Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 51
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Bulling, Andreas
    et al.
    Dachselt, Raimund
    Duchowski, Andrew T.
    Jacob, Robert J.
    Stellmach, Sophie
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Gaze Interaction in the Post-WIMP World2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With continuous progression away from desktop to post-WIMP applications, including multi-touch, gestural, or tangible interaction, there is high potential for eye gaze as a more natural human-computer interface in numerous contexts. Examples include attention-aware adaptations or the combination of gaze and hand gestures for interaction with distant displays. This SIG meeting provides a discussion venue for researchers and practitioners interested in gaze interaction in the post-WIMP era. We wish to draw attention to this emerging field and eventually formulate fundamental research questions. We will discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interface combinations. Our aims are to promote this research field, foster a larger research community, and establish the basis for a workshop at CHI 2013.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Analysis of Variance of Opinion Scores for MPEG-4 Scalable and Advanced Video Coding2018In: 2018 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SIGNAL PROCESSING AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (ICSPCS) / [ed] Wysocki, TA Wysocki, BJ, IEEE , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we conduct an analysis of variance (ANOVA) on opinion scores for MPEG-4 scalable video coding (SVC) and advanced video coding (AVC) standards. This work resorts on a publicly available database providing opinion scores from subjective experiments for several scenarios such as different bit rates and resolutions. In particular, ANOVA is used for statistical hypothesis testing to compare two or more sets of opinion scores instead of being constrained to pairs of sets of opinion scores as would be the case for t-tests. As the ANOVA tests of the different scenarios are performed for mean opinion scores (MOS), box plots are also provided in order to assess the distribution of the opinion scores around the median. It is shown that the opinion scores given to the reference videos in SVC and AVC for different resolutions are statistically significantly similar regardless of the content. Further, for the opinion scores of the considered database, the ANOVA tests support the hypothesis that AVC generally outperforms SVC although the performance difference may be less pronounced for higher bit rates. This work also shows that additional insights on the results of subjective experiments can be obtained by extending the analysis of opinion scores beyond MOS to ANOVA tests and box plots.

  • 3.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Comparison of ACR Methods for 360° Video Quality Assessment Subject to Participants' Experience with Immersive Media2020In: 2020 14th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ICSPCS 2020 - Proceedings / [ed] Wysocki T.A.,Wysocki B.J., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, article id 9310071Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Watching 360° videos on head-mounted displays (HMDs) has become more popular in recent years. As such, subjective quality assessment of 360° videos on HMDs is needed to obtain a ground truth on the quality as perceived by users. Due to the lack of standardized methods, the absolute category rating (ACR) with hidden reference (ACR-HR) method for conventional videos has also been used for subjective quality assessment of 360° videos on HMDs. A modified ACR (M-ACR) method tailored for assessing 360° videos on HMDs has recently been proposed. In this paper, we compare the ACR-HR and M-ACR with hidden reference (M-ACR-HR) method regarding subjective quality assessment of 360° videos on HMDs. The comparison is conducted subject to participants' experience with watching immersive media on HMDs. The findings include: 1) Average rating times to cast opinion scores is lower for the ACR-HR method irrespective of participants' experience, 2) Mean opinion scores are similar for both methods irrespective of participants' experience, 3) The M-ACR-HR method is more reliable, especially with experts and participants with no experience, 4) Discomfort is significantly lower for the ACR-HR method, especially, for participants with no experience. © 2020 IEEE.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Objective Perceptual Video Quality Prediction Using Spatial and Temporal Information Differences2019In: Proceedings - 2019 19th International Symposium on Communications and Information Technologies, ISCIT 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 436-441Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, objective perceptual video quality models are proposed that use spatial and temporal perceptual information differences for predicting video quality as perceived by human observers. Spatial perceptual information characterizes the complexity and temporal perceptual information quantifies the motion contained in a video. As such, differences in the spatial and temporal perceptual information of a reference video (original) and test video (processed) may be used to predict quality of videos that have undergone encoding, transmission, or other processing. In particular, several video quality prediction functions are derived using curve fitting along with training and validation on data from a publicly available annotated database. The obtained functions provide predicted mean opinion scores as a measure of perceptual quality subject to spatial and temporal perceptual information differences. The analysis of the video quality prediction performance of the proposed models shows that differences in spatial and temporal perceptual information can be used for objective video quality prediction. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 5.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Evaluation of Simulator Sickness for 360 degrees Videos on an HMD Subject to Participants' Experience with Virtual Reality2020In: IEEE CONFERENCE ON VIRTUAL REALITY AND 3D USER INTERFACES WORKSHOPS (VRW 2020), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2020, p. 477-484, article id 9090490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality (VR) has seen tremendous advances in head-mounted displays (HMDs), optics, media quality, and other improvements that facilitate immersive experiences. With the occurrence of new technologies like Cloud VR and networked VR video services, applications such as 360° video streaming are becoming more popular within the broader consumer markets. As a result, VR content is accessible to customers with rather different levels of experiences with immersive media, i.e., never, sometimes, or often use of VR. The question, therefore, arises to which degree simulator sickness is induced to viewers depending on their experiences with VR on HMDs. In this paper, simulator sickness is evaluated for 360° videos that were shown on an HTC Vive Pro HMD to participants having different levels of experience with VR on HMDs. The modified absolute category rating with hidden reference (M-ACR-HR) method was used in a subjective experiment for video quality assessment within two subsequent sessions along with a simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ). A statistical analysis of the SSQ scores is performed to reveal the relationship between simulator sickness and participants' experiences with VR regarding: (1) Individual symptoms, (2) Pairwise comparison of symptoms, and (3) Symptom clusters of nausea, oculomotor, disorientation, and total score. It is shown that the simulator sickness symptoms, in general, are slightly or rarely perceived across the different experience levels for the selected 360° videos. The results indicate that the reported simulator sickness increases in the second session for participants that never used VR on HMDs. Sufficiently long breaks between sessions should therefore be accounted for in the M-ACR-HR method to avoid that simulator sickness influences quality rating. © 2020 IEEE.

  • 6.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Annotated 360-Degree Image and Video Databases: A Comprehensive Survey2019In: 13th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ICSPCS 2019 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advances in 5G mobile networks are expected to enable immersive interconnected mobile multimedia systems. As humans are the final judges of the quality of immersive multimedia, it is essential to engage a suitable ground truth in the design of such systems. Databases annotated with results from subjective tests constitute such ground truth given as opinion scores, head movements, eye tracking data, psychophysiological data, and other data related to the viewers' behavior. On this basis, perception-based quality assessment of algorithms, systems, and services can be performed, and objective perceptual quality models can be developed. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of publicly available annotated 360-degree image and video databases is provided. The survey may guide the selection of ground truth on 360-degree images and videos to support quality assessment and modeling research. Further, the survey reveals the need for establishing new annotated databases that address the full range of subjective aspects of immersive multimedia. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 7.
    Elwardy, Majed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Impact of Participants' Experiences with Immersive Multimedia on 360 degrees Video Quality Assessment2019In: 13th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems, ICSPCS 2019 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the impact that the level of experience of participants with immersive multimedia has on 360° video quality assessment. An extensive subjective experiment using the modified absolute category rating with hidden reference (M-ACR-HR) method was conducted. The opinion scores obtained from the participants in this experiment along with other sensor data support this study. The statistical analysis is performed in terms of screening participants' distribution of opinion scores for consistency, average rating time, box plots related to mean opinion scores (MOSs) and differential MOS (DMOS). Detailed results for MOS and DMOS are also provided for reference and test sequences covering a wide range of qualities. Major findings include: (1) Screening detects many outliers for participants with no experience, (2) Average rating times show that experts learn the quality assessment task fast, (3) Participants with no experience provide lower opinion scores in average, (4) DMOS may alleviate the bias in quality rating caused by different levels of experience. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality Game Applications in Healthcare2022In: ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare, ISSN 2691-1957, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality (VR/AR/MR) as information and communication technologies have been recognised and implemented in healthcare in recent years. One of the popular application ways is games, due to the potential benefits of providing an engaging and immersive experience in a virtual environment. This study presents a systematic literature review that evaluates the state-of-the-art on VR/AR/MR game applications in healthcare by collecting and analysing related journal and conference papers published from 2014 through to the first half of 2020. After retrieving more than 3,000 papers from six databases, 88 articles, from both computer science and medicine, were selected and analysed in the review. The articles are classified and summarised based on their (1) publication information, (2) design, implementation, and evaluation, and (3) application. The presented review is beneficial for both researchers and developers interested in exploring current research and future trends in VR/AR/MR in healthcare. © 2022 Association for Computing Machinery.

  • 9.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Fagerstrom, Cecilia
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    A Survey of Possibilities and Challenges with AR/VR/MR and Gamification Usage in Healthcare2021In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 14TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES - VOL. 5: HEALTHINF / [ed] Pesquita, C (Pesquita, C) Fred, A (Fred, A) Gamboa, H (Gamboa, H, SCITEPRESS , 2021, p. 733-740Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software and applications of augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR) technology combined with game/gamification techniques in healthcare have increasingly been studied in academia. However, there is a need to explore the usage, challenges and opportunities of AR/VR/MR game/gamification software/applications in the healthcare system. To explore this, we present an online survey conducted in the healthcare-relevant system (including hospital-based system, homecare-based system, institute and university, and industry). Based on the answers, we found examples of digital games and AR/VR/MR applications used in healthcare, as well as some general information (name and feature, purpose, target user, and use occasion), usage situation, and user experience. This presented survey is beneficial for both researchers and developers in computer science and medical science. It can familiarise them with existing products and their current use, advantages and potential issues of AR/VR/MR and game applications in healthcare. In future work, the survey would be extended to obtain other user experiences and feedback of AR/VR/MR techniques and game/gamification technology applied to healthcare, as well as to study how to overcome the challenges, and develop the opportunities further.

  • 10.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Inst, SWE.
    A Review of Extended Reality Exercise Games for Elderly2021In: HEALTHINF: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 15TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES - VOL 5: HEALTHINF / [ed] Bier, N, Fred, A, Gamboa, H, SciTePress, 2021, no 15th International Conference on Health Informatics (HEALTHINF) held as part of 15th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC), p. 201-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing of ageing all over the world, elderly health attracts more and more attention. This paper aims to study existing extended reality (XR) game applications for physical exercise through a literature review with 14 papers as an outcome. Based on these papers, we explored the contributions, opportunities, and challenges of exercise XR games for the elderly. The papers were analysed based on several perspectives, including publication information, design and implementation, game information, teamwork and social games, evaluation, and advantages and disadvantages. We found that the elderly were interested in and accepted the use of XR games. The positive effect of such games was common in the research results. Even if there were problems, such as simulator sickness, safety risks. device problems, and cost, there are still opportunities and space for research and development in the future. The overall positive attitudes toward XR exercise games for the elderly could be seen by both researchers, developers, and users. However, these game applications also presented some problems and future improvements are needed. The presented review is beneficial for researchers and developers to create or enhance future XR applications by learning from existing work.

  • 11.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet.
    A Systematic Literature Review of Extended Reality Exercise Games for the Elderly2023In: Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies: 15th International Joint Conference, BIOSTEC 2022, Virtual Event, February 9–11, 2022, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Ana Cecília A. Roque, Denis Gracanin, Ronny Lorenz, Athanasios Tsanas, Nathalie Bier, Ana Fred, Hugo Gamboa, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023, p. 333-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, with the rise of the ageing population worldwide, the health of the elderly has attracted increasing attention. This study explored existing extended reality (XR) game applications aiming at physical exercise for the elderly. Through the review of 1847 papers from the Scopus database, 17 articles were included. Based on these papers, we explored the existing contributions of exercise XR games for the elderly, the development opportunities and challenges of such games, and their special considerations in adapting to the characteristics and requirements of the target user. The results were organized into several perspectives: publication information and keywords, immersive technologies and game concepts, teamwork and social games, evaluation, opportunities and challenges, and adapting designs. We found the elderly interested in and accepted using XR games. The reported research results proved positive effects on such games’ physical and mental health. XR exercise games for the elderly should considerately adapt to the elder’s cognition, behaviour, and demand. Although problems existed, such as simulator sickness, safety risks, device problems, and cost, there were opportunities and space for research and future developments. Researchers and developers could refer to this paper for XR exercise games for the elderly and create or enhance future XR applications by learning from existing work. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 12.
    Fu, Yu
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karolinska Institutet SWE.
    Conceptual Design of an Extended Reality Exercise Game for the Elderly2022In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, no 13, article id 6436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing the increasingly serious ageing problem, IT technology is being applied more and more to alleviate the increasing health demands of the elderly. Virtual reality (VR) games, in particular, have been shown to benefit the physical and mental health of the elderly. However, almost all consumer-level VR games address the general user, not considering the characteristics of the elderly, such as their particular needs regarding cognitive aspects and safety. In addition, the existing VR rowing games’ research typically focuses on athlete training or is based on a rowing machine. Extending on previous research, this paper proposes a conceptual design of a VR rowing game, VRrowing to provide a home exercise game for the elderly which benefits both physical and mental health. This research first analysed the relevant literature and existing VR exercise games for the elderly to find characteristics and their particular needs. Then, following design principles (in exercise games, human–computer interaction, and user interfaces (UIs)) for the elderly, this study proposed a conceptual design of VRrowing through the MDA framework (standing for mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics). The results cover the system architecture, activities and tasks, patterns and roles, mechanics and structures, and UI examples. Based on comprehensive consideration of the results from relevant research and fostering strengths and circumventing weaknesses, VRrowing was designed as a sports game, aimed at the elderly according to their characteristics and needs, which fills the void of home VR rowing games for seniors’ exercise. This research has reference value for scientific research or development personnel in VR game applications and evaluations, especially for such games targeting the elderly. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Augmented Reality and 3D Printing for Archaeological Heritage: Evaluation of Visitor Experience2022In: Extended Reality: First International Conference, Part II / [ed] De Paolis, L.T., Arpaia, P., Sacco, M., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2022, Vol. 13446, p. 360-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality (AR) and 3D printing have increasingly been used in archaeological and cultural heritage to make artifacts and environments accessible to the general public. This paper presents the case study of the Ljungaviken dog, an archaeological find of dog skeleton remains dated around 8000 years ago. The dog remains have been digitized using 3D scanning and displayed in an AR application. A physical replica has also been created with 3D printing. Both the AR application and the 3D printed copy have been shown in a temporary museum exhibition. In this paper, we present the visitors’ experience evaluation based on a study with 42 participants. Aspects being evaluated are related to the realism, enjoyment, and easiness of use of the AR application. Moreover, the two media are compared in terms of understanding, visual quality, and experience satisfaction. The results show an overall positive experience for both the display solutions, with slightly higher scores for the AR application in the comparison. When asked about overall preference, the participants reported similar results between both media. Due to issues of displaying fragile objects in a museum setting, as well as recent restrictions following pandemic closures and availability, the results presented in this paper show a positive alternative towards using digital artifacts to showcase our cultural heritage. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 14.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Panoptic Visual Analytics of Eye Tracking Data2022In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION, IMAGING AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS THEORY AND APPLICATIONS (IVAPP), VOL 3 / [ed] Hurter, C, Purchase, H, Bouatouch, K, SciTePress, 2022, no 17th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP) / 13th International Conference on Information Visualization Theory and Applications (IVAPP), p. 171-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In eye tracking data visualization, areas of interest (AOIs) are widely adopted to analyze specific regions of the stimulus. We propose a visual analytics tool that leverages panoptic segmentation to automatically divide the whole image or frame video in semantic AOIs. A set of AOI-based visualization techniques are available to analyze the fixation data based on these semantic AOIs. Moreover, we propose a modified version of radial transition graph visualizations adapted to the extracted semantic AOIs and a new visualization technique also based on radial transition graphs. Two application examples illustrate the potential of this approach and are used to discuss its usefulness and limitations.

  • 15.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Pose and visual attention: Exploring the effects of 3D shape near-isometric deformations on gaze2020In: Computer Science Research Notes, Vaclav Skala Union Agency , 2020, Vol. 2020, no 2020, p. 153-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research in 3D shape analysis focuses on the study of visual attention on rendered 3D shapes investigating the impact of different factors such as material, illumination, and camera movements. In this paper, we analyze how the pose of a deformable shape affects visual attention. We describe an eye-tracking experiment that studied the influence of different poses of non-rigid 3D shapes on visual attention. The subjects free-viewed a set of 3D shapes rendered in different poses and from different camera views. The fixation maps obtained by the aggregated gaze data were projected onto the 3D shapes and compared at vertex level. The results indicate an impact of the pose for some of the tested shapes and also that view variation influences visual attention. The qualitative analysis of the 3D fixation maps shows high visual focus on the facial regions regardless of the pose, coherent with previous works. The visual attention variation between poses appears to correspond to geometric salient features and semantically salient parts linked to the action represented by the pose. © 2020, Vaclav Skala Union Agency. All rights reserved.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Pose and visual attention
  • 16.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Navarro, Diego
    A review of current trends on visual perception studies in virtual and augmented reality2020In: SIGGRAPH Asia 2020 Courses, SA 2020, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the development of novel algorithms and techniques in virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR), it is crucial to take human visual perception into account. For example, when hardware resources are a restraining factor, the limitations of the human visual system can be exploited in the creation and evaluation of new effective techniques. Over the last decades, visual perception evaluation studies have become a vital part of the design, development, and evaluation of immersive computer graphics applications. This course aims at introducing the attendees to the basic concepts of visual perception applied to computer graphics and it offers an overview of recent perceptual evaluation studies that have been conducted with head-mounted displays (HMDs) in the context of VR and AR applications. During this course, we call attention to the latest published courses and surveys on visual perception applied to computer graphics and interaction techniques. Through an extensive search in the literature, we have identified six main areas in which recent visual perceptual evaluation studies have been focused on: Distance perception, avatar perception, image quality, interaction, motion perception, and cybersickness. Trends, main results, and open challenges are discussed for each area and accompanied with relevant references offering the attendees a wide introduction and perspective on the topic. © 2019 Owner/Author.

  • 17.
    Garro, Valeria
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sandahl, Christoffer
    Blekinge Museum, SWE.
    Impact of Location, Gender and Previous Experience on User Evaluation of Augmented Reality in Cultural Heritage: The Mjallby Crucifix Case Study2022In: Heritage, E-ISSN 2571-9408, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 1988-2006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, a growing number of museums have adopted digital media, both as an enhancement of exhibitions of real artifacts and as an alternative to traditional display methods. The digital acquisition of artifacts generates accurate 3D replicas that can be displayed via different digital media. With an increase in immersive technologies in the cultural heritage (CH) domain, it is common to see digital artifacts presented in Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR). This paper presents two user studies conducted in different locations evaluating the use of an AR application in the portrayal of the Mjallby Crucifix artifact. This paper presents the overall results from both user studies evaluating and discussing the AR application on a number of different aspects on a 7-point Likert scale: (1) understanding the artifact, (2) ease of use, (3) object feeling part of reality, (4) perceived visual quality of the object, (5) overall satisfaction experience, and (6) willingness to download the AR application. The results have been compared between genders, age groups, and previous experience with AR. Potential benefits and disadvantages of AR experiences in the context of a museum exhibition were also gathered in free text from the visitors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    A Review on XR in Home-based Nursing Education2023In: HEALTHINFO 2023: The Eighth International Conference on Informatics and Assistive Technologies for Health-Care, Medical Support and Wellbeing, International Academy, Research, and Industry Association (IARIA) , 2023, p. 39-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments using extended reality (XR) technologies have allowed for increased use in healthcare in the last few years. This review paper explores how XR applications are utilized in home-based nursing education, in particular, to identify future challenges and opportunities. The systematic literature review evaluates relevant extracted papers based on publication information, XR technology used for education purposes, target users, and study design and evaluation, including sample size. The results show potential for using XR technologies in home-based nursing education. In particular, Virtual Reality (VR) has become quite popular and the most used to date. However, Augmented Reality (AR) has also emerged as an alternative for the future.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Hu, Yan
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Exploring Biometrics as an Evaluation Technique for Digital Game Addiction Prevention2018In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 7, p. 15-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20. Jarabo, Adrian
    et al.
    Eyck, Tom Van
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Bala, Kavita
    Gutierrez, Diego
    O’Sullivan, Carol
    Crowd Light: Evaluating the Perceived Fidelity of Illuminated Dynamic Scenes2012In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 31, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rendering realistic illumination effects for complex animated scenes with many dynamic objects or characters is computationally expensive. Yet, it is not obvious how important such accurate lighting is for the overall perceived realism in these scenes. In this paper, we present a methodology to evaluate the perceived fidelity of illumination in scenes with dynamic aggregates, such as crowds, and explore several factors which may affect this perception. We focus in particular on evaluating how a popular spherical harmonics lighting method can be used to approximate realistic lighting of crowds. We conduct a series of psychophysical experiments to explore how a simple approach to approximating global illumination, using interpolation in the temporal domain, affects the perceived fidelity of dynamic scenes with high geometric, motion, and illumination complexity. We show that the complexity of the geometry and temporal properties of the crowd entities, the motion of the aggregate as a whole, the type of interpolation (i.e., of the direct and/or indirect illumination coefficients), and the presence or absence of colour all affect perceived fidelity. We show that high (i.e., above 75%) levels of perceived scene fidelity can be maintained while interpolating indirect illumination for intervals of up to 30 frames, resulting in a greater than three-fold rendering speed-up.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Jerčić, Petar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Practicing Emotion-Regulation Through Biofeedback on the Decision-Making Performance in the Context of Serious Games: a Systematic Review2019In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 29, p. 75-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence shows that emotions critically influence human decision-making. Therefore, emotion-regulation using biofeedback has been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, serious games have emerged as a valuable tool for such investigations set in the decision-making context. This review sets out to investigate the scientific evidence regarding the effects of practicing emotion-regulation through biofeedback on the decision-making performance in the context of serious games. A systematic search of five electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, IEEE, PubMed Central, Science Direct), followed by the author and snowballing investigation, was conducted from a publication's year of inception to October 2018. The search identified 16 randomized controlled experiment/quasi-experiment studies that quantitatively assessed the performance on decision-making tasks in serious games, involving students, military, and brain-injured participants. It was found that the participants who raised awareness of emotions and increased the skill of emotion-regulation were able to successfully regulate their arousal, which resulted in better decision performance, reaction time, and attention scores on the decision-making tasks. It is suggested that serious games provide an effective platform validated through the evaluative and playtesting studies, that supports the acquisition of the emotion-regulation skill through the direct (visual) and indirect (gameplay) biofeedback presentation on decision-making tasks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Jerčić, Petar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Wen, Wei
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Hagelbäck, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, SWE.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    The Effect of Emotions and Social Behavior on Performance in a Collaborative Serious Game Between Humans and Autonomous Robots2018In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 115-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate performance in a collaborative human–robot interaction on a shared serious game task. Furthermore, the effect of elicited emotions and perceived social behavior categories on players’ performance will be investigated. The participants collaboratively played a turn-taking version of the Tower of Hanoi serious game, together with the human and robot collaborators. The elicited emotions were analyzed in regards to the arousal and valence variables, computed from the Geneva Emotion Wheel questionnaire. Moreover, the perceived social behavior categories were obtained from analyzing and grouping replies to the Interactive Experiences and Trust and Respect questionnaires. It was found that the results did not show a statistically significant difference in participants’ performance between the human or robot collaborators. Moreover, all of the collaborators elicited similar emotions, where the human collaborator was perceived as more credible and socially present than the robot one. It is suggested that using robot collaborators might be as efficient as using human ones, in the context of serious game collaborative tasks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23. Jimenez, Jorge
    et al.
    Whelan, David
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Gutierrez, Diego
    Real Time Realistic Skin Translucency2010In: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion theory allows the production of realistic skin renderings. The dipole and multipole models allow for solving challenging diffusion-theory equations efficiently. By using texture-space diffusion, a Gaussian-based approximation, and programmable graphics hardware, developers can create real-time, photorealistic skin renderings. Performing this diffusion in screen space offers advantages that make diffusion approximation practical in scenarios such as games, where having the best possible performance is crucial. However, unlike the texture-space counterpart, the screen-space approach can't simulate transmittance of light through thin geometry; it yields unrealistic results in those cases. A new transmittance algorithm turns the screen-space approach into an efficient global solution, capable of simulating both reflectance and transmittance of light through a multilayered skin model. The transmittance calculations are derived from physical equations, which are implemented through simple texture access. The method performs in real time, requiring no additional memory usage and only minimal additional processing power and memory bandwidth. Despite its simplicity, this practical model manages to reproduce the look of images rendered with other techniques (both offline and real time) such as photon mapping or diffusion approximation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 24. Kamp, Jan van der
    et al.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Gaze and Voice Controlled Drawing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking is a process that allows an observers gaze to be determined in real time by measuring their eye movements. Recent work has examined the possibility of using gaze control as an alternative input modality in interactive applications. Alternative means of interaction are especially important for disabled users for whom traditional techniques, such as mouse and keyboard, may not be feasible. This paper proposes a novel combination of gaze and voice commands as a means of hands free interaction in a paint style program. A drawing application is implemented which is controllable by input from gaze and voice. Voice commands are used to activate drawing which allow gaze to be used only for positioning the cursor. In previous work gaze has also been used to activate drawing using dwell time. The drawing application is evaluated using subjective responses from participant user trials. The main result indicates that although gaze and voice o ered less control that traditional input devices, the participants reported that it was more enjoyable.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 25.
    Lambrant, Andreas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Luro, Francisco Lopez
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Avatar Preference Selection in Game Design Based on Color Theory2016In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Applied Perception, ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 15-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting color schemes for game objects is an important task. It can be valuable to game designers to know what colors are preferred. Principles of color theory are important to select appropriate colors. This paper presents a perceptual experiment that evaluates some basic principles of color theory applied to game objects to study if a particular combination is preferred. An experiment was conducted with 15 participants who performed a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) preference experiment using 236 pairs of images each. The pairs were based on color harmonies derived from the colors red, green, and blue. The color harmonies were evaluated against each other and included analogous, complementary, split-complementary, triad, and warm and cool colors. A high and low saturation condition was also included. The color harmonies were applied to an existing game character (avatar) and a new object (cube) to study any potential differences in the results. The initial results show that some color harmonies, in particular triad and split-complementary, were generally preferred over others meaning that it is important to take into account these aspects in game design. Additional results also show that color harmonies with a base in green were not as popular as red and blue color harmonies.

  • 26. Lopez, Francisco
    et al.
    Molla, Ramon
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Exploring Peripheral LOD Change Detections during Interactive Gaming Tasks2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games require players to interact with scenes while performing various tasks. In this paper an experimental game framework was developed to measure players perception to level of detail (LOD) changes in 3D models (for example a bunny), as shown in Figure 1. These models were unrelated to the task assigned to the player and located away from the area in which the task was being accomplished. An interactive task, such as a point and shoot game, triggers a top-down vision process. Performing a specific task can result in inattentional blindness (IB) for the player, which is the phenomenon of not being able to perceive things that are in plain sight. IB can allow for substantial simplifications of the objects in the scene unrelated to the task at hand. In this paper five experiments were conducted exploring peripheral LOD change detections during an interactive gaming task. In three of the five experiments different level of awareness for the same task were tested and it was found that only participants being fully aware of the 3D LOD changes were able to detect about 15% of them during the game. In the other two experiments and with the players fully aware of the LOD changes, the distance at which they were able to detect each change of resolution was measured, with different number of LOD levels used in both experiments.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 27. Lopez-Moreno, Jorge
    et al.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Sangorrin, Francisco
    Gutierrez, Diego
    Measuring the Perception of Light Inconsistencies2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the ability of the human visual system to detect inconsistencies in the illumination of objects in images. We specifically focus on objects being lit from different angles as the rest of the image. We present the results of three different tests, two with synthetic objects and a third one with digitally manipulated real images. Our results seem to agree with previous publications exploring the topic, but we extend them by providing quantifiable data which in turn suggest approximate perceptual thresholds. Given that light detection in single images is an ill-posed problem, these thresholds can provide valid error limits to related algorithms in different contexts, such as compositing or augmented reality.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Luro, Francisco Lopez
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Navarro, Diego
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ethical considerations for the use of virtual reality: An evaluation of practices in academia and industry2017In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence and 22nd Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments, ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 141-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following article offers a set of recommendations that are considered relevant for designing and executing experiences with Virtual Reality (VR) technology. It presents a brief review of the history and evolution of VR, along with the physiological issues related to its use. Additionally, typical practices in VR, used by both academia and industry are discussed and contrasted. These were further analysed from an ethical perspective, guided by legal and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) frameworks, to understand their motivation and goals, and the rights and responsibilities related to the exposure of research participants and final consumers to VR. Our results showed that there is a significant disparity between practices in academia and industry, and for industry specifically, there can be breaches of user protection regulations and poor ethical practices. The differences found are mainly in regards to the type of content presented, the overall setup of VR experiences, and the amount of information provided to participants or consumers respectively. To contribute to this issue, this study highlights some ethical aspects and also offers practical considerations that aim, not only to have more appropriate practices with VR in public spaces but also to motivate a discussion and reflection to ease the adoption of this technology in the consumer market.

  • 29.
    Luro, Francisco Lopez
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    A comparative study of eye tracking and hand controller for aiming tasks in virtual reality2019In: Eye Tracking Research and Applications Symposium (ETRA), Association for Computing Machinery , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming is key for virtual reality (VR) interaction, and it is often done using VR controllers. Recent eye-tracking integrations in commercial VR head-mounted displays (HMDs) call for further research on usability and performance aspects to better determine possibilities and limitations. This paper presents a user study exploring gaze aiming in VR compared to a traditional controller in an “aim and shoot” task. Different speeds of targets and trajectories were studied. Qualitative data was gathered using the system usability scale (SUS) and cognitive load (NASA TLX) questionnaires. Results show a lower perceived cognitive load using gaze aiming and on par usability scale. Gaze aiming produced on par task duration but lower accuracy on most conditions. Lastly, the trajectory of the target significantly affected the orientation of the HMD in relation to the target’s location. The results show potential using gaze aiming in VR and motivate further research. © 2019 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM.

  • 30.
    Napieralla, Jonah
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, SWE (Student).
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Ultrawide field of view by curvilinear projection methods2020In: Journal of WSCG, ISSN 1213-6972, E-ISSN 1213-6964, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 163-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rectilinear Perspective projection produces natural-looking results on the condition that the degree of field of view (FoV) is narrow, as raising it causes an exponential increase in visual distortion. Curvilinear perspective projection methods that counter this issue exist in photography, but unlike the rectilinear Perspective projection, these are neither used nor technically documented in computer graphics. This paper contributes by presenting results from a perceptual experiment comparing the rectilinear Perspective projection method to the curvilinear Panini and Stereographic projection methods. These are commonly used with wide-angle lenses in photography and have been digitally recreated for use in computer graphics. The experiment shows a clear preference for the two curvilinear projection methods at high degrees of FoV, as not a single participant prefers the rectilinear Perspective projection at degrees of FoV approaching the human breadth of vision. © 2020, Vaclav Skala Union Agency. All rights reserved.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Ultrawide field of view by curvilinear projection methods
  • 31.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Electrodermal Activity Evaluation of Player Experience in Virtual Reality Games: A Phasic Component Analysis2022In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER VISION, IMAGING AND COMPUTER GRAPHICS THEORY AND APPLICATIONS (HUCAPP), VOL 2 / [ed] Paljic, A, Ziat, M, Bouatouch, K, SciTePress, 2022, no 17th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP) / 6th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction Theory and Applications (HUCAPP), p. 108-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) is considered to be an effective metric for measuring changes in the arousal level of people. In this paper, the phasic component of EDA data from players is analyzed in relation to their reported experience from a standardized questionnaire, when interacting with a couple of virtual reality games that featured two different input devices: the HTC Vive and Leap Motion controllers. Initial results show that there are no significant differences in the phasic component data, despite having significant differences in their respective player experience. Furthermore, no linear correlations are found between the phasic component data and the evaluated experience variables, with the only exception of negative affect which features a weak positive correlation. In conclusion, the phasic component of EDA data has here shown a limited correlation with player experience and should be further explored in combination with other psychophysiological signals.

  • 32.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    The Electrodermal Activity of Player Experience in Virtual Reality Games: An Extended Evaluation of the Phasic Component2023In: Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications: 17th International Joint Conference, VISIGRAPP 2022, Virtual Event, February 6–8, 2022, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] A. Augusto de Sousa, Kurt Debattista, Alexis Paljic, Mounia Ziat, Christophe Hurter, Helen Purchase, Giovanni Maria Farinella, Petia Radeva, Kadi Bouatouch, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2023, Vol. 1815, p. 203-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to its effectiveness, electrodermal activity (EDA) has been previously included as an evaluation metric, within analyses of user experience. In this study, the phasic component of participants’ EDA data is examined in relation to their reported experiences when playing a set of virtual reality games, that featured the HTC Vive and Leap Motion controllers for input. Two models are used in the analysis of the phasic component: a deconvolution model and a convex optimization model. Despite having significant differences in their player experiences, results indicate that there are not many significant differences in the phasic component data. Even if some weak correlations were found, the majority of results show no linear correlations between the phasic component data and the reported experience variables. This shows that the phasic component of EDA data should be further investigated in conjunction with other psychophysiological signals because it has only recently demonstrated a weak link with player experience. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 33.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Biofeedback Methods in Entertainment Games and Virtual Reality: A Review of Physiological Interaction TechniquesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of biofeedback interaction has grown over recent years, thanks to the release of affordable and reliable sensor technology, and the accessibility offered by modern game development tools. This article reviews how different biofeedback interaction methods have been used for entertainment purposes in video games and virtual reality, between the years 2008 and 2020. It divides previous contributions in terms of a proposed interaction classification criteria and six different biofeedback methods: electroencephalography, electrocardiography, eye tracking, electrodermal activity, electromyography, and multi-modal interaction respectively. The review describes the properties, sensor technology, and the type of data gathered for every included biofeedback method, and summarizes their respective interaction techniques into tables. Also, it proposes a set of opportunities and challenges for both, each included method and the area as a whole, based on the results from previous publications.

  • 34.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Evaluating player performance and experience in virtual reality game interactions using the htc vive controller and leap motion sensor2019In: VISIGRAPP 2019 - Proceedings of the 14th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, SciTePress , 2019, p. 103-110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important aspect of virtual reality (VR) interfaces are novel natural user interactions (NUIs). The increased use of VR games requires the evaluation of novel interaction techniques that allow efficient manipulations of 3D elements using the hands of the player. Examples of VR devices that support these interactions include the HTC Vive controller and the Leap Motion sensor. This paper presents a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of player performance and experience in a controlled experiment with 20 volunteering participants. The experiment evaluated the HTC Vive controller and the Leap Motion sensor when manipulating 3D objects in two VR games. The first game was a Pentomino puzzle and the second game consisted of a ball-throwing task. Four interaction techniques (picking up, dropping, rotating, and throwing objects) were evaluated as part of the experiment. The number of user interactions with the Pentomino pieces, the number of ball throws, and game completion time were metrics used to analyze the player performance. A questionnaire was also used to evaluate the player experience regarding enjoyment, ease of use, sense of control and user preference. The overall results show that there was a significant decrease in player performance when using the Leap Motion sensor for the VR game tasks. Participants also reported that hand gestures with the Leap Motion sensor were not as reliable as the HTC Vive controller. However, the survey showed positive responses when using both technologies. The paper also offers ideas to keep exploring the capabilities of NUI techniques in the future. Copyright © 2019 by SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved

  • 35.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Simplifying Game Mechanics: Gaze as an Implicit Interaction Method2017In: SIGGRAPH Asia 2017 Technical Briefs, SA 2017, ACM Digital Library, 2017, article id 132534Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Navarro, Diego
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Biofeedback Methods in Entertainment Video Games: A Review of Physiological Interaction Techniques2021In: Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 2573-0142, Vol. 5, no CHIPLAY, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of biofeedback interaction has grown over recent years, thanks to the release of more affordable and reliable sensor technology, and the accessibility offered by modern game development tools. This article presents a systematic literature review focusing on how different biofeedback interaction methods have been used for entertainment purposes in video games, between 2008 and 2020. It divides previous contributions in terms of a proposed interaction classification criteria and five different biofeedback methods (with a sixth category combining them): electroencephalography, electrocardiography, eye tracking, electrodermal activity, electromyography, and multi-modal interaction. The review describes the properties, sensor technologies, and the type of data gathered for every included biofeedback method, and presents their respective interaction techniques. It summarizes a set of opportunities and challenges for each included method, based on the results from previous work, and discusses these findings. It also analyzes how these interaction techniques are distributed between different common game genres. The review is beneficial for people interested in biofeedback methods and their potential use for novel interaction techniques in future video games. © 2021 ACM.

  • 37. Olsen, Anneli
    et al.
    Schmidt, Albrecht
    Marshall, Paul
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Using Eye Tracking for Interaction2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of cheaper eye trackers and open source software for eye tracking and gaze interaction brings the possibility to integrate eye tracking into everyday use devices as well as highly specialized equipment. Apart from providing means for analyzing eye movements, eye tracking also offers the possibility of a natural user interaction modality. Gaze control interfaces are already used within assistive applications for disabled users. However, this novel user interaction possibility comes with its own set of limitations and challenges. The aim of this SIG is to provide a forum for Designers, Researchers and Usability Professionals to discuss the role of eye tracking as a user interaction method in the future as well as the technical and user interaction challenges that using eye tracking as an interaction method brings.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 38.
    Pettersson, Erik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A Perceptual Evaluation of Social Interaction with Emotes and Real-time Facial Motion Capture2017In: MIG'17: PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MOTION IN GAMES / [ed] Spencer, SN, ACM Publications, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social interaction between players is an important feature in online games, where text- and voice chat is a standard way to communicate.To express emotions players can type emotes which are text-based commands to play animations from the player avatar. This paper presents a perceptual evaluation which investigates if instead expressing emotions with the face, in real-time with a web camera, is perceived more realistic and preferred in comparison to typing emote-based text commands. A user study with 24 participants was conducted where the two methods to express emotions described above were evaluated. For both methods the participants ranked the realism of facial expressions, which were based on the theory of seven universal emotions stated by American psychologist Paul Ekman: happiness, anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise and contempt.The participants also ranked their perceived efficiency of performing the two methods and selected the method they preferred. A significant difference was shown when analyzing the results of ranked facial expression realism. Happiness was perceived as the most realistic in both methods, while disgust and sadness were poorly rated when performed with the face. One conclusion of the perceptual evaluation was that the realism and preference between the methods showed no significant differences. However, participants had higher performance in typing with emotes. Real-time facial capture technology also needs improvements to obtain better recognition and tracking of facial features in the human face.

  • 39. Purvis, Alan
    et al.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Perceptibility of Clones in Tree Rendering2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40. Purvis, Alan
    et al.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Perception of Clones in Forest Rendering2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of instanced clones represents a powerful technique for reducing the time and space requirements of the storage and visualization of large populations of similar objects. This paper presents the results of several perceptual experiments into the application of cloning to plant populations, within the context of a project to explore the use of resource-acquisition based techniques to model plant distributions. The perceptive effects of clone rotation on human subjects will be explored, with the goal of stratifying clone rotations and minimizing their detection. The perceptual effects of clone number, plant species heterogeneity and appearance will also be explored.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 41.
    Santos, Beatriz Sousa
    et al.
    Universidade de Aveiro, PRT.
    Dischler, Jean Michel
    Universite de Strasbourg, FRA.
    Adzhiev, Valery
    Bournemouth University, GBR.
    Anderson, Eike Falk
    Bournemouth University, GBR.
    Ferko, Andrej
    Comenius University, SVK.
    Fryazinov, Oleg
    Bournemouth University, GBR.
    Ilčík, Martin
    Technische Universitat Wien, AUT.
    Ilčíková, Ivana
    Comenius University, SVK.
    Slavik, Pavel
    Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, CZE.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Svobodova, Liba
    Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, CZE.
    Wimmer, Michael
    Technische Universitat Wien, AUT.
    Zara, Jiri
    Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, CZE.
    Distinctive Approaches to Computer Graphics Education2018In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 403-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the latest advances and research in Computer Graphics education in a nutshell. It is concerned with topics that were presented at the Education Track of the Eurographics Conference held in Lisbon in 2016. We describe works corresponding to approaches to Computer Graphics education that are unconventional in some way and attempt to tackle unsolved problems and challenges regarding the role of arts in computer graphics education, the role of research-oriented activities in undergraduate education and the interaction among different areas of Computer Graphics, as well as their application to courses or extra-curricular activities. We present related works addressing these topics and report experiences, successes and issues in implementing the approaches. © 2017 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  • 42.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    A Visualisation in Games Course Curriculum2016In: Eurographics (Education Papers) / [ed] Eurographics, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gazing at Games: An Introduction to Eye Tracking Control2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking is a process that identifies a specific point in both space and time that is being looked at by the observer. This information can also be used in real-time to control applications using the eyes. Recent innovations in the video game industry include alternative input modalities to provide an enhanced, more immersive user experience. In particular, eye gaze control has recently been explored as an input modality in video games. This book is an introduction for those interested in using eye tracking to control or analyze video games and virtual environments. Key concepts are illustrated through three case studies in which gaze control and voice recognition have been used in combination to control virtual characters and applications. The lessons learned in the case studies are presented and issues relating to incorporating eye tracking in interactive applications are discussed. The reader will be given an introduction to human visual attention, eye movements and eye tracking technologies. Previous work in the field of studying fixation behavior in games and using eye tracking for video game interaction will also be presented. The final chapter discusses ideas for how this field can be developed further to create richer interaction for characters and crowds in virtual environments. Alternative means of interaction in video games are especially important for disabled users for whom traditional techniques, such as mouse and keyboard, may be far from ideal. This book is also relevant for those wishing to use gaze control in applications other than games.

  • 44. Sundstedt, Veronica
    Gazing at Games: Using Eye Tracking to Control Virtual Characters2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This course is for people who are interested in incorporating eye tracking in games and virtual environments. The attendees will be given an introduction to attention, eye movements, and eye tracking technologies. Previous work in the field of gaze in gaming will be presented as well as two case studies in which gaze and voice were used in combination to control virtual characters and their behavior. The first case study “The Revenge of the Killer Penguins” is a third person adventure puzzle game using a combination of non intrusive eye tracking technology and voice recognition for novel game features. The second case study “Rabbit Run” is a first person maze game which was created to compare gaze and voice input with traditional techniques, such as mouse and keyboard. The lessons learned in these case studies and issues relating to incorporating eye tracking in games will be presented. Ideas are also proposed for how this field can be developed further to create richer interaction for characters and crowds in virtual environments.

  • 45.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Bernhard, Matthias
    Stavrakis, Efstathios
    Reinhard, Erik
    Wimmer, Michael
    Visual Attention and Gaze Behavior in Games: An Object-Based Approach2013In: Game Analytics: Maximizing the Value of Player Data / [ed] Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Drachen, Anders; Canossa, Alessandro, Springer , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents state-of-the-art methods that tap the potential of psychophysics for the purpose of understanding game players' behavior. Studying gaze behavior in gaming environments has recently gained momentum as it affords a better understanding of gamers' visual attention. However, while knowing where users are attending in a computer game would be useful at a basic level, it does not provide insight into what users are interested in, or why. An answer to these questions can be tremendously useful to game designers, enabling them to improve gameplay, selectively increase visual fidelity, and optimize the distribution of computing resources. Furthermore, this could be useful in verifying game mechanics, improving game AI and smart positioning of advertisements within games, all being applications widely desirable across the games industry. Techniques are outlined to collect gaze data, and map fixation points back to semantic objects in a gaming environment, enabling a deeper understanding of how players interact with games.

  • 46.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Zepernick, Hans-Juergen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Goswami, Prashant
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Grahn, Håkan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Casalicchio, Emiliano
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics.
    Mendes, Emilia
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Abghari, Shahrooz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Hu, Yan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Chu, Thi My Chinh
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Arlos, Patrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    HINTS: Human-Centered Intelligent Realities2023In: 35th Annual Workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society SAIS 2023 / [ed] Håkan Grahn, Anton Borg and Martin Boldt, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2023, p. 9-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, we have witnessed a rapiddevelopment of extended reality (XR) technologies such asaugmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR). Further, therehave been tremendous advancements in artificial intelligence(AI) and machine learning (ML). These two trends will havea significant impact on future digital societies. The vision ofan immersive, ubiquitous, and intelligent virtual space opensup new opportunities for creating an enhanced digital world inwhich the users are at the center of the development process,so-calledintelligent realities(IRs).The “Human-Centered Intelligent Realities” (HINTS) profileproject will develop concepts, principles, methods, algorithms,and tools for human-centered IRs, thus leading the wayfor future immersive, user-aware, and intelligent interactivedigital environments. The HINTS project is centered aroundan ecosystem combining XR and communication paradigms toform novel intelligent digital systems.HINTS will provide users with new ways to understand,collaborate with, and control digital systems. These novelways will be based on visual and data-driven platforms whichenable tangible, immersive cognitive interactions within realand virtual realities. Thus, exploiting digital systems in a moreefficient, effective, engaging, and resource-aware condition.Moreover, the systems will be equipped with cognitive featuresbased on AI and ML, which allow users to engage with digitalrealities and data in novel forms. This paper describes theHINTS profile project and its initial results. ©2023, Copyright held by the authors   

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Garro, Valeria
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    A Systematic Review of Visualization Techniques and Analysis Tools for Eye-Tracking in 3D Environments2022In: FRONTIERS IN NEUROERGONOMICS, ISSN 2673-6195, Vol. 3, article id 910019Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This systematic literature review presents an update on developments in 3D visualization techniques and analysis tools for eye movement data in 3D environments. With the introduction of affordable and non-intrusive eye-tracking solutions to the mass market, access to users' gaze is now increasingly possible. As a result, the adoption of eye-tracking in virtual environments using head-mounted displays is expected to increase since the trend is to incorporate gaze tracking as part of new technical solutions. The systematic literature review presented in this paper was conducted using the Scopus database (using the period 2017 to 17th of May 2022), which after analysis, resulted in the inclusion of 15 recent publications with relevance in eye-tracking visualization techniques for 3D virtual scenes. First, this paper briefly describes the foundations of eye-tracking and traditional 2D visualization techniques. As background, we also list earlier 3D eye-tracking visualization techniques identified in a previous review. Next, the systematic literature review presents the method used to acquire the included papers and a description of these in terms of eye-tracking technology, observed stimuli, application context, and type of 3D gaze visualization techniques. We then discuss the overall findings, including opportunities, challenges, trends, and present ideas for future directions. Overall the results show that eye-tracking in immersive virtual environments is on the rise and that more research and developments are needed to create novel and improved technical solutions for 3D gaze analysis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lanner, Martin
    Evaluation of a Curriculum for Technical Artists2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Technical Artist requires a unique set of skills to act as a bridge between artists and programmers in digital entertainment development. Our newly developed Technical Artist in Games (TAG) program is regulated under the national Higher Education Regulation (HER) in Sweden. This paper analyses the fit between the program and requirements from both the HER and the computer games industry. The analysis is done by evaluating the course content of the TAG program in relation to the HER and thirty job advertisements. The aim of this evaluation is to investigate how well the program prepares students for their future roles in industry.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Navarro, Diego
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    Mautner, Julian
    Stillalive Studios, SWE.
    Possibilities and challenges with eye tracking in video games and virtual reality applications2016In: SA 2016 - SIGGRAPH ASIA 2016 Courses, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, article id a17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increase in affordable, reliable and non-intrusive eye trackers the technology has recently been used by the video game industry. This course offers participants the opportunity to get an update on research and developments in gaze-based interaction techniques in combination with other sensors. The course consists of three parts: (1) a review of eye tracking analysis and interaction in video games and virtual reality applications, (2) possibilities and challenges with gaze-based interaction, and (3) lessons learned from developing a commercial video game application using eye tracking along with alternative virtual reality technologies. This course is relevant for everyone who is interested in developing games that use eye tracking as an interaction device. The content is suitable for beginners or experienced delegates who want to learn more about the state of the art and future possibilities in eye tracking combined with other sensors as interaction devices. We believe that games and virtual reality applications have just started to incorporate these new techniques and further research and developments are needed in order to evaluate novel ways to enhance gameplay.

  • 50. Turner, Jayson
    et al.
    Velloso, Eduardo
    Gellersen, Hans
    Sundstedt, Veronica
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Creative Technologies.
    EyePlay: Applications for Gaze in Games2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What new challenges does the combination of games and eye-tracking present? The EyePlay workshop brings together researchers and industry specialists from the fields of eye-tracking and games to address this question. Eye-tracking been investigated extensively in a variety of domains in human-computer Interaction, but little attention has been given to its application for gaming. As eye-tracking technology is now an affordable commodity, its appeal as a sensing technology for games is set to become the driving force for novel methods of player-computer interaction and games evaluation. This workshop presents a forum for eye-based gaming research, with a focus on identifying the opportunities that eye-tracking brings to games design and research, on plotting the landscape of the work in this area, and on formalising a research agenda for EyePlay as a field. Possible topics are, but not limited to, novel interaction techniques and game mechanics, usability and evaluation, accessibility, learning, and serious games contexts.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
12 1 - 50 of 51
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf