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  • 1.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Moreno, Ana
    Perspectives on Productivity and Delays in Large-Scale Agile Projects2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many large and distributed companies run agile projects in development environments that are inconsistent with the original agile ideas. Problems that result from these inconsistencies can affect the productivity of development projects and the timeliness of releases. To be effective in such contexts, the agile ideas need to be adapted. We take an inductive approach for reaching this aim by basing the design of the development process on observations of how context, practices, challenges, and impacts interact. This paper reports the results of an interview study of five agile development projects in an environment that was unfavorable for agile principles. Grounded theory was used to identify the challenges of these projects and how these challenges affected productivity and delays according to the involved project roles. Productivity and delay-influencing factors were discovered that related to requirements creation and use, collaboration, knowledge management, and the application domain. The practitioners’ explanations about the factors' impacts are, on one hand, a rich empirical source for avoiding and mitigating productivity and delay problems and, on the other hand, a good starting point for further research on flexible large-scale development.

  • 2.
    Betz, Stefanie
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Moss, Andrew
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Svahnberg, Mikael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    An Evolutionary Perspective on Socio-Technical Congruence:The Rubber Band Effect2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conway’s law assumes a strong association between the system’s architecture and the organization’s communication structure that designs it. In the light of contemporary software development, when many companies rely on geographically distributed teams, which often turn out to be temporarily composed and thus having an often changing communication structure, the importance of Conway’s law and its inspired work grows. In this paper, we examine empirical research related to Conway’s law and its application for cross-site coordination. Based on the results obtained we conjecture that changes in the communication structure alone sooner or later trigger changes in the design structure of the software products to return the sociotechnical system into the state of congruence. This is further used to formulate a concept of a rubber band effect and propose a replication study that goes beyond the original idea of Conway’s law by investigating the evolution of socio-technical congruence over time.

  • 3. Cousin, Philippe
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Felmy, Dean
    Le Gall, Franck
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Validation and Quality in FI-PPP e-Health Use Case, FI-STAR Project2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Eivazzadeh, Shahryar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Anderberg, Peter
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland.
    Berglund, Johan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    Evaluating Health Information Systems Using Ontologies2016In: JMIR Medical Informatics, ISSN 2291-9694, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are several frameworks that attempt to address the challenges of evaluation of health information systems by offering models, methods, and guidelines about what to evaluate, how to evaluate, and how to report the evaluation results. Model-based evaluation frameworks usually suggest universally applicable evaluation aspects but do not consider case-specific aspects. On the other hand, evaluation frameworks that are case specific, by eliciting user requirements, limit their output to the evaluation aspects suggested by the users in the early phases of system development. In addition, these case-specific approaches extract different sets of evaluation aspects from each case, making it challenging to collectively compare, unify, or aggregate the evaluation of a set of heterogeneous health information systems.

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to find a method capable of suggesting evaluation aspects for a set of one or more health information systems—whether similar or heterogeneous—by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes extracted from those systems and from an external evaluation framework.

    Methods: On the basis of the available literature in semantic networks and ontologies, a method (called Unified eValuation using Ontology; UVON) was developed that can organize, unify, and aggregate the quality attributes of several health information systems into a tree-style ontology structure. The method was extended to integrate its generated ontology with the evaluation aspects suggested by model-based evaluation frameworks. An approach was developed to extract evaluation aspects from the ontology that also considers evaluation case practicalities such as the maximum number of evaluation aspects to be measured or their required degree of specificity. The method was applied and tested in Future Internet Social and Technological Alignment Research (FI-STAR), a project of 7 cloud-based eHealth applications that were developed and deployed across European Union countries.

    Results: The relevance of the evaluation aspects created by the UVON method for the FI-STAR project was validated by the corresponding stakeholders of each case. These evaluation aspects were extracted from a UVON-generated ontology structure that reflects both the internally declared required quality attributes in the 7 eHealth applications of the FI-STAR project and the evaluation aspects recommended by the Model for ASsessment of Telemedicine applications (MAST) evaluation framework. The extracted evaluation aspects were used to create questionnaires (for the corresponding patients and health professionals) to evaluate each individual case and the whole of the FI-STAR project.

    Conclusions: The UVON method can provide a relevant set of evaluation aspects for a heterogeneous set of health information systems by organizing, unifying, and aggregating the quality attributes through ontological structures. Those quality attributes can be either suggested by evaluation models or elicited from the stakeholders of those systems in the form of system requirements. The method continues to be systematic, context sensitive, and relevant across a heterogeneous set of health information systems.

  • 5.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    QoE probe: A requirement-monitoring tool2016In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Forbrig P.,Borg M.,Herrmann A.,Unterkalmsteiner M.,Bjarnason E.,Daun M.,Franch X.,Kirikova M.,Palomares C.,Espana S.,Paech B.,Opdahl A.L.,Tenbergen B.,Dieste O.,Felderer M.,Gay G.,Horkoff J.,Seffah A.,Morandini M.,Petersen K., CEUR-WS , 2016, Vol. 1564Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Runtime requirement monitoring is used for verification and validation of implemented requirements. To monitor the requirements in runtime; we propose a "QoE probe" tool, a mobile application integrated through an API, to collect usage logs as well as users’ Quality of Experience (QoE) in the form of user feedback. The analysis of the collected data guides requirement monitoring of functional and non-functional requirements as well as capturing new requirements.

  • 6.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software analytics for planning product evolution2016In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, 2016, Vol. 240, p. 16-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution of a software product is inevitable as product context changes and the product gradually becomes less useful if it is not adapted. Planning is a basis to evolve a software product. The product manager, who carries responsibilities of planning, requires but does not always have access to high-quality information for making the best possible planning decisions. The current study aims to understand whether and when analytics are valuable for product planning and how they can be interpreted to a software product plan. The study was designed with an interview-based survey methodology approach through 17 in-depth semi-structured interviews with product managers. Based on results from qualitative analysis of the interviews, we defined an analytics-based model. The model shows that analytics have potentials to support the interpretation of product goals while is constrained by both product characteristics and product goals. The model implies how to use analytics for a good support of product planning evolution.

  • 7.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Quality Requirements Elicitation based on Inquiry of Quality-Impact Relationships2014In: Proceedings of International Requirements Engineering, IEEE , 2014, p. 303-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality requirements, an important class of non functional requirements, are inherently difficult to elicit. Particularly challenging is the definition of good-enough quality. The problem cannot be avoided though, because hitting the right quality level is critical. Too little quality leads to churn for the software product. Excessive quality generates unnecessary cost and drains the resources of the operating platform. To address this problem, we propose to elicit the specific relationships between software quality levels and their impacts for given quality attributes and stakeholders. An understanding of each such relationship can then be used to specify the right level of quality by deciding about acceptable impacts. The quality-impact relationships can be used to design and dimension a software system appropriately and, in a second step, to develop service level agreements that allow re-use of the obtained knowledge of good-enough quality. This paper describes an approach to elicit such quality-impact relationships and to use them for specifying quality requirements. The approach has been applied with user representatives in requirements workshops and used for determining Quality of Service (QoS) requirements based the involved users’ Quality of Experience (QoE). The paper describes the approach in detail and reports early experiences from applying the approach. Index Terms-Requirement elicitation, quality attributes, non-functional requirements, quality of experience (QoE), quality of service (QoS).

  • 8.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.;Univ Appl Sci & Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHN, Sch Engn, CH-5210 Windisch, Switzerland..
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.;Univ Appl Sci & Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHN, Sch Engn, CH-5210 Windisch, Switzerland..
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Technology and Aesthetics. Blekinge Inst Technol, SE-37179 Karlskrona, Sweden..
    The effect of requests for user feedback on Quality of Experience2018In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 385-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are interested in knowing how users experience and perceive their products. Quality of Experience (QoE) is a measurement that is used to assess the degree of delight or annoyance in experiencing a software product. To assess QoE, we have used a feedback tool integrated into a software product to ask users about their QoE ratings and to obtain information about their rationales for good or bad QoEs. It is known that requests for feedback may disturb users; however, little is known about the subjective reasoning behind this disturbance or about whether this disturbance negatively affects the QoE of the software product for which the feedback is sought. In this paper, we present a mixed qualitative-quantitative study with 35 subjects that explore the relationship between feedback requests and QoE. The subjects experienced a requirement-modeling mobile product, which was integrated with a feedback tool. During and at the end of the experience, we collected the users' perceptions of the product and the feedback requests. Based on the users' rational for being disturbed by the feedback requests, such as "early feedback," "interruptive requests," "frequent requests," and "apparently inappropriate content," we modeled feedback requests. The model defines feedback requests using a set of five-tuple variables: "task," "timing" of the task for issuing the feedback requests, user's "expertise-phase" with the product, the "frequency" of feedback requests about the task, and the "content" of the feedback request. Configuration of these parameters might drive the participants' perceived disturbances. We also found that the disturbances generated by triggering user feedback requests have negligible impacts on the QoE of software products. These results imply that software product vendors may trust users' feedback even when the feedback requests disturb the users.

  • 9.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Le-Gall, Frank
    KPIs for software ecosystems: A systematic mapping study2014In: Software Business: Towards Continuous Value Delivery, Springer, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To create value with a software ecosystem (SECO), a platform owner has to ensure that the SECO is healthy and sustainable. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are used to assess whether and how well such objectives are met and what the platform owner can do to improve. This paper gives an overview of existing research on KPI-based SECO assessment using a systematic mapping of research publications. The study identified 34 relevant publications for which KPI research and KPI practice were extracted and mapped. It describes the strengths and gaps of the research published so far, and describes what KPI are measured, analyzed, and used for decision-making from the researcher's point of view. For the researcher, the maps thus capture stateof- knowledge and can be used to plan further research. For practitioners, the generated map points to studies that describe how to use KPI for managing of a SECO.

  • 10.
    Fotrousi, Farnaz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Izadyan, Katayoun
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Analytics for Product Planning: In-depth Interview Study with SaaS Product Managers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SaaS cloud computing, in contrast to packaged products, enables permanent contact between users of a software product and the product-owning company. When planning the development and evolution of a software product, a product manager depends on reliable information about feature attractiveness. So far, planning decisions were based on stakeholder opinion and the customer's willingness to buy. Whether or not a feature actually is used was out of consideration. Analytics that measure the interaction between users and the SaaS gives product managers unprecedented access to information about product usage. To understand whether and how SaaS analytics can be used for product planning decision, we performed 17 in-depth interviews with experienced managers of SaaS products and analyzed the results analyzed with a mixed-method strategy. The empirical results characterize the relevance of a broad range of analytics for product planning decisions, and the strengths and limitations of an analytics-based product planning approach.

  • 11.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Release Planning with Feature Trees: Industrial Case2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] Requirements catalogues for software release planning are often not complete and homogeneous. Current release planning approaches, however, assume such commitment to detail – at least implicitly. [Question/problem] We evaluate how to relax these expectations, while at the same time reducing release planning effort and increasing decision-making flexibility. [Principal ideas/results] Feature trees capture AND, OR, and REQUIRES relationships between requirements. Such requirements structuring can be used to hide incompleteness and to support abstraction. [Contribution] The paper describes how to utilize feature trees for planning the releases of an evolving software solution and evaluates the effects of the approach on effort, decision-making, and trust with an industrial case.

  • 12. Fricker, Samuel
    Software Product Management2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of any software product depends on the skills and competence of the product manager, especially in agile development. The product manager plays a key role to ensure that the product supports company strategy and satisfies market needs beyond a single development project. This workshop introduces software product management and discusses practicable and pragmatic techniques for planning and controlling the development of software products. The participants will understand the benefits of software product management and how to develop this key role in their company.

  • 13.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Software Product Management2012In: Software for People / [ed] Maedche, Alexander, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag , 2012, p. 53-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software organizations evolve and maintain software solutions with more than a single development project. The delta specifications and artefacts that result from each project make reuse difficult and challenge a company’s ability to innovate. Software product management is a growing discipline for understanding how to productise and align software with company strategy, how to evolve software, and how to coordinate product stakeholders. With product focus, in addition to project focus, planning accuracy can be improved, time-to-market reduced, product quality enhanced, and economic success sustained. This chapter provides an overview on software product management and discusses what today is known about this discipline.

  • 14.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Systematic mapping of technology-enabled product innovations2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 328-333Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many new products, or services offered as a product, are expected to solve customer problems in new ways or exploit available technology in new or better ways. To innovate, a company needs to have a reliable understanding of the state-of-the-art. That need concerns both, an understanding of the problems that may be addressed and the solutions that have been explored and tried so far. This paper proposes systematic mappings as a method for reviewing the state-of-the-art in a technological or application domain. The method complements bespoke and experience-based approaches by guiding the identification of repositories with information about innovation projects and the analysis and interpretation of the data provided by these repositories. The paper describes the method, demonstrates its application with an example initiated by real-world innovation need, and discusses the potential benefits and limitations of the method.

  • 15.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Kurt, Schneider
    University of Hannover, DEU.
    Farnaz, Fotrousi
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Communication Systems.
    Christoph, Thuemmler
    Edinburgh Napier University, GBR.
    Workshop Videos for Requirements Communication2016In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 521-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared understanding of requirements between stakeholders and the development team is a critical success factor for requirements engineering. Workshops are an effective means for achieving such shared understanding since stakeholders and team representatives can meet and discuss what a planned software system should be and how it should support achieving stakeholder goals. However, some important intended recipients of the requirements are often not present in such workshops: the developers. Thus, they cannot benefit from the in-depth understanding of the requirements and of the rationales for these requirements that develops during the workshops. The simple handover of a requirements specification hardly compensates the rich requirements understanding that is needed for the development of an acceptable system. To compensate the lack of presence in a requirements workshop, we propose to record that requirements workshop on video. If workshop participants agree to be recorded, a video is relatively simple to create and is able to capture much more aspects about requirements and rationales than a specification document. This paper presents the workshop video technique and a phenomenological evaluation of its use for requirements communication from the perspective of software developers. The results show how the technique was appreciated by observers of the video, present positive and negative feedbacks from the observers, and lead to recommendations for implementing the technique in practice.

  • 16.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Schneider, KurtLeibniz University of Hannover, Germany.
    Proceedings of the 21st International Working Conference on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 17. Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Byman, Carl
    Schmidle, Armin
    Handshaking with Implementation Proposals: Negotiating Requirements Understanding2010In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering focuses on good specification practices but has yet to find working solutions for effective requirements communication. Inadequate communication and tacit assent to a demanding customer's requests make it hard to fully understand a project's requirements. A negotiation process, called handshaking with implementation proposals, has been used to communicate requirements effectively—even in situations where almost no written requirements exist and where distance separates the customer from developers. Handshaking is an efficient, flexible technique that uses architectural options to understand requirements, to make implementation decisions that create value, and to establish the foundation for a stable project. This article describes the communication challenges, solutions, and lessons learned in developing the handshaking process and applying it in industrial practice.

  • 18. Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Glinz, Martin
    Goal-Oriented Requirements Communication in New Product Development2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development organizations often distribute the responsibilities for requirements engineering over several roles. The collaboration of product management, concerned with market needs, and product development, concerned with the technological aspects of a product, is well established. Such shared responsibility provides advantages in the utilization of specific knowledge, skills, and resources. However, the collaboration leads to increased demands on coordination. Novel concepts and models need to be investigated to support such collaborative requirements engineering. In this paper we focus on requirements communication from product management to a development team by proposing and evaluating the model of goaloriented requirements communication. The model explains how efficiency and effectiveness of requirements communication can be increased and allows the utilization of established requirements engineering knowledge in a new way to address the task of requirements communication.

  • 19. Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Myllyperkiö, Petri
    Handshaking Between Software Projects and Stakeholders Using Implementation Proposals2007In: Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer , 2007, p. 144-159Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Handshaking between product management and R&D is key to the success of product development projects. Traditional requirements engineering processes build on good quality requirements specifications, which typically are not achievable in practical circumstances, especially not in distributed development where daily communication cannot easily be achieved to support the understanding of the specification and tacit knowledge cannot easily be spread. Projects thus risk misunderstanding requirements and are likely to deliver inadequate solutions. This paper presents an approach that uses downstream engineering artifacts, design decisions, to improve upstream information, a project’s requirements. During its preliminary validation, the approach yielded promising results. It is well suited for distributed software projects, where the negotiation on requirements and solution design need to be made explicit and potential problems and misunderstandings caught at early stages.

  • 20.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Grau, Rainer
    Zwingli, Adrian
    Requirements Engineering: Best Practice2014In: Requirements Engineering for Digital Health / [ed] Fricker, Samuel; Thuemmler, Christoph; Gavras, Anastasius, Springer , 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many software solutions have failed because they did not meet stakeholder needs. In response to this problem a massive amount of techniques were de-veloped to elicit stakeholder needs, to analyze the implications of these needs on the software, to specify proposed software products, and to check acceptance of these proposals. However, many of these techniques did not become industrial practice because they were not practicable or ineffective when used in real-world projects. To obtain an overview of what common practice is and to understand which techniques reflect best practice because they are particularly effective, we have surveyed a large number of industry projects. Based on 419 valid answers, this chapter gives an overview of commonly used requirements engineering techniques. It also shows which of the techniques, when used in a software project, correlate with require-ments engineering success. The chapter concludes with recommendations for software projects and future research to improve requirements engineer-ing practice.

  • 21. Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Kittlaus, Hans-Bernd
    International Software Product Management Association: Working Towards SPM Certification2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software Product Management (SPM) excellence is recognized as a key success factor for software organizations – both in industries delivering software as a product, software and IT as a service, or software embedded in other products. The International Software Product Management Association (ISPMA, www.ispma.org ) is a group of SPM experts from academia and industry that aims at fostering software product management excellence across industries by establishing software product management as a discipline of its own in both academia and industry. This presentation will report on the progress towards establishing, disseminating and maintaining a curriculum and a certifiable body of knowledge on SPM (SPM BoK) that is recognized as the premier source on SPM by all stakeholders.

  • 22.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Maglyas, Andrey
    Preliminary Results from the Software Product Management State-of-Practice Survey2014In: SOFTWARE BUSINESS: TOWARDS CONTINUOUS VALUE DELIVERY, Paphos, Cyprus: Springer , 2014, Vol. 182, p. 295+-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product management (SPM) as a discipline includes many practices like product and release planning, market analysis, roadmapping, and product lifecycle management. Product management frameworks prescribe these practices but companies seldom adopt all of them. We conducted a state-of-practice survey with the aim to investigate how companies adopt SPM practices and how this practical experience fits together with the framework suggested by International Software Product Management Association (ISPMA). The results of this study showed that ISPMA SPM Framework describes core product management practices well but the impact of product management practices to the final product success remains ambiguous.

  • 23.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Maksimov, Yuliyan
    Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, CHE.
    Pricing of data products in data marketplaces2017In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Werder K.,Ojala A.,Holmstrom Olsson H., Springer Verlag , 2017, Vol. 304, p. 49-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile computing and the Internet of Things promises massive amounts of data for big data analytic and machine learning. A data sharing economy is needed to make that data available for companies that wish to develop smart systems and services. While digital markets for trading data are emerging, there is no consolidated understanding of how to price data products and thus offer data vendors incentives for sharing data. This paper uses a combined keyword search and snowballing approach to systematically review the literature on the pricing of data products that are to be offered on marketplaces. The results give insights into the maturity and character of data pricing. They enable practitioners to select a pricing approach suitable for their situation and researchers to extend and mature data pricing as a topic. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

  • 24.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Persson, Marie
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Larsson, Madelene
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Tailoring the Software Product Management Framework for Use in a Healthcare Organization: Case Study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many reference models were developed for software process improvement. Each model, however, is an idealized prescription that is applicable in a lim-ited set of situation only. This paper has investigated how an existing refer-ence model can be tailored to a domain it has not been designed for initially. The tailoring approach is based on translating the reference model to the new domain and on inductive interviews for evaluating the translated model. The approach has been applied for assessing and improving strategic require-ments engineering practice in a healthcare organization with a framework for software product management.

  • 25.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Schumacher, Susanne
    Variability-Based Release Planning2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A release plan defines the short-term evolution of a software product in terms of development project scope. In practice, release planning is often based on just fragmentarily defined requirements. Current release planning approaches, however, assume that a requirements catalogue is available in the form of a complete flat list of requirements. This very early commitment to detail reduces the flexibility of a product manager when planning product development. This paper explores how variability modeling, a software product line technique, can be used to plan, communicate, and track the evolution of a single software. Variability modeling can reduce the number of decisions required for release planning and reduce the information needed for communicating with stakeholders. An industrial case motivates and exemplifies the approach.

  • 26. Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Seyff, Norbert
    1st International Requirements Engineering Efficiency Workshop – REEW 20112011In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 26-28Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering research has for a long time focused on specification quality, leading to recommendations of how to engineer “perfect” requirements specifications. Practitioners, however, do not have the time, resources, and interests for overdoing requirements engineering. Rather, many situations call for shortcuts that allow investing effort in those concerns that are critical for success, while reducing effort in other areas where risk is comparably smaller. The social context, smart collaboration processes, and novel ways of looking at the interface between stakeholders and the supplier can be a basis to increase the yield of requirements engineering, while reducing required effort. The International Requirements Engineering Efficiency Workshop (REEW 2011) aimed at initiating, facilitating, and nurturing the discussion on efficient approaches to engineer just good-enough requirements. Requirements engineering was seen as a means that can be simplified, automated, or combined with other practices to achieve successful systems in an economically efficient manner. REEW 2011 provided a platform for the community of practitioners and research experts that are interested in productivity enhancing approaches to requirements engineering. This report describes the workshop results including tactics, practice, and trade-offs for achieving requirements engineering efficiency.

  • 27.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola [bth.se], Faculty of Computing - Department of Software Engineering.
    Thuemmler, ChristophGavras, Anastasius
    Requirements Engineering for Digital Health2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare and well-being have captured the attention of established software companies, start-ups, and investors. Software is starting to play a central role for addressing the problems of the aging society and the escalating cost of healthcare services. Enablers of such digital health are a growing number of sensors for sensing the human body and communication infrastructure for remote meetings, data sharing, and messaging. The challenge that lies in front of us is how to effectively make use of these capabilities, for example to empower patients and to free the scarce resources of medical personnel. Requirements engineering is the process by which the capabilities of a software product are aligned with stakeholder needs and a shared understanding between the stakeholders and development team established. This book provides guide for what to look for and do when inquiring and specifying software that targets healthcare and well-being, helping readers avoid the pitfalls of the highly regulated and sensible healthcare domain are and how they can be overcome. This book brings together the knowledge of 22 researchers, engineers, lawyers, and CEOs that have experience in the development of digital health solutions. It represents a unique line-up of best practices and recommendations of how to engineer requirements for digital health. In particular the book presents: · The area of digital health, e-health, and m-health · Best practice for requirements engineering based on evidence from a large number of projects · Practical step-by-step guidelines, examples, and lessons-learned for working with laws, regulations, ethical issues, interoperability, user experience, security, and privacy · How to put these many concerns together for engineering the requirements of a digital health solution and for scaling a digital health product For anybody who intends to develop software for digital health, this book is an introduction and reference with a wealth of actionable insights. For students interested in understanding how to apply software to healthcare, the text introduces key topics and guides further studies with references to important literature.

  • 28.
    Fricker, Samuel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wallmüller, Ernest
    Qualität & Informatik.
    Paschen, Ina
    Zuehlke Engineering AG.
    Requirements Engineering as Innovation Journalism: A Research Preview2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference, IEEE, 2016, p. 335-340, article id 7765540Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful launch of an innovation project de-pends on an attractive vision and how well the vision is supported by the complementary capabilities of the consortium partners that want to cooperate to realize the vision. Alas, for an innovator the search for the right partners and visions can be lengthy and diffi-cult. Even though the analysis of context and problem, the identi-fication of stakeholders, the analysis of stakeholder goals and tech-nological capabilities, and the definition of requirements belong to the cornerstones of requirements engineering, this requirementsengineering problem has hardly been explored so far. In an at-tempt to avoid re-invention of well-tried solutions, we discovered journalism as a discipline that, as a rich body of methodical knowledge, may act as a source for the guidance of how a require-ments engineer may support the launch of innovation projects. In the role of a journalist, the requirements engineer makes partners and their capabilities visible and thereby allows the parties to iden-tify each other and meet. The transparency that develops between the parties becomes an instrument for consortia to emerge and to eventually answer calls for innovation with appropriate visions for innovation projects. This paper introduces the problem of initiat-ing innovation projects and describes the potential role of journal-ism as a metaphor for addressing the problem. The paper also de-scribes our plans in designing an innovation journalism approach that we hope will enable requirements engineers to increase inno-vation potential and ease the launch of projects that bring about these innovations.

  • 29. Glinz, Martin
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    On Shared Understanding in Software Engineering2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared understanding is essential for efficient communication in software development and evolution projects when the risk of unsatisfactory outcome and rework of project results shall be low. Today, however, shared understanding is used mostly in an unreflected, intuitive way. This is particularly true for implicit shared understanding. In this paper, we investigate the role, value and usage of shared understanding in Software Engineering. We contribute a reflected analysis of the problem, in particular of how to rely on implicit shared understanding. We discuss enablers and obstacles, compile existing practices for dealing with shared understanding, and present a roadmap for improving knowledge and practice in this area.

  • 30.
    Glinz, Martin
    et al.
    University of Zurich, CHE.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    On Shared Understanding in Software Engineering: an Essay2015In: Computer Science - Research and Development, ISSN 1865-2034, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 363-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shared understanding is essential for efficient software engineering when the risk of unsatisfactory outcome and rework of project results shall be low. Today, however, shared understanding is used mostly in an unreflected, ad-hoc way. This affects the quality of the engineered software solutions and generates re-work once the quality problems are discovered. In this article, we investigate the role, value, and usage of shared understanding in software engineering. We contribute a reflected analysis of the problem, in particular of how to rely on shared understanding that is implicit, rather than explicit. After an overview of the state of the art we discuss forms and value of shared understanding in software engineering, survey enablers and obstacles, compile existing practices for dealing with shared understanding, and present a roadmap for improving knowledge and practice in this area.

  • 31. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Brinkkemper, Sjaak
    Ebert, Christof
    Third international workshop on software product management -- IWSPM'092010In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 25-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software product management steers the success of a product in all its lifecycle stages by thoughtful application of planning, coordination, and control. The third international workshop on software product management (IWSPM´09) was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Requirements Engineering (RE'09) in Atlanta USA. The aim was to bring researchers and industry practitioners together to discuss the area and unique challenges of software and technology product management. Selected challenges put forward by accepted papers from both industry and academia were analyzed. The session discussions focused on identifying future needs for research, the relevance of which was assured by good industry presence at the workshop. The workshop homepage can be found http://2009.iwspm.org

  • 32. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Feldt, Robert
    Wohlin, Claes
    Mattsson, Michael
    1st International Global Requirements Engineering Worskshop: GREW´072008In: Software Engineering Notes, ISSN 0163-5948 , Vol. 33, no 2, p. 29-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GREW´07 was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Global Software Engineering in Munich Germany. The aim was to bring researchers and industry practitioners together to discuss the area of global product development from a requirements engineering and product management perspective. The workshop aimed to analyze selected challenges put forward by accepted papers from both industry and academia. The session discussions then focused on identifying future needs for research, the relevance of which was assured by good industry presence at the workshop. The workshop resulted in a number of findings that can play an important role to further develop the field of global product management and requirements engineering.

  • 33. Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Palm, Kenneth
    Kunsman, Steven
    A Lightweight Innovation Process for Software-Intensive Product Development2010In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 37-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The product development environment facing most companies today requires a long-term perspective featuring the conception and development of long-term innovations. This can be hard when close quarter bottom-line results dominate. Without innovation, competitive advantages decrease over time. This is especially true for companies producing software-intensive systems. Software is becoming a large part of the competitive advantage of traditionally hardware-focused systems such as cars, robots, or power systems, where feature sets traditionally offered and controlled by hardware are transferred to software. As software's impact and influence grows, so do the possibilities for innovation and increasing the competitive advantage through software. Star Search is a lightweight innovation model based on best practices from innovation management literature as well as two industry cases. It employs face-to-face screening and idea refinement using heterogeneous audition teams. Star Search was developed in collaboration with, and subsequently piloted at, two companies. It has helped increase the long-term perspective of product development by increasing the level of new ideas that make it to product planning and development

  • 34. Heymans, Patrick
    et al.
    Fricker, SamuelMylopoulos, John
    Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE 19th International Requirements Engineering Conference2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 35. Khurum, Mahvish
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The Contextual Nature of Innovation: An Empirical Investigation of Three Software Intensive Products2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 57, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: New products create significant opportunities for differentiation and competitive advantage. To increase the chances of new product success, a universal set of critical activities and determinants have been recommended. Some researchers believe, however, that these factors are not universal, but are contextual. Objective: This paper reports innovation processes followed to develop three software intensive products for understanding how and why innovation practice is dependent on innovation context. Method: This paper reports innovation processes and practices with an in-depth multi-case study of three software product innovations from Ericsson, IBM, and Rorotika. It describes the actual innovation processes followed in the three cases and discusses the observed innovation practice and relates it to state-of-the-art. Results: The cases point to a set of contextual factors that influence the choice of innovation activities and determinants for developing successful product innovations. The cases provide evidence that innovation practice cannot be standardized, but is contextual in nature. Conclusion: The rich description of the interaction between context and innovation practice enables future investigations into contextual elements that influence innovation practice, and calls for the creation of frameworks enabling activity and determinant selection for a given context – since one size does not fit all.

  • 36. Kittlaus, Hans-Bernd
    et al.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Software Product Management: The ISPMA-Compliant Study Guide and Handbook2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book gives a comprehensive overview on Software Product Management (SPM) for beginners as well as best practices, methodology and in-depth discussions for experienced product managers. This includes product strategy, product planning, participation in strategic management activities and orchestration of the functional units of the company. The book is based on the results of the International Software Product Management Association (ISPMA) which is led by a group of SPM experts from industry and research with the goal to foster software product management excellence across industries. This book can be used as textbook for ISPMA-based education and as guide for anybody interested in SPM as one of the most exciting and challenging disciplines in the business of software.

  • 37.
    Maglyas, Andrey
    et al.
    Lappeenrannan Teknillinen Yliopisto, FIN.
    Nikula, Uolevi
    Lappeenrannan Teknillinen Yliopisto, FIN.
    Smolander, Kari
    Aalto Yliopisto Tuotantotalouden Laitos, FIN.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Core software product management activities2017In: Journal of Advances in Management Research, ISSN 0972-7981, E-ISSN 2049-3207, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Software product management (SPM) unites disciplines related to product strategy, planning, development, and release. There are many organizational activities addressing technical, social, and market issues when releasing a software product. Owing to the high number of activities involved, SPM remains a complex discipline to adopt. The purpose of this paper is to understand what are the core and supporting SPM activities. Design/methodology/approach - The authors adopted the research method of meta-ethnography to present a set of techniques for synthesizing individual qualitative studies to increase the degree of conceptualization. The results obtained from three empirical studies were synthesized using the meta-ethnography approach to enhance, rethink, and create a higher level abstraction of the findings. Findings - The results show that the study has both theoretical and practical contribution. As the meta-ethnography synthesis has not been widely applied in software engineering, the authors illustrate how to use this research method in the practice of software engineering research. The practical contribution of the study is in the identification of five core and six supporting SPM activities. Originality/value - The practical value of this paper is in the identification of core SPM activities that should be present in any company practicing SPM. The list of supporting SPM consists of activities that are not reported to product manager but affect the product success.

  • 38.
    Maksimov, Yuliyan V.
    et al.
    FHNW University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CHE.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Tutschku, Kurt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Artifact Compatibility for Enabling Collaboration in the Artificial Intelligence Ecosystem2018In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, Springer, 2018, Vol. 336, p. 56-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of software components and data have to be combined to solve an artificial intelligence challenge. An emerging marketplace for these components will allow for their exchange and distribution. To facilitate and boost the collaboration on the marketplace a solution for finding compatible artifacts is needed. We propose a concept to define compatibility on such a marketplace and suggest appropriate scenarios on how users can interact with it to support the different types of required compatibility. We also propose an initial architecture that derives from and implements the compatibility principles and makes the scenarios feasible. We matured our concept in focus group workshops and interviews with potential marketplace users from industry and academia. The results demonstrate the applicability of the concept in a real-world scenario.

  • 39.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Literature Review of Flexibility Attributes: A Flexibility Framework for Software Developing Organization2018In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 30, no 9, article id e1937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software developing organizations strive to achieve flexibility to maintain a competitive advantage. There is no common understanding of what characterize flexibility for a software organization beyond the scope of the software product. Without a common understanding, it is difficult to evaluate the degrees of flexibility of software development approaches. The aim of this literature review is to collect attributes that characterize flexibility. The collected attributes are consolidated into a flexibility framework with 3 main attributes: properties of change, flexibility perspectives, and flexibility enablers. The resulting flexibility framework is then used to evaluate Agile and Lean practices. The evaluation shows that Agile and Lean practices address many flexibility attributes. However, some attributes are not addressed, such as infrastructure flexibility and strategic flexibility. On the basis of our evaluation, the classifications of flexibility attributes that we present in this paper could be used to aid software organization flexibility evaluation.

  • 40.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    The impacts of agile and lean practices on project constraints: A tertiary study2016In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 119, p. 162-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in Agile and Lean software development is reflected in the increasing number of secondary studies on the benefits and limitations of Agile and Lean processes and practices. The aim of this tertiary study is to consolidate empirical evidence regarding Agile and Lean practices and their respective impacts on project constraints as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK): scope, quality, schedule, budget, resources, communication, and risk. In this tertiary study, 13 secondary studies were included for detailed analysis. Given the heterogeneity of the data, we were unable to perform a rigorous synthesis. Instead, we mapped the identified Agile and Lean practices, and their impacts on the project constraints described in PMBOK. From 13 secondary studies, we identified 13 Agile and Lean practices. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is studied in ten secondary studies, meanwhile other practices are studied in only one or two secondary studies. This tertiary study provides a consolidated view of the impacts of Agile and Lean practices. The result of this tertiary study indicates that TDD has a positive impact on external quality. However, due to insufficient data or contradictory results, we were unable to make inferences on other Agile and Lean practices. Implications for research and practice are further discussed in the paper. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Strategies to Introduce Agile Practices: Comparing Agile Maturity Models with Practitioners’ExperienceIn: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to provide guidance for adopting Agile practices. Evaluations of AMMs indicatethat they might not be suitable for industry use. One issue is that AMMs have mainly been evaluated against pre-defined sets of criteria, instead of industry practice. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to: (1) compare current AMMs regarding their guidance for Agile adoption, (2) investigate the strategies for Agile adoption used by practitioners, and (3) investigate similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey that included grey literature to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We also conducted a survey and 11 interviews to identify the strategies used by practitioners to introduce Agile practices. This study combines quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: From the literature survey we found 26 AMMs, whereof 12 provide explicit mappings of Agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement in when practices should be introduced. Based on 40 survey responses we identified three high-level strategies for introducing Agile practices: big-bang, incremental, and complex strategies. The survey andinterviews revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned well with industry practice and that Agile practices might already be in place before an organization starts a transition to Agile. Conclusion: In their current form, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide Agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for Agile adoption that works better than others.

  • 42.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Preliminary Checklist for Capturing Baseline Situations in Studying the Impacts of Agile Practices Introduction2018In: IEEE-ACM International Workshop on Conducting Empirical Studies in Industry CESI, IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 25-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the benefits of introducing Agile practices, it is important to get a clear understanding of the baseline situation, i.e. the situation before their introduction. Without a clear baseline, we cannot properly assess the extent of impacts, both positive and negative, of introducing Agile practices. This paper provides a preliminary guideline to help researchers in capturing and reporting baseline situations. The guideline has been developed through the study of literature and interviews with industry practitioners, and validated by experts in academia.

  • 43.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Usage, Retention, and Abandonment of Agile Practices2019In: e-Informatica Software Engineering Journal, ISSN 1897-7979, E-ISSN 2084-4840, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 7-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A number of Agile maturity models (AMMs) have been proposed to guide software organizations in their adoption of Agile practices. Typically the AMMs suggest that higher maturity levels are reached by gradually adding more practices. However, recent research indicates that certain Agile practices, like test-driven development and continuous integration are being abandoned. Little is known on the rationales for abandoning Agile practices. Aim: We aim to identify which Agile practices are abandoned in industry, as well as the reasons for abandoning them. Method: We conducted a web survey with 51 respondents and interviews with 11 industry practitioners with experience in Agile adoption to investigate why Agile practices are abandoned. Results: Of the 17 Agile practices that were included in the survey, all have been abandoned at some point. Nevertheless, respondents who retained all practices as well as those who abandoned one or more practices, perceived their overall adoption of Agile practices as successful. Conclusion: Going against the suggestions of the AMMs, i.e. abandoning Agile one or more practices, could still lead to successful outcomes. This indicates that introducing Agile practices gradually in a certain sequence, as the AMMs suggest, may not always be suitable in different contexts.

  • 44.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Understanding the order of agile practice introduction: Comparing agile maturity models and practitioners’ experience2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 156, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Agile maturity models (AMMs) suggest that agile practices are introduced in a certain order. However, whether the order of agile practice introduction as suggested in the AMMs is relevant in industry has not been evaluated in an empirical study. Objectives: In this study, we want to investigate: (1) order of agile practice introduction mentioned in AMMs, (2) order of introducing agile practices in industry, and (3) similarities and differences between (1) and (2). Methods: We conducted a literature survey to identify strategies proposed by the AMMs. We then compared the AMMs’ suggestions to the strategies used by practitioners, which we elicited from a survey and a series of interviews from an earlier study. Results: The literature survey revealed 12 AMMs which provide explicit mappings of agile practices to maturity levels. These mappings showed little agreement on when practices should be introduced. Comparison of the AMMs’ suggestions and the empirical study revealed that the guidance suggested by AMMs are not aligned with industry practice. Conclusion: Currently, AMMs do not provide sufficient information to guide agile adoption in industry. Our results suggest that there might be no universal strategy for agile adoption that works better than others. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 45.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel A.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An Analysis of Change Scenarios of an IT Organization for Flexibility Building2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexibility is important for software organizations to cope with changes demanded in the business environment. So far, flexibility has been extensively studied from a software product and software development process point of view. However, there is little work on how to build flexibility at the level of the whole software organization. Thus, there is no clear understanding of how to effectively improve the ability of an organization to respond to changes in a timely fashion and with little effort. This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on how flexibility is built and improved in an IT organization and provides a holistic and explanatory view of how this is achieved. Implications for research and practices are also provided.

  • 46.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards Understanding How To Build Strategic Flexibility Of An IT Organization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT organizations need to react to changes in the business, the domain (e.g., regulatory issues), and the technological development. While some of these changes can be handled by adopting agile practices, others might have large, irreversible effects on the organization as a whole. While flexibility and agility have found their way into software project methodologies, IT organizations struggle with their adaptation at organizational level. This paper presents preliminary results of a grounded-theory study aimed at understanding how experienced managers handle flexibility. The results are a rich empirical source for improving flexibility of an IT organization at the strategic level and also a good starting point for further research towards generalizing agile ideas beyond software projects.

  • 47.
    Nurdiani, Indira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Tracing Requirements interdependencies in Agile Teams2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pressure of delivering a software product in timely manner and rapid requirement changes have driven many software organizations to adopt a solution that allows them to be more flexible in adapting to changes. Agile Methodology (AM) is a software development approach that tries to address the rigidity of traditional plan-driven methods. AM focuses on delivering working software on time through short and iterative development cycles. Changes to requirements are also accepted even at later stages of the development. In AM, requirements are implemented in releases based on prioritization of financial value, cost, uncertainty, and risks. However, practitioners find results from prioritization to be untrustworthy. Requirements prioritization is further challenged by interdependencies between requirements. Managing requirements interdependencies, which is an important aspect in incremental development, is a missing piece in AM. The aim of this study is to explore the perception from agile teams regarding requirements interdependencies and uncover in-situ practices for handling those interdependencies. We want to study the practices that are in place from the development team point of view with ethnomethodological approaches, utilizing observations and interviews as data collection methods. Through ethnomethodology we can uncover social and other aspects that can provide insights toward focused development effort improvement, as demonstrated in.

  • 48.
    Shojaifar, Alireza
    et al.
    Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, CHE.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gwerder, Martin
    Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, CHE.
    Elicitation of SME requirements for cybersecurity solutions by studying adherence to recommendations2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Dalpiaz F.,Franch X.,Kirikova M.,Ralyte J.,Spoletini P.,Chisik Y.,Ferrari A.,Madhavji N.,Palomares C.,Sabetzadeh M.,van der Linden D.,Schmid K.,Charrada E.B.,Sawyer P.,Forbrig P.,Zamansky A., CEUR-WS , 2018, Vol. 2075Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) have become the weak spot of our economy for cyber attacks. These companies are large in number and often do not have the controls in place to prevent successful attacks, respectively are not prepared to systematically manage their cybersecurity capabilities. [Question/problem] One of the reasons for why many SME do not adopt cybersecurity is that developers of cybersecurity solutions understand little the SME context and the requirements for successful use of these solutions. [Principal ideas/results] We elicit requirements by studying how cybersecurity experts provide advice to SME. The experts' recommendations offer insights into what important capabilities of the solution are and how these capabilities ought to be used for mitigating cybersecurity threats. The adoption of a recommendation hints at a correct match of the solution, hence successful consideration of requirements. Abandoned recommendations point to a misalignment that can be used as a source to inquire missed requirements. Re-occurrence of adoption or abandonment decisions corroborate the presence of requirements. [Contributions] This poster describes the challenges of SME regarding cybersecurity and introduces our proposed approach to elicit requirements for cybersecurity solutions. The poster describes CYSEC, our tool used to capture cybersecurity advice and help to scale cybersecurity requirements elicitation to a large number of participating SME. We conclude by outlining the planned research to develop and validate CYSEC1 Copyright 2018 for this paper by its authors.

  • 49. Singer, Leif
    et al.
    Seyff, Norbert
    Fricker, Samuel
    Online Social Networks as a Catalyst for Software and IT Innovation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People have many creative ideas, but only a few of these ideas are realized and lead to innovation. Good ideas often fail because they are not shared between innovators and stakeholders, hence are unlikely to be realized. Consequently, many opportunities are missed to excite customers and to gain a competitive advantage. This paper proposes an innovation process that uses online social networks to lower the hurdle to sharing ideas. The process leverages diffusion effects of social networks while supporting the generation, evaluation, consolidation, and implementation of innovative ideas with lightweight activities. The process is illustrated and discussed using an application example. Although we are focusing on innovation regarding software-intensive systems, we foresee that the discussed process has the potential to be applied to other domains as well.

  • 50. Thuemmler, C.
    et al.
    Mival, O.
    Lim, A. K.
    Holanec, I.
    Fricker, Samuel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A social-technological alignment matrix2015In: IEEE 16th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services, Healthcom 2014, 2015, Vol. Article number 7001841, p. 200-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper refers to the term ’implementation’ as the process of integrating a new technology into established workfows. Especially in health care this has proven to be a very critical phase and many large-scale projects have failed on this very last mile. Although strategies such as requirements engineering, co-designing and user interaction design have been proposed to reduce the risk of end-user rejection and subsequently project failur. There is still no tool to analyze, predict and quantify user acceptance and identify critical areas which might be addressed before the start of the implementation phase in order to reduce resistance and increase the effectiveness and effciency. © 2014 IEEE.

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