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  • 1.
    Barbosa, Ludwig
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Rasch, J.
    Molflow, Gothenburg, SWE.
    Carlstrom, A.
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    A Simulation Study of the Effect of Ionospheric Vertical Gradients on the Neutral Bending Angle Error for GNSS Radio Occultation2017Inngår i: Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium, IEEE , 2017, s. 1540-1545Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio Occultation based on Global Navigation Satellite System signals (GNSS RO) is an increasingly important remote sensing technique. Its measurements are used to derive parameter of the Earth's atmosphere, e.g., pressure, temperature and humidity, with good accuracy. The systematic residual error present on the data processing is related to ionospheric conditions, such as the distribution of electrons and the resultant vertical gradient. This study investigates the relationship between these parameters and the residual ionospheric error (RIE) on the retrieved bending angle in the stratosphere. Chapman function combined to sinusoidal perturbations are used to model electron density profiles and compared to RO retrievals of the ionosphere to perform the investigation. The results confirmed that the major ionospheric influence on the retrieval error is related to the F-layer electron density peak, whereas small-scale vertical structures play a minor role.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Svante
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Grahn, Per
    Nelander, Anders
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Measurement of Rank and Other Properties of Direct and Scattered Signals2016Inngår i: International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 1687-5869, E-ISSN 1687-5877, Vol. 2016, artikkel-id 5483547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have designed an experiment for low-cost indoor measurements of rank and other properties of direct and scattered signals with radar interference suppression in mind. The signal rank is important also in many other applications, for example, DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation, estimation of the number of and location of transmitters in electronic warfare, and increasing the capacity in wireless communications. In real radar applications, such measurements can be very expensive, for example, involving airborne radars with array antennas. We have performed the measurements in an anechoic chamber with several transmitters, a receiving array antenna, and a moving reflector. Our experiment takes several aspects into account: transmitted signals with different correlation, decorrelation of the signals during the acquisition interval, covariance matrix estimation, noise eigenvalue spread, calibration, near-field compensation, scattering in a rough surface, and good control of the influencing factors. With our measurements we have observed rank, DOA spectrum, and eigenpatterns of direct and scattered signals. The agreement of our measured properties with theoretic and simulated results in the literature shows that our experiment is realistic and sound. The detailed description of our experiment could serve as help for conducting other well-controlled experiments. © Copyright 2016 Svante Björklund et al.

  • 3.
    Björklund, Svante
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Nelander, Anders
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Auxiliary beam terrain-scattered interference suppression: reflection system and radar performance2013Inngår i: IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation, ISSN 1751-8784, Vol. 7, nr 8, s. 836-847Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Terrain-scattered interference (TSI), that is, jammer signals reflected on the earth's surface, is a significant problem to military airborne radar. In auxiliary beam TSI suppression, the TSI in the main radar beam is estimated by a single or several auxiliary beams and is subtracted from the main beam channel. The signal to subtract is the auxiliary beam signals fed through an estimate of the ‘reflection system’, which describes scattering on the surface. The authors first present results on the structure of this TSI suppression, on the estimation of the reflection system and on the quality of the estimate. Then the authors derive theoretical expressions for the signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) and the remaining TSI power for a single auxiliary beam. Since the SINR is directly connected to the radar performance, it can be seen what factors affect the performance and how. It was noted that when the estimated reflection system is missing one or more delays of the true system, the TSI filter cannot suppress the TSI signal completely. This phenomenon, which is called ‘TSI leakage’, has a very large impact on the performance. The SINR cannot be kept constant. Instead, an ‘SINR improvement’ can be defined.

  • 4.
    Björklund, Svante
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Nelander, Anders
    Swedish Def Res Agcy FOI, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap. Blekinge Inst Technol, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Fast-Time and Slow-Time Space-Time Adaptive Processing for Bistatic Radar Interference Suppression2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL RADAR CONFERENCE (RADARCON), IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 674-678Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In bistatic radar with transmitter and receiver geographically separated the interference from ground clutter and the direct path signal transmitter-receiver will be strong and must be suppressed in order to detect the target. We apply FT-STAP (Fast-Time Space Time Adaptive Processing) to the suppression, which is unusual, and compare with conventional ST-STAP (Slow-Time STAP) by simulations in order to see whether FT-STAP is an alternative to ST-STAP. The performance of FT-STAP is much worse than of ST-STAP. We give an explanation for this, which also may be the basis for large improvements of FT-STAP. Moreover, we suggest two new performance measures.

  • 5. Björklund, Svante
    et al.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    A three-dimensional displaced phase center antenna condition for clutter cancellation2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop, IEEE , 2014, s. 305-308Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In moving radar, e.g. airborne radar, the clutter from land and sea needs to be suppressed in order to detect the target. One approach to total cancellation of the clutter is Displaced Phase Center Antenna (DPCA). DPCA assumes that the antenna elements are positioned on a line parallel to the velocity vector of the radar platform so that the elements can take each others positions at different points of times. This paper theoretically investigates if it is possible with other antenna element positions, e.g. in three dimensions, for a total cancellation of the clutter. We arrive at a condition which conforms to the principle that the elements should take each others positions at different times but allows other antennas than the single line parallel to the velocity vector. Our condition could be used as constraints in an optimization problem where the target signal performance is optimized. The multipulse DPCA condition is one solution to our condition.We also give two examples of non-linear antennas fulfilling our condition.

  • 6.
    Fabrin, Ana
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, BRA.
    Molin, Ricardo
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, BRA.
    Alves, Dimas Irion
    Universidade Federal do Pampa, BRA.
    Machado, Renato
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, BRA.
    Bayer, Fabio
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, BRA.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    A CFAR optimization for low frequency UWB SAR change detection algorithms2017Inngår i: International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 1071-1074Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) filter design for change detection algorithms (CDA). More specifically, we are interested in CFAR filters used in CDA for low frequency ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The filter design performance was evaluated in terms of false alarm rate (FAR) and probability of detection (PD). For evaluation purposes, we considered a set of SAR images obtained with the CARABAS-II system. The results are compared with the ones presented in [1], where the same CDA was considered, except for the CFAR filter. The results show that relevant FAR performance improvements can be obtained by just modifying the CFAR filter parameters taking into account the image resolution and target characteristics. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 7.
    Fiedler, Markus
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för telekommunikationssystem.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för telekommunikationssystem.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för telekommunikationssystem.
    Arlos, Patrik
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för telekommunikationssystem.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för teknik, Avdelningen för telekommunikationssystem.
    QoE-based Cross-Layer Design of Mobile Video Systems: Challenges and Concepts2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper focuses on revealing challenges and offering concepts associated with the incorporation of the Quality of Experience (QoE) paradigm into the design of mobile video systems. The corresponding design framework combines application, middleware and networking layer in a unique cross-layer approach, in which all layers shall jointly analyse the quality of the video and its delivery in face of volatile conditions. Particular ingredients of the framework are efficient video processing, advanced realtime scheduling, and reduced-reference metrics on application and network layer.

  • 8.
    Gomes, Natanael Rodrigues
    et al.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, BRA.
    Dammert, Patrik
    Saab Surveillance AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Hellsten, Hans
    Saab Surveillance AB, SWE.
    Comparison of the Rayleigh and K-Distributions for Application in Incoherent Change Detection2019Inngår i: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, ISSN 1545-598X, E-ISSN 1558-0571, Vol. 16, s. 756-760Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to compare two incoherent change-detection algorithms for target detection in low-frequency ultrawideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The considered UWB SAR operates in the frequency range from 20 to 90 MHz. Both approaches employ a likelihood ratio test according to the Neyman–Pearson criterion. First, the bivariate Rayleigh probability distribution is used to implement the likelihood ratio test function. This distribution is well known and has been used for change-detection algorithms in low-frequency UWB SAR with good results. Aiming to minimize the false alarm rate and taking into consideration that low-frequency UWB SAR images have high resolution compared to the transmitted wavelength, the second approach implements the test by using a bivariate K-distribution. This distribution has scale and shape parameters that can be used to adjust it to the data. No filter is applied to the data set images, and the results show that with a good statistical model, it is not needed to rely on filtering the data to decrease the number of false alarms. Therefore, we can have a better tradeoff between resolution and detection performance.

  • 9.
    Gustavsson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Nilsson, Kristian
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Zackrisson, Johan
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Garcia-Zubia, J.
    Hernandez-Jayo, U.
    Nedic, Z
    Göl, Ö.
    MacHotka, J.
    Håkansson, Lars
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    On objectives of instructional laboratories, individual assessment, and use of collaborative remote laboratories2009Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 263-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three key issues should be addressed to enable universities to deliver engineers who have a solid documented laboratory experience enabling them to design goods and services complying with the requirements of a sustainable society. First, introduce learning objectives of engineering instructional laboratories in courses including laboratory components. Second, implement individual student assessment. Third, introduce free access to online experimental resources as a supplement to the equipment in traditional laboratories. Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH) in Sweden and the University of South Australia (UniSA) have created online laboratory workbenches for electrical experiments that mimic traditional ones by combining virtual and physical reality. Online workbenches not only supplement traditional ones, but they can also be used for low-cost individual assessment. BTH has started a project disseminating the BTH workbench concept, The Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR) Open Laboratory Platform, and invites other universities to set up replicas and participate in further development and standardization. Further, online workbenches offer additional learning possibilities. UniSA has started a project where students located in different countries can perform experiments together as a way to enhance the participants' intercultural competence. This paper discusses online laboratory workbenches and their role in an engineering education appropriate for a sustainable society.

  • 10. Gustavsson, Ingvar
    et al.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Håkansson, Lars
    Lagö, Thomas L
    Claesson, Ingvar
    Gör ingenjörsutbildningen attraktiv genom att öka det experimentella inslaget2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många idéer till hur man skall få fler ungdomar att välja ingenjörsyrket har diskuterats och provats men tyvärr utan större framgång. En ny ingrediens kan vara att öka det experimentella inslaget, något som ändå måste göras av andra skäl, varav ett är hållbar utveckling. Det är känt att genom experiment kan man lära känna naturens principer. Ingenjörer är de yrkesutövare som konstruerar många av de nyttigheter som bär upp vår civilisation. Vi använder teorier/modeller som verktyg, men dessa räcker inte alltid, utan man måste få experimentera och bygga prototyper samt verifiera. Den allmänna meningen bland lärare och andra initierade bedömare har hittills varit att laborationer är nödvändiga men lite sägs om vad de förväntas ge. Få lärosäten producerar ingenjörer med dokumenterad erfarenhet av laborativt arbete. Lärandemål för laborationer har saknats men de senaste åren har sådana börjat definieras. Under senare decennier har undervisningsanslagen heller inte räknats upp i takt med studenttillströmningen. Eftersom laborativ undervisning är kostsam per student har lärosätena valt att reducera antalet laborationer, men Internets intåg ger nya möjligheter att öppna laboratorier för fjärrstyrning och låta studenter experimentera själva, utan risk att skada sig själva eller utrustningen. Studenter får således nya möjligheter att organisera sina studier i enlighet med vad Bolognaprocessen kräver och lärosäten kan utnyttja laboratorierna mera effektivt. Vi kan öka det experimentella inslaget i undervisningen. Internationellt samarbete både avseende läromedel och experimentell utrustning ser ut att ge möjlighet att sänka de löpande kostnaderna till den grad att det experimentella inslaget kan ökas väsentligt inom befintliga anslagsramar, även om den initiala kostnaden för den forskning som först krävs då inte är inräknad. Avdelningen för signalbehandling, ASB, vid BTH har öppnat övningslaboratorier för ellära och mekaniska vibrationsexperiment för fjärrstyrning. Båda används i reguljär undervisning sedan några år. Ett unikt användargränssnitt gör det möjligt att från valfriplats styra och manövrera experimentutrustning på samma sätt som i laboratorielokalerna. Studenterna får möjlighet att i förväg bekanta sig med instrumenten och utföra föreskrivna experiment enskilt eller tillsammans med andra. Dessa öppna laboratorier ger möjlighet att inkludera praktiska uppgifter i skriftliga tentamina, förutsatt att examination kan ske i datorsal, varvid erfarenhet av laborativt arbete enkelt kan examineras för varje enskild student. ASB har startat ett projekt VISIR (Virtual Systems in Reality) som handlar om att sprida BTH:s öppna laboratoriekoncept och formulera standarder inom området. Tillhörande programvara har publicerats som öppen källkod. BTH bjuder in andra lärosäten att delta i projektet och i dess vidareutveckling mot internationella standarder. Två internationella universitet har redan öppnat kopior av elläralaboratoriet och deltar aktivt i vidareutvecklingen. ASB har nyligen blivit inbjuden av ett universitet i Australien att delta ett projekt med titeln ”Enriching Student Learning Experience through International Collaboration in Remote Laboratories”. Detta beviljade projekt är ett resultat av nya pedagogiska möjligheter, som diskuteras i detta bidrag. ASB söker samarbete med pedagoger och andra forskare intresserade av experimentella inslag i ingenjörsutbildningen. Lärandemål för laborativt arbete, öppna laboratorier och internationellt samarbete kan bli ingredienser i en moderniserad och attraktiv ingenjörsutbildning.

  • 11. Hellisten, Hans
    et al.
    Machado, Renato
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats I.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dammert, Patrik
    EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON CHANGE DETECTION BASED ON BAYES PROBABILITY THEOREM2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING SYMPOSIUM (IGARSS), IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 318-321Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a new change detection (CD) algorithm based on the Bayes theorem and probability assignments. Differently from any kind of likelihood ratio test (LRT) algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not present target alarms, but the probability of certain image position is a target position. In other words, the proposed method leads to quantitative estimates on the probability of a target at any pixel, whereas LRT algorithms can only be used as a figure of merit for any pixel to contain a target.

  • 12. Jamil, Momin
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Pettersson, Mats
    Cross-ambiguity function of weighted pulse trains with Oppermann sequences2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of integrated radar and communication systems may be based on sets of polyphase sequences such as Oppermann sequences. In this paper, we derive an analytical expression for the cross-ambiguity function of weighted pulse trains with Oppermann sequences. Further, the auto-ambiguity function is deduced from this as a special case. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the relationship between sequence parameters and performance characteristics.

  • 13. Jamil, Momin
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Pettersson, Mats
    On Integrated Radar and Communication Systems Using Oppermann Sequences2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider the design of integrated radar and communication systems that utilize weighted pulse trains with the elements of Oppermann sequences serving as complex-valued weights. An analytical expression of the ambiguity function for weighted pulse trains with Oppermann sequences is derived. Given a family of Oppermann sequences, it is shown that the related ambiguity function depends only on one sequence parameter. This property simplifies the design of the associated weighted pulse trains as it constrains the degrees of freedom. In contrast to the single polyphase pulse compression sequences that are typically deployed in radar applications, the families considered in this paper form sets of sequences. As such, they readily facilitate also multiple-access in communication systems. Numerical examples are provided that show the wide range of options offered by Oppermann sequences in the design of integrated radar and communication systems.

  • 14. Jamil, Momin
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Pettersson, Mats
    Performance Assessment of Polyphase Pulse Compression Codes2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of conventional polyphase pulse compression codes such as the Frank, Frank-Zadoff-Chu (FZC), P1, P2, P3, P4, and Px codes will be compared with Oppermann codes. While the majority of the former code classes focus on radar applications, Oppermann codes have been discussed only within the context of code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. In this paper, we therefore consolidate findings on the conventional codes and extend the performance assessment to Oppermann codes by accounting for Doppler shifts as needed in radar applications. It is shown that Oppermann codes can conceptually support integrated radar and communication systems as compared to the P1, P2, P3, P4, and Px codes where this is not readily feasible. The numerical results given here illustrate that Oppermann codes outperform Px codes in the presence of Doppler shifts as supported by the ambiguity function.

  • 15. Jamil, Momin
    et al.
    Zepernick, Hans-Jürgen
    Pettersson, Mats
    Properties of ambiguity functions for weighted pulse trains with oppermann sequences2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider properties of the autoambiguity and cross-ambiguity functions of weighted pulse trains with Oppermann sequences. Several properties are examined and proved which in turn allows for reducing the design space for optimization of a particular design. The insights gained from these properties are consolidated in a formal framework leading to procedures that can be used for a more structured waveform design. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the relationship between sequence parameters and performance characteristics.

  • 16.
    Javadi, Mohammad Saleh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Change detection in aerial images using a Kendall's TAU distance pattern correlation2016Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 6TH EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING (EUVIP), IEEE, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection in aerial images is the core of many remote sensing applications to analyze the dynamics of a wide area on the ground. In this paper, a remote sensing method is proposed based on viewpoint transformation and a modified Kendall rank correlation measure to detect changes in oblique aerial images. First, the different viewpoints of the aerial images are compromised and then, a local pattern descriptor based on Kendall rank correlation coefficient is introduced. A new distance measure referred to as Kendall's Tau-d (Tau distance) coefficient is presented to determine the changed regions. The developed system is applied on oblique aerial images with very low aspect angles that obtained using an unmanned aerial vehicle in two different days with drastic change in illumination and weather conditions. The experimental results indicate the robustness of the proposed method to variant illumination, shadows and multiple viewpoints for change detection in aerial images.

  • 17.
    Javadi, Mohammad Saleh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vehicle speed measurement model for video-based systems2019Inngår i: Computers & electrical engineering, ISSN 0045-7906, E-ISSN 1879-0755, Vol. 76, s. 238-248Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced analysis of road traffic data is an essential component of today's intelligent transportation systems. This paper presents a video-based vehicle speed measurement system based on a proposed mathematical model using a movement pattern vector as an input variable. The system uses the intrusion line technique to measure the movement pattern vector with low computational complexity. Further, the mathematical model introduced to generate the pdf (probability density function) of a vehicle's speed that improves the speed estimate. As a result, the presented model provides a reliable framework with which to optically measure the speeds of passing vehicles with high accuracy. As a proof of concept, the proposed method was tested on a busy highway under realistic circumstances. The results were validated by a GPS (Global Positioning System)-equipped car and the traffic regulations at the measurement site. The experimental results are promising, with an average error of 1.77 % in challenging scenarios.

  • 18.
    Javadi, Mohammad Saleh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Kulesza, Wlodek
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för tillämpad signalbehandling.
    Design of a video-based vehicle speed measurement system: an uncertainty approach2019Inngår i: 2018 Joint 7th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV) and 2018 2nd International Conference on Imaging, Vision & Pattern Recognition (icIVPR), Kitakyushu, Japan, 2018, pp. 44-49., IEEE, 2019, artikkel-id 8640964Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Speed measurement is one of the key components of intelligent transportation systems. It provides suitable information for traffic management and law enforcement. This paper presents a versatile and analytical model for a video-based speed measurement in form of the probability density function (PDF). In the proposed model, the main factors contributing to the uncertainties of the measurement are considered. Furthermore, a guideline is introduced in order to design a video-based speed measurement system based on the traffic and other requirements. As a proof of concept, the model has been simulated and tested for various speeds. An evaluation validates the strength of the model for accurate speed measurement under realistic circumstances.

  • 19.
    Javadi, Mohammad Saleh
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Rameez, Muhammad
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vehicle classification based on multiple fuzzy c-means clustering using dimensions and speed features2018Inngår i: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 126, s. 7s. 1344-1350Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle classification has a significant use in traffic surveillance and management. There are many methods proposed to accomplish this task using variety of sensorS. In this paper, a method based on fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering is introduced that uses dimensions and speed features of each vehicle. This method exploits the distinction in dimensions features and traffic regulations for each class of vehicles by using multiple FCM clusterings and initializing the partition matrices of the respective classifierS. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is successful in clustering vehicles from different classes with similar appearanceS. In addition, it is fast and efficient for big data analysiS.

  • 20.
    Ludwig Barbosa, Vinícius
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, SwWE.
    Carlström, Anders
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    GNSS Radio Occultation Simulation Using MultiplePhase Screen Orbit Sampling2019Inngår i: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, ISSN 1545-598X, E-ISSN 1558-0571Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave optics propagators (WOPs) are commonlyused to describe the propagation of radio signals through earth’satmosphere. In radio occultation (RO) context, multiple phasescreen (MPS) method has been used to model the effects of theatmosphere in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signalsduring an occultation event. WOP implementation includes,in addition to MPS, a diffraction integral as the final step tocalculate the radio signal measured in the low-earth orbit (LEO)satellite. This approach considers vacuum as the propagationmedium at high altitudes, which is not always the case when theionosphere is taken into account in simulations. An alternativeapproach is using MPS all the way to LEO in order to samplethe GNSS signal in orbit. This approach, named MPS orbitsampling (MPS-OS), is evaluated in this letter. Different scenariosof setting occultation assuming a short segment of the LEO orbithave been simulated using MPS and MPS-OS. Results have beencompared to Abel transform references. Furthermore, a longsegment scenario has been evaluated as well. A comparison ofbending angle (BA) and residual ionospheric error (RIE) showsthe equivalence between MPS and MPS-OS results. The mainapplication of MPS-OS should be in occultation events with longsegments of orbit and including ionosphere, in which a standardWOP may not be appropriate.

  • 21.
    Ludwig Barbosa, Vinícius
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Sievert, Thomas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, SWE.
    Carlström, Anders
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Evaluation of Ionospheric Scintillation in GNSS Radio Occultation Measurements and Simulations2019Inngår i: Radio Science, ISSN 0048-6604, E-ISSN 1944-799XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Like any other system relying on trans-ionospheric propagation, GNSS Radio Occultation (GNSS-RO) is affected by ionospheric conditions during measurements. Regions of plasma irregularities in F-region create abrupt gradients in the distribution of ionized particles. Radio signals propagated through such regions suffer from constructive and destructive contributions in phase and amplitude, known as scintillations. Different approaches have been proposed in order to model and reproduce the wave propagation through ionospheric irregularities. We present simulations considering an one-component inverse power-law model of irregularities integrated with Multiple Phase Screen (MPS) propagation. In this work, the capability of the scintillation model to reproduce features in the signal amplitude of low latitude MetOp measurements in the early hours of DOY 76, 2015 (St. Patrick’s Day geomagnetic storm) is evaluated. Power spectral density (PSD) analysis, scintillation index, decorrelation time and standard deviation of neutral bending angle are considered in the comparison between the simulations and RO measurements. The results validate the capability of the simulator to replicate an equivalent total integrated phase variance in cases of moderate to strong scintillation.

  • 22.
    Machado, Renato
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats I.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dammert, Patrik
    Hellsten, Hans
    EMPIRICAL-STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF AMPLITUDE SAR IMAGES FOR CHANGE DETECTION ALGORITHMS2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING SYMPOSIUM (IGARSS), 2015, s. 365-368Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of pre-filtered clutter VHF SAR images. The image data are reorganized into sub-vectors based on the observation of the image-pair magnitude samples. Based on this approach, we present a statistical description of the SAR clutter obtained by the subtraction between two real SAR images. The statistical analysis based on bivariate distribution data organized into different intervals of magnitude can be an important tool to further understand the properties of the backscattered signal, which can be a valuable premise for change detection processing.

  • 23.
    Molin, R.D.
    et al.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Fabrin, A.C.F.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Sperotto, P.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Alves, D.I.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Bayer, F.M.
    Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil.
    Machado, Renato
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dammert, P.
    Saab AB, SWE.
    Hellsten, H.
    Saab AB, SWE.
    Ulander, L
    Totalförsvarets Forskningsinstitut, SWE.
    Iterative Change Detection Algorithm for Low-Frequency UWB SAR2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Natanael, Rodrigues Gomes
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Viet Thuy, Vu
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Mats, Pettersson
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Patrik, Dammert
    SAAB EDS, SWE.
    Hans, Hellsten
    SAAB EDS, SWE.
    Likelihood ratio test for incoherent wavelength-resolution SAR change detection2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25. Nilsson, Kristian
    et al.
    Zackrisson, Johan
    Pettersson, Mats
    Remote Access of Computer Controlled Experiments2008Inngår i: International Journal of Online Engineering, ISSN 1868-1646, E-ISSN 1861-2121, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 52-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a way for students to access and operate laboratory equipment, controlled by a laboratory computer via a remote access program. In this way, the solution is not dependent on the specific laboratory equipment, as long as the equipment can be remotely controlled. The system can easily be altered to be used in another laboratory setup. Students are able to make reservations of experiment sessions through a web interface, which is administrated by the system administrator. The solution proposed in this paper is one way to speed up the development of remote accessible laboratories. Most of the proposed solution is based on open source software and the hardware is built on ordinary consumer parts, which makes the proposed remote laboratory architecture cost effective.

  • 26. Nilsson, Kristian
    et al.
    Zackrisson, Johan
    Pettersson, Mats
    Remote Access of Computer Controlled Experiments2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a way for students to access and operate laboratory equipment, controlled by a laboratory computer via a remote access program. In this way, the solution is not dependent on the specific laboratory equipment, as long as the equipment can be remotely controlled. The system can easily be altered to be used in another laboratory setup. Students are able to make reservations of experiment sessions through a web interface, which is administrated by the system administrator. The solution proposed in this paper is one way to speed up the development of remote accessible laboratories. Most of the proposed solution is based on open source software and the hardware is built on ordinary consumer parts, which makes the proposed remote laboratory architecture cost effective.

  • 27. Oloumi, Daniel
    et al.
    Mousavi, Pedram
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Elliott, Duncan
    A Modified TEM Horn Antenna Customized for Oil Well Monitoring Applications2013Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X , Vol. 616, nr 12, s. 5902-5909Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A TEM horn antenna with modified radiation pattern customized for oil well monitoring application is presented in this paper. The antenna is designed to operate in an oil saturated medium in the frequency range between 1.4 to 11 GHz. A complete design procedure for the proposed TEM horn antenna with a method to modify the radiation pattern is introduced here. The modification is conducted using non-uniform expansion of the antenna flares. Applying this technique eliminates ripples in the antenna’s main-lobe radiation pattern at higher frequencies, a problem which exists for conventional TEM horn antennas. The design coefficients which control the flare openings are optimized using CST Microwave Studio to achieve smooth main-beam radiation patterns while maintaining return loss more than 10dB. Simulations are performed both in oil and free space. Free space simulations are done to provide a valid reference for antenna radiation pattern measurement as radiation pattern cannot be measured in oil. Simulation results are followed by the measurement results with a very good agreement. The fabricated dimensions of the antenna including balun section are limited to 89.2×49.2×78.2 mm. The designed antenna is utilized as a part of an ultra-wideband radar system for oil well monitoring.

  • 28. Oloumi, Daniel
    et al.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Elliott, Duncon
    Mousavi, Pedram
    A TEM Horn Antenna with Non-uniform Expansion for Oil Well Monitoring2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A TEM horn antenna with non-uniform expansion to modify the radiation characteristics, operating from 1.4 to 11 GHz in oil medium is introduced. Main lobe radiation pattern ripple at higher frequencies which are the problem of conventional TEM horn antenna is suppressed. The expansions coefficient is tuned using CST Microwave Studio to achieve good return loss (less than 10dB) and radiation pattern. The horn is utilized as a part of an ultra-wideband radar system to monitor oil well with no metal casing.

  • 29. Oloumi, Daniel
    et al.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Mousavi, P.
    Rambabu, K.
    Imaging of oil-well perforations using UWB synthetic aperture radar2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, ISSN 0196-2892, E-ISSN 1558-0644, Vol. 53, nr 8, s. 4510-4520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultrawideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a tool for oil well perforation monitoring is experimentally investigated in this paper. Experiments are conducted on a lab prototype that emulates the small section of an oil well. Oil well perforations are scanned using the designed UWB radar system for different experimental conditions. High-resolution images in both down-range and cross-range are obtained by using UWB pulses and signal processing. High-quality images are constructed using SAR processing algorithm with the proposed modifications. Experiments are carried out for different perforation conditions such as open, partially clogged and fully clogged cases. It is shown by the experiments that the proposed radar technique and the data processing methods are capable of providing more revealing high-quality images. This approach can be applied effectively to monitor the oil well medium and detect well impairment locations.

  • 30.
    Palm, Bruna
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Alves, Dimas
    Universidade Federal do Pampa, BRA.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Bayer, Fabio
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, BRA.
    Cintra, Renato
    Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, BRA.
    MacHado, Renato
    Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, BRA.
    Dammert, Patrik
    Saab Electronic Defense Systems, SWE.
    Hellsten, Hans
    Saab Electronic Defense Systems, SWE.
    Autoregressive model for multi-pass SAR change detection based on image stacks2018Inngår i: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering / [ed] Bovolo F.,Bruzzone L., SPIE , 2018, Vol. 10789, artikkel-id 1078916Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Change detection is an important synthetic aperture radar (SAR) application, usually used to detect changes on the ground scene measurements in different moments in time. Traditionally, change detection algorithm (CDA) is mainly designed for two synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images retrieved at different instants. However, more images can be used to improve the algorithms performance, witch emerges as a research topic on SAR change detection. Image stack information can be treated as a data series over time and can be modeled by autoregressive (AR) models. Thus, we present some initial findings on SAR change detection based on image stack considering AR models. Applying AR model for each pixel position in the image stack, we obtained an estimated image of the ground scene which can be used as a reference image for CDA. The experimental results reveal that ground scene estimates by the AR models is accurate and can be used for change detection applications. © 2018 SPIE.

  • 31.
    Palm, Bruna
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Bayer, Fabio
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, BRA.
    Cintra, Renato
    Universidade Federal de Per nambuco, BRA.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Machado, Renato
    Aeronautics Institute of Technology (ITA), BRA.
    Rayleigh Regression Model for Ground Type Detection in SAR Imagery2019Inngår i: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, ISSN 1545-598X, E-ISSN 1558-0571, Vol. 16, nr 10, s. 1660-1664Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter proposes a regression model for nonnegative signals. The proposed regression estimates the mean of Rayleigh distributed signals by a structure which includes a set of regressors and a link function. For the proposed model, we present: 1) parameter estimation; 2) large data record results; and 3) a detection technique. In this letter, we present closed-form expressions for the score vector and Fisher information matrix. The proposed model is submitted to extensive Monte Carlo simulations and to the measured data. The Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the performance of maximum likelihood estimators. Also, an application is performed comparing the detection results of the proposed model with Gaussian-, Gamma-, and Weibull-based regression models in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images.

  • 32. Pettersson, Mats
    Detection of Moving Targets in Wideband SAR2004Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, ISSN 0018-9251, E-ISSN 1557-9603, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 780-796Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A likelihood ratio is proposed for moving target detection in a wideband (WB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system. WB is defined here as any systems having a large fractional bandwidth, i.e., an ultra wide frequency band combined with a wide antenna beam. The developed method combines time-domain fast backprojection SAR processing methods with moving target detection using space-time processing. The proposed method reduces computational load when sets of relative speeds can be tested using the same clutter-suppressed subaperture beams. The proposed method is tested on narrowband radar data.

  • 33. Pettersson, Mats
    Four-Dimensional Discretization for Detection of Moving Objects in Wide Band SAR2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses four-dimensional Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) using a multi-channel Wide Band (WB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system. With no acceleration attached to the target the motion of the target is related to two ground and two speed coordinates. However, four other dimensions are used in WB SAR GMTI processing during the detection phase: azimuth, range, bearing, and the relative speed between the object and the SAR platform. In the detection phase, blind hypotheses are used, and the discretization steps between the hypotheses are a trade-off between the number of hypotheses tested and detectability. As the integration angle increases, the step size in the image dimensions and in the relative speed has to be reduced. In this paper we determine the discretization step in all four dimensions for moving target detection, and relate it to radar system parameters. The discretization is derived from the moving target impulse response, assuming independency between the dimensions. In the paper the number of hypotheses per square meter is given for an airborne low frequency and a microwave GMTI WB SAR system.

  • 34. Pettersson, Mats
    Lower Bounds of Moving Target Estimation in Low Frequency SAR2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower bound of moving target estimation, in a multi-antenna channel Ultra Wide Band (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system is studied in this work. The main focus is to derive lower bound for systems having a very long integration time associated with position and velocity estimation, which is often connected to low frequency systems. Assuming a flat Earth model we consider the lower bound of the speed components in range and in the cross range direction. The estimation in cross range direction is associated with a considerable integration angle, and therefore the lower bound is determined in connection to a SAR process. It is found that the relative speed influences the covariance matrix of the clutter and therefore also the speed estimate. The influence increases the estimation performance of the relative speed and therefore also the performance of the cross range speed estimation.

  • 35. Pettersson, Mats
    Optimum relative speed discretisation for detection of moving objects in wide band SAR2007Inngår i: IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation, ISSN 1751-8784 , Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 213-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, Ground moving target indication (GMTI) using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is considered. SAR GMTI requires that relative speed between the target and the SAR platform is included in the detection algorithm. A separation between the true relative speed and the relative speed used in the SAR process will cause unfocused targets, and decrease detectability. Blind hypotheses of relative speeds are used in the detection phase of moving targets in SAR. The step size between the hypotheses (or discretisation step) in relative speed involves a trade off between the number of hypotheses to test and detectability. A large number of tests will increase detectability but will also increase computation load and vice versa. The relevance of relative speed increases as the azimuth integration time gets larger. Long integration time is associated with low signature moving target detection in strong clutter environments, or for SAR GMTI at low frequencies. The optimum discretisation of normalised relative speed for moving target detection has been determined. The optimum discretisation is derived from the moving target impulse response. Use of optimum discretisation reduces the computation burden in SAR GMTI and secures the detectability.

  • 36. Pettersson, Mats
    Relative Speed Step Size in SAR processing for Moving Target Detection2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is studied in this paper. For systems using long integration time Relative Speed between the target and the SAR platform has to be included in the detection algorithm. A separation between the true Relative Speed and the Relative Speed used in the SAR process will cause unfocused targets. Unfocused targets decrease the detectability. In the detection phase of SAR moving targets blind hypothesis on relative are used. The step size between the hypotheses or the quantization step in Relative Speed is a trade off between the number of hypotheses to test and detectability. A large number of tests will increase detectability but will also increase computation load and vice versa. The importance of relative speed increases as the azimuth integration time gets larger. Long integration time is associated with low signature moving targets detection in strong clutter environment and especially for SAR GMTI at low frequencies. In this paper we determine the optimum quantization of relative speed for moving target detection. The optimum quantization is derived from the moving target impulse response. By using the optimum quantization the computation burden in SAR GMTI is reduced and the detectability secured.

  • 37.
    Pettersson, Mats
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Javadi, Mohammad Saleh
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Future Satellite and Drone Monitoring of the Baltic‐Adriatic Corridor,Harbors, and Motorways of the Sea2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Pettersson, Mats
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Sjögren, Thomas K.
    Vu, Viet T.
    Performance of Moving Target Parameter Estimation Using SAR2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, ISSN 0018-9251, E-ISSN 1557-9603, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 1191-1202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) gives not only the opportunity to image targets with high resolution but also to measure their position and velocity. Without acceleration (constant speed), the position and velocity both in range and azimuth can be estimated using a multichannel SAR system. This paper introduces a method to find the lower bound on variance of estimate of position and velocity for targets. The method is based on the assumptions needed for the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The method works for both narrowband (NB) and ultrawideband (UWB) SAR systems. For demonstration, a monostatic single-channel UWB SAR system operating at low frequency is used. Thus, only lower bounds for estimate variance of azimuth, range, and relative speed are derived.

  • 39.
    Pettersson, Mats
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Sjögren, Thomas
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Vu, Viet
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    An Evaluation on Moving Target Parameter Estimation using Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One important application of Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) is positioning of targets with high accuracy in both azimuth and range. If the target is moving and a multi-channel SAR system is used also the speed components in azimuth and range can be found with a high accuracy. In this paper we propose a method to estimate the accuracy of such a multichannel SAR system. The method is based on the Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB). To exemplify the method the variance of parameter estimates by a single channel UHF UWB SAR system is found.

  • 40.
    Pettersson, Mats
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Gomes, Natanael Rodrigues
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, BRA.
    Dammert, Patrik
    Saab Electronic Defense Systems, SWE.
    Hellsten, Hans
    Saab Electronic Defense Systems, SWE.
    Incoherent detection of man-made objects obscured by foliage in forest area2017Inngår i: International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 1892-1895Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper introduces a new likelihood ratio test (LRT) for incoherent detection of man-made objects obscured by foliage in forest area. The test is performed to detect changes between a reference image and a surveillance image. The method is developed for change detection in high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). For simplicity and lack of more appropriate models, the new LRT is still based on simple and efficient models. If there is no man-made object, the statistical model for clutter and noise of two images will be a bivariate Rayleigh distribution. In contrary, a joint distribution of Rayleigh and uniform is used to model for target, clutter, and noise. The proposed LRT is evaluated using radar data acquired by CARABAS in northern Sweden. The probability of detection is up to 96% with much less than one false alarm per square kilometer. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 41. Pettersson, Mats
    et al.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Sjögren, Thomas
    Gustavsson, Anders
    Multi-Dimensional Hypotheses Test of Movement Detection in Wide Band Radar Systems Associated with Long Integration Time2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses multi-dimensional Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI) using a multi-channel Wide Band (WB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system. For limited time intervals the target acceleration is so small that target motion can be related to two ground and two speed coordinates. However, four other dimensions are used in WB SAR GMTI processing during the detection phase: azimuth, range, bearing, and the relative speed between the object and the SAR platform. In the detection phase, blind hypotheses are used, and the discretization steps between the hypotheses are a trade-off between the number of hypotheses tested and detectability. As the integration angle increases, the bandwidth increases and the therefore the number of tests increases. In this paper we discuss the discretization step in all four dimensions for moving target detection, and analyze the step size in particular in the most critical domain, the relative speed. The analysis is made on CARABAS II data.

  • 42. Pettersson, Mats
    et al.
    Zetterberg, Viktoria
    Claesson, Ingvar
    Detection and imaging of moving targets in wide band SAS using fast time backprojection combined with space time processing2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper present a method to combine SAS (Synthetic Aperture Sonar) imaging of stationary targets with moving target detection and imaging. The proposed method uses a likelihood ratio for moving target detection in a wide band (WB) SAS system. For this paper, WB is defined as any systems having a large fractional bandwidth, i.e. an ultra wide frequency band combined with a wide antenna beam. The developed method combines time domain fast backprojection SAS processing methods with moving target detection using space-time processing. In the paper defocusing and detection of moving targets are investigated. Both the trajectory and the location of the moving target is given by mathematical expressions.

  • 43.
    Rameez, Muhammad
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dahl, Mattias
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Adaptive digital beamforming for interference suppression in automotive FMCW radars2018Inngår i: 2018 IEEE Radar Conference, (RadarConf 2018), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 252-256Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of mutual interference between automotive radars. This problem is getting more attention with an increase in the number of radar systems used in traffic. An adaptive digital beamforming technique is presented here which suppresses the interference without the exact knowledge of the interfering signal's Direction of Arrival (DoA). The proposed technique is robust and does not rely on any calibration for the interference cancellation. The adaptive interference suppression method is evaluated using a simulated scenario. Up to about 20-23 dB improvement in the target Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (SINR) is measured in the simulation and a better detection performance is achieved using the proposed interference suppression technique. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 44.
    Renato, Machado
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Dammert, Patrik
    Saab Electronic Defense Systems, SWE.
    Hellsten, Hans
    Saab Electronic Defense Systems, SWE.
    The stability of UWB low-frequency SAR images2016Inngår i: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, ISSN 1545-598X, E-ISSN 1558-0571, Vol. 13, nr 8, s. 1114-1118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter presents an analysis of prefiltered clutter ultrawideband (UWB) very high frequency synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The image data are reorganized into subvectors based on the observation of the image-pair magnitude samples. Based on this approach, we present a statistical description of the SAR clutter obtained by the subtraction between two real SAR images. The statistical analysis based on bivariate distribution data organized into different intervals of magnitude can be an important tool to further understand the properties of the backscattered signal for low-frequency SAR images. In this letter, it is found that, for “good” image pairs, the subtracted image has Gaussian distributed clutter backscattering and that the noise mainly consists of the thermal noise and, therefore, speckle noise does not have to be considered. This is a consequence of the stable backscattering for a UWB low-frequency SAR system.

  • 45.
    Sievert, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, SWE.
    Anders, Carlström
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Determining the refractivity at the bottom of the atmosphere using radio occultation2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), IEEE, 2017, s. 4433-4436Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High accuracy of impact height is important to get reliableRadio Occultation (RO) measurements of the atmosphere refractivity.We have made an investigation on how accuratelywe can measure the impact height at ground level using waveoptics simulations, realistic refractivity profiles, a realisticsimulator for an advanced RO instrument including noise,and using phase matching for the inversion. The idea of theinvestigation is to increase the measurement accuracy of impactheight at low altitudes and to give reliable measurementseven in cases of super-refractive layers. We present statisticson the accuracy and precision of the determination of theimpact height at ground, as well as the resulting accuracy andprecision in the measured refractivity.

  • 46.
    Sievert, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, Gothenburg, SWE.
    Carlström, Anders
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Analysis of reflections in GNSS radio occultation measurements using the phase matching amplitude2018Inngår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, ISSN 1867-1381, E-ISSN 1867-8548, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 569-580Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-known that in the presence of super-refractive layers in the lower-tropospheric inversion of GNSSradio occultation (RO) measurements using the Abel trans-form yields biased refractivity profiles. As such it is problem-atic to reconstruct the true refractivity from the RO signal.Additional information about this lower region of the atmo-sphere might be embedded in reflected parts of the signal. Toretrieve the bending angle, the phase matching operator canbe used. This operator produces a complex function of theimpact parameter, and from its phase we can calculate thebending angle. Instead of looking at the phase, in this paperwe focus on the function’s amplitude. The results in this pa-per show that the signatures of surface reflections in GNSSRO measurements can be significantly enhanced when usingthe phase matching method by processing only an appropri-ately selected segment of the received signal. This signatureenhancement is demonstrated by simulations and confirmedwith 10 hand-picked MetOp-A occultations with reflectedcomponents. To validate that these events show signs of re-flections, radio holographic images are generated. Our resultssuggest that the phase matching amplitude carries informa-tion that can improve the interpretation of radio occultationmeasurements in the lower troposphere.

  • 47.
    Sievert, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Rasch, Joel
    Molflow, SWE.
    Carlström, Anders
    RUAG Space AB, SWE.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Fakulteten för teknikvetenskaper, Institutionen för matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Comparing reflection signatures in radio occultation measurements using the full spectrum inversion and phase matching methods2018Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS VOLUME 10786; Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere XXIII / [ed] Comeron A.,Kassianov E.,Picard R.H.,Schafer K.,Weber K., SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018, artikkel-id 107860AKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Global Navigation Satellite System Radio Occultation (GNSS-RO) is an important technique used to sound the Earth's atmosphere and provide data products to numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems as well as toclimate research. It provides a high vertical resolution and SI-traceability that are both valuable complements toother Earth observation systems. In addition to direct components refracted in the atmosphere, many received RO signals contain reflected components thanks to the specular and relatively smooth characteristics of the ocean. These reflected components can interfere the retrieval of the direct part of the signal, and can also contain meteorological information of their own, e.g., information about the refractivity at the Earth's surface. While the conventional method to detect such reflections is by using radio-holographic methods, it has been shown that it is possible to see reflections using wave optics inversion, specically while inspecting the amplitude of the output of phase matching (PM). The primary objective of this paper is to analyze the appearance of these reflections in the amplitude output from another wave optics algorithm, namely the much faster full spectrum inversion (FSI). PM and FSI are closely related algorithms - they both use the method of stationary phase to derive the bending angle from a measured signal. We apply our own implementation of FSI to the same GNSS-RO measurements that PM was previously applied to and show that the amplitudes of the outputs again indicate reflection in the surface of the ocean. Our results show that the amplitudes output from the FSI and PM algorithms are practically identical and that the reflection signatures thus appear equally well.

  • 48.
    Sjögren, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Vu, Viet
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Wang, Feng
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Murdin, Daniel
    Gustavsson, Anders
    Ulander, Lars
    Forest Clutter Suppression for Moving Target Detection in UHF Dual Channel SAR2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Sjögren, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Vu, Viet
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Pettersson, Mats
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Wang, Feng
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Sektionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för elektroteknik.
    Murdin, Daniel
    Gustavsson, Anders
    Ulander, Lars
    Suppression of Clutter in Multichannel SAR GMTI2014Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, ISSN 0196-2892, E-ISSN 1558-0644, Vol. 52, nr 7, s. 4005-4013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, results of moving target detection in multichannel UHF-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are shown. The clutter suppression is done using Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filtering of multichannel SAR in combination with a 2-stage Fast Backprojection (FBP) algorithm to focus the moving target using relative speed. The FIR filter coefficients are chosen with the use of STAP filtering. Two parameters are used for target focusing, target speed in range and in azimuth. When the target is focused, both speed parameters of the target are found. In the experimental results, two channels were used in order to suppress clutter. In the resulting SAR images it is obvious that very strong scatterers and the forest areas have been suppressed in comparison to the moving target in the image scene. The gain obtained can be measured using SCNR gain, which is about 19dB. Another way to measure signal processing gain is the ability to suppress the strongest reflecting object in the SAR scene. The gain of target in relation to this object is 25dB. This shows that using UHF-band SAR GMTI for suppressing forest and increasing the target signal can work.

  • 50. Sjögren, Thomas
    et al.
    Vu, Viet Thuy
    Pettersson, Mats
    2D apodization in UWB SAR using linear filtering2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an investigation is made on how sidelobes can be suppressed in ultrawideband-ultrawidebeam (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) using apodization. Due to the special properties of UWB SAR such as very wide integration angle and very large relative bandwidth, the support for the spectrum of a SAR image differs distinctively from a rectangle, which is the normal approximation in narrowband-narrowbeam (NB) SAR. The proposal in the paper is to apply non-separable windows to the spectrum, in order to suppress sidelobes. Non-separable windows are shown to give less broadening of mainlobe while maintaining the same suppression of sidelobes in comparison to separable windows. In the comparison, parameters for three different SAR systems are used.

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