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  • 1. Bulling, Andreas
    et al.
    Dachselt, Raimund
    Duchowski, Andrew T.
    Jacob, Robert J.
    Stellmach, Sophie
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With continuous progression away from desktop to post-WIMP applications, including multi-touch, gestural, or tangible interaction, there is high potential for eye gaze as a more natural human-computer interface in numerous contexts. Examples include attention-aware adaptations or the combination of gaze and hand gestures for interaction with distant displays. This SIG meeting provides a discussion venue for researchers and practitioners interested in gaze interaction in the post-WIMP era. We wish to draw attention to this emerging field and eventually formulate fundamental research questions. We will discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interface combinations. Our aims are to promote this research field, foster a larger research community, and establish the basis for a workshop at CHI 2013.

  • 2.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Exploring Biometrics as an Evaluation Technique for Digital Game Addiction Prevention2018In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 7, p. 15-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Jarabo, Adrian
    et al.
    Eyck, Tom Van
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Bala, Kavita
    Gutierrez, Diego
    O’Sullivan, Carol
    Crowd Light: Evaluating the Perceived Fidelity of Illuminated Dynamic Scenes2012In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 31, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rendering realistic illumination effects for complex animated scenes with many dynamic objects or characters is computationally expensive. Yet, it is not obvious how important such accurate lighting is for the overall perceived realism in these scenes. In this paper, we present a methodology to evaluate the perceived fidelity of illumination in scenes with dynamic aggregates, such as crowds, and explore several factors which may affect this perception. We focus in particular on evaluating how a popular spherical harmonics lighting method can be used to approximate realistic lighting of crowds. We conduct a series of psychophysical experiments to explore how a simple approach to approximating global illumination, using interpolation in the temporal domain, affects the perceived fidelity of dynamic scenes with high geometric, motion, and illumination complexity. We show that the complexity of the geometry and temporal properties of the crowd entities, the motion of the aggregate as a whole, the type of interpolation (i.e., of the direct and/or indirect illumination coefficients), and the presence or absence of colour all affect perceived fidelity. We show that high (i.e., above 75%) levels of perceived scene fidelity can be maintained while interpolating indirect illumination for intervals of up to 30 frames, resulting in a greater than three-fold rendering speed-up.

  • 4.
    Jerčić, Petar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Wen, Wei
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    The Effect of Emotions and Social Behavior on Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and Autonomous Robots2018In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate performance in a collaborative human–robot interaction on a shared serious game task. Furthermore, the effect of elicited emotions and perceived social behavior categories on players’ performance will be investigated. The participants collaboratively played a turn-taking version of the Tower of Hanoi serious game, together with the human and robot collaborators. The elicited emotions were analyzed in regards to the arousal and valence variables, computed from the Geneva Emotion Wheel questionnaire. Moreover, the perceived social behavior categories were obtained from analyzing and grouping replies to the Interactive Experiences and Trust and Respect questionnaires. It was found that the results did not show a statistically significant difference in participants’ performance between the human or robot collaborators. Moreover, all of the collaborators elicited similar emotions, where the human collaborator was perceived as more credible and socially present than the robot one. It is suggested that using robot collaborators might be as efficient as using human ones, in the context of serious game collaborative tasks.

  • 5. Jimenez, Jorge
    et al.
    Whelan, David
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Gutierrez, Diego
    Real Time Realistic Skin Translucency2010In: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion theory allows the production of realistic skin renderings. The dipole and multipole models allow for solving challenging diffusion-theory equations efficiently. By using texture-space diffusion, a Gaussian-based approximation, and programmable graphics hardware, developers can create real-time, photorealistic skin renderings. Performing this diffusion in screen space offers advantages that make diffusion approximation practical in scenarios such as games, where having the best possible performance is crucial. However, unlike the texture-space counterpart, the screen-space approach can't simulate transmittance of light through thin geometry; it yields unrealistic results in those cases. A new transmittance algorithm turns the screen-space approach into an efficient global solution, capable of simulating both reflectance and transmittance of light through a multilayered skin model. The transmittance calculations are derived from physical equations, which are implemented through simple texture access. The method performs in real time, requiring no additional memory usage and only minimal additional processing power and memory bandwidth. Despite its simplicity, this practical model manages to reproduce the look of images rendered with other techniques (both offline and real time) such as photon mapping or diffusion approximation.

  • 6. Kamp, Jan van der
    et al.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Gaze and Voice Controlled Drawing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking is a process that allows an observers gaze to be determined in real time by measuring their eye movements. Recent work has examined the possibility of using gaze control as an alternative input modality in interactive applications. Alternative means of interaction are especially important for disabled users for whom traditional techniques, such as mouse and keyboard, may not be feasible. This paper proposes a novel combination of gaze and voice commands as a means of hands free interaction in a paint style program. A drawing application is implemented which is controllable by input from gaze and voice. Voice commands are used to activate drawing which allow gaze to be used only for positioning the cursor. In previous work gaze has also been used to activate drawing using dwell time. The drawing application is evaluated using subjective responses from participant user trials. The main result indicates that although gaze and voice o ered less control that traditional input devices, the participants reported that it was more enjoyable.

  • 7.
    Lambrant, Andreas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Luro, Francisco Lopez
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Avatar Preference Selection in Game Design Based on Color Theory2016In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Applied Perception, ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 15-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting color schemes for game objects is an important task. It can be valuable to game designers to know what colors are preferred. Principles of color theory are important to select appropriate colors. This paper presents a perceptual experiment that evaluates some basic principles of color theory applied to game objects to study if a particular combination is preferred. An experiment was conducted with 15 participants who performed a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) preference experiment using 236 pairs of images each. The pairs were based on color harmonies derived from the colors red, green, and blue. The color harmonies were evaluated against each other and included analogous, complementary, split-complementary, triad, and warm and cool colors. A high and low saturation condition was also included. The color harmonies were applied to an existing game character (avatar) and a new object (cube) to study any potential differences in the results. The initial results show that some color harmonies, in particular triad and split-complementary, were generally preferred over others meaning that it is important to take into account these aspects in game design. Additional results also show that color harmonies with a base in green were not as popular as red and blue color harmonies.

  • 8. Lopez, Francisco
    et al.
    Molla, Ramon
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Exploring Peripheral LOD Change Detections during Interactive Gaming Tasks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games require players to interact with scenes while performing various tasks. In this paper an experimental game framework was developed to measure players perception to level of detail (LOD) changes in 3D models (for example a bunny), as shown in Figure 1. These models were unrelated to the task assigned to the player and located away from the area in which the task was being accomplished. An interactive task, such as a point and shoot game, triggers a top-down vision process. Performing a specific task can result in inattentional blindness (IB) for the player, which is the phenomenon of not being able to perceive things that are in plain sight. IB can allow for substantial simplifications of the objects in the scene unrelated to the task at hand. In this paper five experiments were conducted exploring peripheral LOD change detections during an interactive gaming task. In three of the five experiments different level of awareness for the same task were tested and it was found that only participants being fully aware of the 3D LOD changes were able to detect about 15% of them during the game. In the other two experiments and with the players fully aware of the LOD changes, the distance at which they were able to detect each change of resolution was measured, with different number of LOD levels used in both experiments.

  • 9. Lopez-Moreno, Jorge
    et al.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Sangorrin, Francisco
    Gutierrez, Diego
    Measuring the Perception of Light Inconsistencies2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the ability of the human visual system to detect inconsistencies in the illumination of objects in images. We specifically focus on objects being lit from different angles as the rest of the image. We present the results of three different tests, two with synthetic objects and a third one with digitally manipulated real images. Our results seem to agree with previous publications exploring the topic, but we extend them by providing quantifiable data which in turn suggest approximate perceptual thresholds. Given that light detection in single images is an ill-posed problem, these thresholds can provide valid error limits to related algorithms in different contexts, such as compositing or augmented reality.

  • 10.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Simplifying Game Mechanics: Gaze as an Implicit Interaction Method2017In: SIGGRAPH Asia 2017 Technical Briefs, SA 2017, ACM Digital Library, 2017, article id 132534Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Olsen, Anneli
    et al.
    Schmidt, Albrecht
    Marshall, Paul
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Using Eye Tracking for Interaction2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of cheaper eye trackers and open source software for eye tracking and gaze interaction brings the possibility to integrate eye tracking into everyday use devices as well as highly specialized equipment. Apart from providing means for analyzing eye movements, eye tracking also offers the possibility of a natural user interaction modality. Gaze control interfaces are already used within assistive applications for disabled users. However, this novel user interaction possibility comes with its own set of limitations and challenges. The aim of this SIG is to provide a forum for Designers, Researchers and Usability Professionals to discuss the role of eye tracking as a user interaction method in the future as well as the technical and user interaction challenges that using eye tracking as an interaction method brings.

  • 12. Purvis, Alan
    et al.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Perceptibility of Clones in Tree Rendering2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. Purvis, Alan
    et al.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Perception of Clones in Forest Rendering2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of instanced clones represents a powerful technique for reducing the time and space requirements of the storage and visualization of large populations of similar objects. This paper presents the results of several perceptual experiments into the application of cloning to plant populations, within the context of a project to explore the use of resource-acquisition based techniques to model plant distributions. The perceptive effects of clone rotation on human subjects will be explored, with the goal of stratifying clone rotations and minimizing their detection. The perceptual effects of clone number, plant species heterogeneity and appearance will also be explored.

  • 14.
    Santos, Beatriz Sousa
    et al.
    Universidade de Aveiro, PRT.
    Dischler, Jean Michel
    Universite de Strasbourg, FRA.
    Adzhiev, Valery
    Bournemouth University, GBR.
    Anderson, Eike Falk
    Bournemouth University, GBR.
    Ferko, Andrej
    Comenius University, SVK.
    Fryazinov, Oleg
    Bournemouth University, GBR.
    Ilčík, Martin
    Technische Universitat Wien, AUT.
    Ilčíková, Ivana
    Comenius University, SVK.
    Slavik, Pavel
    Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, CZE.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Svobodova, Liba
    Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, CZE.
    Wimmer, Michael
    Technische Universitat Wien, AUT.
    Zara, Jiri
    Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, CZE.
    Distinctive Approaches to Computer Graphics Education2018In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 403-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the latest advances and research in Computer Graphics education in a nutshell. It is concerned with topics that were presented at the Education Track of the Eurographics Conference held in Lisbon in 2016. We describe works corresponding to approaches to Computer Graphics education that are unconventional in some way and attempt to tackle unsolved problems and challenges regarding the role of arts in computer graphics education, the role of research-oriented activities in undergraduate education and the interaction among different areas of Computer Graphics, as well as their application to courses or extra-curricular activities. We present related works addressing these topics and report experiences, successes and issues in implementing the approaches. © 2017 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 15.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A Visualisation in Games Course Curriculum2016In: Eurographics (Education Papers) / [ed] Eurographics, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gazing at Games: An Introduction to Eye Tracking Control2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking is a process that identifies a specific point in both space and time that is being looked at by the observer. This information can also be used in real-time to control applications using the eyes. Recent innovations in the video game industry include alternative input modalities to provide an enhanced, more immersive user experience. In particular, eye gaze control has recently been explored as an input modality in video games. This book is an introduction for those interested in using eye tracking to control or analyze video games and virtual environments. Key concepts are illustrated through three case studies in which gaze control and voice recognition have been used in combination to control virtual characters and applications. The lessons learned in the case studies are presented and issues relating to incorporating eye tracking in interactive applications are discussed. The reader will be given an introduction to human visual attention, eye movements and eye tracking technologies. Previous work in the field of studying fixation behavior in games and using eye tracking for video game interaction will also be presented. The final chapter discusses ideas for how this field can be developed further to create richer interaction for characters and crowds in virtual environments. Alternative means of interaction in video games are especially important for disabled users for whom traditional techniques, such as mouse and keyboard, may be far from ideal. This book is also relevant for those wishing to use gaze control in applications other than games.

  • 17. Sundstedt, Veronica
    Gazing at Games: Using Eye Tracking to Control Virtual Characters2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This course is for people who are interested in incorporating eye tracking in games and virtual environments. The attendees will be given an introduction to attention, eye movements, and eye tracking technologies. Previous work in the field of gaze in gaming will be presented as well as two case studies in which gaze and voice were used in combination to control virtual characters and their behavior. The first case study “The Revenge of the Killer Penguins” is a third person adventure puzzle game using a combination of non intrusive eye tracking technology and voice recognition for novel game features. The second case study “Rabbit Run” is a first person maze game which was created to compare gaze and voice input with traditional techniques, such as mouse and keyboard. The lessons learned in these case studies and issues relating to incorporating eye tracking in games will be presented. Ideas are also proposed for how this field can be developed further to create richer interaction for characters and crowds in virtual environments.

  • 18.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Bernhard, Matthias
    Stavrakis, Efstathios
    Reinhard, Erik
    Wimmer, Michael
    Visual Attention and Gaze Behavior in Games: An Object-Based Approach2013In: Game Analytics: Maximizing the Value of Player Data / [ed] Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Drachen, Anders; Canossa, Alessandro, Springer , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents state-of-the-art methods that tap the potential of psychophysics for the purpose of understanding game players' behavior. Studying gaze behavior in gaming environments has recently gained momentum as it affords a better understanding of gamers' visual attention. However, while knowing where users are attending in a computer game would be useful at a basic level, it does not provide insight into what users are interested in, or why. An answer to these questions can be tremendously useful to game designers, enabling them to improve gameplay, selectively increase visual fidelity, and optimize the distribution of computing resources. Furthermore, this could be useful in verifying game mechanics, improving game AI and smart positioning of advertisements within games, all being applications widely desirable across the games industry. Techniques are outlined to collect gaze data, and map fixation points back to semantic objects in a gaming environment, enabling a deeper understanding of how players interact with games.

  • 19.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lanner, Martin
    Evaluation of a Curriculum for Technical Artists2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Technical Artist requires a unique set of skills to act as a bridge between artists and programmers in digital entertainment development. Our newly developed Technical Artist in Games (TAG) program is regulated under the national Higher Education Regulation (HER) in Sweden. This paper analyses the fit between the program and requirements from both the HER and the computer games industry. The analysis is done by evaluating the course content of the TAG program in relation to the HER and thirty job advertisements. The aim of this evaluation is to investigate how well the program prepares students for their future roles in industry.

  • 20.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Navarro, Diego
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Mautner, Julian
    Stillalive Studios, SWE.
    Possibilities and challenges with eye tracking in video games and virtual reality applications2016In: SA 2016 - SIGGRAPH ASIA 2016 Courses, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, article id a17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increase in affordable, reliable and non-intrusive eye trackers the technology has recently been used by the video game industry. This course offers participants the opportunity to get an update on research and developments in gaze-based interaction techniques in combination with other sensors. The course consists of three parts: (1) a review of eye tracking analysis and interaction in video games and virtual reality applications, (2) possibilities and challenges with gaze-based interaction, and (3) lessons learned from developing a commercial video game application using eye tracking along with alternative virtual reality technologies. This course is relevant for everyone who is interested in developing games that use eye tracking as an interaction device. The content is suitable for beginners or experienced delegates who want to learn more about the state of the art and future possibilities in eye tracking combined with other sensors as interaction devices. We believe that games and virtual reality applications have just started to incorporate these new techniques and further research and developments are needed in order to evaluate novel ways to enhance gameplay.

  • 21. Turner, Jayson
    et al.
    Velloso, Eduardo
    Gellersen, Hans
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    EyePlay: Applications for Gaze in Games2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What new challenges does the combination of games and eye-tracking present? The EyePlay workshop brings together researchers and industry specialists from the fields of eye-tracking and games to address this question. Eye-tracking been investigated extensively in a variety of domains in human-computer Interaction, but little attention has been given to its application for gaming. As eye-tracking technology is now an affordable commodity, its appeal as a sensing technology for games is set to become the driving force for novel methods of player-computer interaction and games evaluation. This workshop presents a forum for eye-based gaming research, with a focus on identifying the opportunities that eye-tracking brings to games design and research, on plotting the landscape of the work in this area, and on formalising a research agenda for EyePlay as a field. Possible topics are, but not limited to, novel interaction techniques and game mechanics, usability and evaluation, accessibility, learning, and serious games contexts.

1 - 21 of 21
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