors’ geographical dispersion and location in the archipelago. The adoption of the ROS-concept Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (WROS) is examined.

  • 18.
    Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Cherp, Aleh
    National environmental objectives in Sweden: a critical reflection2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 123, p. 194-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The National Environmental Objectives (NEOs) adopted by Swedish Parliament in 2001 and proclaimining that major environmental problems should be solved within a generation are often portrayed as good practice of a concrete yet visionary sustainability strategy. In this paper we summarize one and a half decade of the NEOs' experience for the international audience. The NEO5 were based on an eclectic mixture of conceptual reasoning, most importantly the Management by Objectives concept and the notion of a policy deriving its authority and legitimacy from scientifically established 'natural laws and limits'. The 16 NEO5 fall into two groups. The first group is a positive reformulation of existing environmental problems based on well established scientific evidence. While they have scientific authority and can be operationalized and enforced through standards they are hardly visionary, strategic or capable of responding to emerging threats. The second group contains utopian landscape goals which are more visionary but also more difficult to operationalize, especially for local authorities which play major part in the implementation of the NEO5 in Sweden. We argue that the system that mixes these two sets of goals based on two different paradigms of sustainable development inherits the weaknesses of both and the strengths of neither. The NEO system lacks the hierarchical and scientific authority potentially possible for scientific goals and at the same time fails to provide for learning, mobilisation and consensus-building power of utopian landscape goals. It has been too fuzzy to be implemented in a top down way and yet too rigid to enable bottom-up action. A more effective approach would be to separate these two sustainability governance approaches into complementary but distinct systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19. Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Fredman, Peter
    Sandell, Klas
    Planering och förvaltning för friluftsliv: en forskningsöversikt2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppdraget var att göra en översikt över svensk och internationell forskning inom området "planering och förvaltning av natur för friluftsliv och naturturism". Uppdragsbeskrivningen från Naturvårdsverket innehöll två huvudmoment: redovisning av kunskapsläge och en analys av behov av forskning och metodutveckling för planering och förvaltning.

  • 20. Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Lerman, Peggy
    Environmental quality standards as a tool in environmental governance – the case of Sweden2007In: Standards and Thresholds for Impact Assessment / [ed] Glasson, M.; Emmelin, J.; Helbron, L. &; , Springer Verlag. , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21. Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Lerman, Peggy
    Miljöregler: hinder för utveckling och god miljö?2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten är resultatet av ett förprojekt för att undersöka konflikten mellan miljöprövning och fysisk planering på den ena sidan och utveckling på den andra. Följande områden tas upp: miljökonsekvensbedömning, Natura 2000, regeringsprövning, planeringen av infrastrukturen för 3G systemet, EUs vattendirektiv, miljösanktioner samt miljökvalitetsmålen.

  • 22. Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Lerman, Peggy
    Styrning av markanvändning och miljö2006Report (Other academic)
  • 23. Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Lerman, Peggy
    The problems of a minimalist approach – the case of Sweden2004In: Implementing Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) / [ed] Schmidt, Michael; , Elsa João and Lothar Knopp, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2004Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has taken a clearly minimalist approach to the implementation of the SEA-directive. In this article we examine the mode of implementation and discuss some of the problems of the Swedish approach.

  • 24. Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Nilsson, Jan-Evert
    Integration of Environment into Regional Growth Policy- the lack of environmental consideration in implementation2006In: BTH Research Report 2006:03 / [ed] Emmelin, Lars, Karlskrona: BTH , 2006, p. 228-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability at the level of national policy and regional programmes is implemented in project funding. If tiering is to be effective methods of screening projects for environmental impact and for deciding if projects are in line with policy are needed. Project funding can not be shown to be influenced by programme ambitions for sustainable development with regards to the environmental component. Sector integration which is central to Swedish sustainability policy seems so far not to have had any great impact.

  • 25.
    Emmelin, Lars
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Söderblom, Ingmarie
    Spelet om 3G: en förstudie av mastfrågan2002Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utbyggnaden av 3G-systemets fysiska infrastruktur kan ses som ett spel med tre huvudaktörer: operatörerna, staten och kommunerna. Staten har delat ut licenser med mycket ambitiösa krav på täckning och utbyggnadstakt. Operatörerna, å sin sida, har ett intresse av den utbyggnad som ger bäst ekonomi och marknadsposition, vilket inte nödvändigtvis innebär att de har ett intresse av vare sig den hastighet eller täckningsgrad de själva drivit fram i skönhetstävlingen. Kommunerna ska slutligen handlägga ansökningarna om bygglov från operatörerna; kraven på utbyggnadshastighet är här ett uppenbart problem. Utbyggnaden av infrastrukturen för 3G-systemet är principiellt intressant långt utöver de konkreta planerings- och miljöproblemen. Den illustrerar hur ?hållbar utveckling? hanteras i praktiken. Teknik och utvecklingsoptimismen har inte på något påvisbart sätt balanserats mot miljöintressen. I 3G är dessa avvägningar flyttade ned till kommuner och länsstyrelser. Besluten om 3G illustrerar det strategiska beslutsfattandets centrala dilemma: avvägningen mellan ?att våga och att väga?. Nyckelord: 3G, UMTS, bygglov, miljöprövning, infrastruktur

  • 26. Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Friberg, Lisa Hörnsten
    Emmelin, Lars
    Friluftsliv och turism i Fulufjället. Före: efter nationalparksbildningen.2005Book (Other academic)
  • 27. Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Friberg, Lisa Hörnsten
    Emmelin, Lars
    Visitor Surveys at Fulufjället: Before and After National Park Establishment2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report gives an introduction to visitor management in protected areas, including visitor planning models and monitoring methodology. It is an edited and English translation of parts of the report: Fredman, P., Hörnsten Friberg, L. & Emmelin, L. 2005. Friluftsliv och turism i Fulufjället. Före – efter nationalparksbildningen. Naturvårdsverket, rapport 5467. Dokumentation av de svenska nationalparkerna, nr 18. Emphasis is on methodology, but the report also includes a summary of the results from the pre– and post National Park designation visitor surveys at Fulufjället.

  • 28. Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Romild, Ulla
    Emmelin, Lars
    Yuan, Michael
    Non-Compliance with On-Site Data Collection in Outdoor Recreation Monitoring2009In: Visitor Studies, ISSN 1064-5578, E-ISSN 1934-7715, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 164-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of methods exists for on-site visitor monitoring in parks and recreation areas. Self-registration methods have proven to be popular because of their low cost and relative ease of administration, but little is known about the extent to which the data collected from self-registration boxes are representative of the population of visitors, and the degree that bias exists as a result of non-compliance. This article examines these concerns based on research at Fulufjaumlllet National Park in Sweden. On-site registration card and follow-up mail survey data from a sample of visitors who did not voluntarily register were compared with the same kind of data for visitors who did register voluntarily. In total, 10 registration card items and 284 mail survey items were tested for variations between compliant and non-compliant visitors. Of these, one third of the card items, 12% and 3% of the survey items for Swedish and German visitors, respectively, yielded statistically significant differences. Implications for management and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  • 29. Hagen, Dagmar
    et al.
    Aasetre, Jörund
    Emmelin, Lars
    Communicative Approaches to Restoration Ecology: a case study from Dovre Mountain and Svalbard, Norway2002In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 359-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive damage to arctic and alpine landscapes raises the question of resoration as a management strategy. Social science and planning concepts and methods are needed to handle the value judgements in resoration. Restoration of two areas was investigated using qualitative and participatory methods. Four possible restoration scenarios were investigated.

  • 30. Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    et al.
    Emmelin, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Planning and Media Design.
    Alternativ i miljökonsekvensbedömning och miljöbedömning2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enligt miljöbalkens bestämmelser om miljöbedömning och miljökonsekvensbedömning ska man vid planeringen ta fram olika alternativ som är förenliga med syftet med planen, programmet eller projektet. Genom att utarbeta och analysera olika alternativ ska beslutsfattarna kunna finna det alternativ som sammantaget är det bästa ur olika aspekter inklusive miljö. I denna rapport beskrivs resultaten av en pilotstudie om hantering av alternativ i miljöbedömning av planer och program och miljökonsekvensbedömning av projekt. Utgångspunkten är erfarenheter att detta på flera sätt inte tycks fungera så som det är tänkt utifrån EU-direktiv och svensk lagstiftning. Pilotstudien har genomförts i fem olika moment: • Internationell litteraturstudie • Granskning av miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar mot en fast granskningsmall • Intervjuer, utifrån en frågelista för semistrukturerade intervjuer, av svenska utförare som arbetar med MKB och MB • Diskussioner med svenska praktiker och med forskare i andra länder. • En workshop anordnad av Naturvårdsverket i samarbete med projektet. Ansvariga för studien är professor Tuija Hilding-Rydevik, SLU (projektledare) och professor Lars Emmelin, BTH Forskningsprogrammet MiSt Programmet "Miljöstrategiska verktyg", MiSt, är ett tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprogram finansierat av Naturvårdsverket. Programmet leds från Blekinge Tekniska Högskola. I programmet studeras verktyg som kan underlätta miljöbedömning i strategiskt beslutsfattande på olika nivåer, från nationell till lokal. Förståelsen och basen för utveckling av verktyg och rekommendationer om verktyg i olika planerings- och beslutsprocesser baseras på empirisk forskning på fall inom flera sektorer. Målen för MiSt-programmet: • Kritisk undersökning av verktygens funktion • Teoribaserad förståelse av deras verkan • Utveckling av råd om effektiv användning av verktyg och kombinationer av verktyg Programchef: professor Lars Emmelin, Fysisk planering, BTH. Biträdande programchef: professor Tuija Hilding-Rydevik, MKB-Centrum SLU.

  • 31. Kaltenborn, B.
    et al.
    Emmelin, Lars
    Bruken av Femundsmarka nasjonalpark – en studie 1985 – 19982004Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Larsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Emmelin, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Vindelstam, Sandra
    Multi–Level Environmental Governance: The Case of Wind Power Development in Sweden2014In: Societal studies, ISSN 2029-2236, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At national policy level in Sweden, the importance of development of wind power is emphasized. However, the actual implementation is highly dependent on local permit giving for windmills. The legislation governing the permit giving has been revised in an attempt to make the local processes faster and to shift the permit process towards a more regional environmental process as opposed to a more plan-based municipal process. By tradition in Sweden, the local, municipal level has had a strong mandate in land use planning which is often referred to as the “the municipal planning monopoly”, which means that there is a tension whenever a legal proposal seeks to diminish this “plan monopoly”. The legal investigation suggesting changes in the law on permit-giving stressed the need for strengthening the regional assessment, which led to a compromise called the “municipal veto-right”, where the regional environmental permit needs a formal approval from the municipality for the permit process to continue. This study investigates both the legal development of the so-called veto-right as well as what it empirically has led to, and how it is perceived by the industry as well as concerned parties. For this reason, a sample of 30 regional permit cases has been collected, and a limited number of interviews have been conducted with judges in appeal courts and regional handling officers assessing turbine applications. The results indicate that the industry sees the “veto” as leading to problematic uncertainty in the process at regional level and, therefore, prefer to keep the applications at a level that entitles them to use the municipal permit system which is determined by height and number of turbines. This is a consequence directly opposite to what the legal commission aimed for when revising the legal system.

  • 33. Larsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Lars, Emmelin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Spatial Planning.
    Objectively best or most acceptable? Expert and lay knowledge inSwedish wind power permit processes2016In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 1360-1376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses legal aspects of the Swedish wind power development, theoreticallybased on how different types of knowledge are represented in legal contexts, mainly inthe courts. A sample of appealed wind power permits is analysed, a handful of relevantinformants are interviewedincluding two judges in the Land and Environment Courtand the appeal courtand the legal setting is analysed. Of key interest here is theinterplay between expert and lay statements in the court cases, which here is related tothe concepts of calculating and communicative rationalities that are developed in theplanning literature. The results indicate that the juridificationwhich takes place as apermit issue is appealed in the judiciary systemsupports the calculating rationalitymore than the communicative, and that the plaintiffs often attempt to adapt in how theyshape their argumentation.

  • 34. Markus, Eric
    et al.
    Emmelin, Lars
    Applying good EIA practice criteria to SEA: the Öresund Bridge as a case2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is concerned with the evaluation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and good EIA practice criteria. It also looks at the applicability of such criteria to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). This is done though a closer examination of three good practice criteria proposed by Westerlund: the basis for the decision criterion, the result criterion and the alternative criterion. A connection is made with the Swedish Öresund Bridge project and the criteria are problematized in light of this project. The discussion is also linked to the issue of rationality in strategic decision-making. The paper argues that seeing SEA as an EIA analogy is not purely straightforward.

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