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  • 1.
    Abdeen, Waleed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chirtoglou, Alexandros
    HOCHTIEF ViCon GmbH, DEU.
    Paul Schimanski, Christoph
    HOCHTIEF ViCon GmbH, DEU.
    Goli, Heja
    HOCHTIEF ViCon GmbH, DEU.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Taxonomic Trace Links - Rethinking Traceability and its BenefitsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traceability is an important quality of artifacts that are used in knowledge-intensive tasks. When projectbudgets and time pressure are a reality, this leads often to a down-prioritization of creating trace links. Objective:We propose a new idea that uses knowledge organization structures, such as taxonomies, ontologies and thesauri, asan auxiliary artifact to establish trace links. In order to investigate the novelty and feasibility of this idea, we studytraceability in the area of requirements engineering. Method: First, we conduct a literature survey to investigate towhat extent and how auxiliary artifacts have been used in the past for requirements traceability. Then, we conduct avalidation study in industry, testing the idea of taxonomic trace links with realistic artifacts. Results: We have reviewed126 studies that investigate requirements traceability; ninetey-one of them use auxiliary artifacts in the traceabilityprocess. In the validation study, while we have encountered six challenges when classifying requirements with a domain-specific taxonomy, we found that designers and engineers are able to classify design objects comprehensively and reliably.Conclusions: The idea of taxonomic trace links is novel and feasible in practice. However, the identified challenges needto be addressed to allow for an adoption in practice and enable a transfer to software intensive contexts.

  • 2.
    Abdeen, Waleed
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Chirtoglou, Alexandros
    HOCHTIEF ViCon GmbH, Essen, DEU.
    Challenges of Requirements Communication and Digital Assets Verification in Infrastructure ProjectsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: In infrastructure projects with design-build contracts, the supplier delivers digital assets (e.g., 2D or 3Dmodels) as a part of the design deliverable. These digital assets should align with the customer requirements. Poorrequirements communication between the customer and the supplier is one of the reasons for project overrun. To thebest of our knowledge, no study have yet investigated challenges in requirements communication in the customer-supplierinterface.Objective: In this article, we investigated the processes of requirements validation, requirements communication, anddigital assets verification, and explored the challenges associated with these processes.Methods: We conducted two exploratory case studies. We interviewed ten experts working with digital assets fromthree companies working on two infrastructure projects (road and railway).Results: We illustrate the activities, stakeholders, and artifacts involved in requirements communication, requirementsvalidation, and digital asset verification. Furthermore, we identified 14 challenges (in four clusters: requirements quality,trace links, common requirements engineering (RE), and project management) and their causes and consequences inthose processes.Conclusion: Communication between the client and supplier in sub-contracted work in infrastructure projects is oftenindirect. This puts pressure on the quality of the tender documents (mainly requirements documents) that provides themeans for communication and controls the design verification processes. Hence, it is crucial to ensure the quality of therequirements documents by implementing quality assurance techniques

  • 3.
    Asklund, Ulf
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Höst, Martin
    Lund University, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Experiences from Monitoring Effect of Architectural Changes2016In: Software Quality.: The Future of Systems- and Software Development / [ed] Winkler, Dietmar, Biffl, Stefan, Bergsmann, Johannes, 2016, p. 97-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common situation is that an initial architecture has been sufficient in the initial phases of a project, but when the size and complexity of the product increases the architecture must be changed. In this paper experiences are presented from changing an architecture into independent units, providing basic reuse of main functionality although giving higher priority to independence than reuse. An objective was also to introduce metrics in order to monitor the architectural changes. The change was studied in a case-study through weekly meetings with the team, collected metrics, and questionnaires. The new architecture was well received by the development team, who found it to be less fragile. Concerning the metrics for monitoring it was concluded that a high abstraction level was useful for the purpose.

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  • 4.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, SWE.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalens högskola, SWE.
    A decision-making process-line for selection of software asset origins and components2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 88-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting sourcing options for software assets and components is an important process that helps companies to gain and keep their competitive advantage. The sourcing options include: in-house, COTS, open source and outsourcing. The objective of this paper is to further refine, extend and validate a solution presented in our previous work. The refinement includes a set of decision-making activities, which are described in the form of a process-line that can be used by decision-makers to build their specific decision-making process. We conducted five case studies in three companies to validate the coverage of the set of decision-making activities. The solution in our previous work was validated in two cases in the first two companies. In the validation, it was observed that no activity in the proposed set was perceived to be missing, although not all activities were conducted and the activities that were conducted were not executed in a specific order. Therefore, the refinement of the solution into a process-line approach increases the flexibility and hence it is better in capturing the differences in the decision-making processes observed in the case studies. The applicability of the process-line was then validated in three case studies in a third company. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

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  • 5. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Lund university, SWE.
    Regnell, Björn
    A case study on benefits and side-effects of agile practices in large-scale requirements engineering2011In: proceedings of the 1st workshop on agile requirements engineering, 2011, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 6. Bjarnason, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Lund university, SWE.
    Regnell, Björn
    Overscoping: Reasons and consequencesï¿œA case study on decision making in software product management2010In: 2010 Fourth International Workshop on Software Product Management, 2010, p. 30-39Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE, Sweden.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Örebro University.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • 8.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    iZettle, SWE.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SWE.
    Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components. Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking. © 2019

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  • 9.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Luis de la Vara, Jose
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, ESP.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Practitioners' Perspectives on Change Impact Analysis for Safety-Critical Software: A Preliminary Analysis2016In: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, SAFECOMP 2016, 2016, p. 346-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety standards prescribe change impact analysis (CIA) during evolution of safety-critical software systems. Although CIA is a fundamental activity, there is a lack of empirical studies about how it is performed in practice. We present a case study on CIA in the context of an evolving automation system, based on 14 interviews in Sweden and India. Our analysis suggests that engineers on average spend 50-100 h on CIA per year, but the effort varies considerably with the phases of projects. Also, the respondents presented different connotations to CIA and perceived the importance of CIA differently. We report the most pressing CIA challenges, and several ideas on how to support future CIA. However, we show that measuring the effect of such improvement solutions is non-trivial, as CIA is intertwined with other development activities. While this paper only reports preliminary results, our work contributes empirical insights into practical CIA.

  • 10. Borg, Markus
    et al.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Lund university, SWE.
    Pfahl, Dietmar
    Industrial comparability of student artifacts in traceability recovery research-an exploratory survey2012In: 2012 16th European Conference on Software Maintenance and Reengineering, 2012, p. 181-190Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 11.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lund University, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, SWE.
    Supporting Change Impact Analysis Using a Recommendation System: An Industrial Case Study in a Safety-Critical Context2017In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 675-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract—Change Impact Analysis (CIA) during software evolution of safety-critical systems is a labor-intensive task. Severalauthors have proposed tool support for CIA, but very few tools were evaluated in industry. We present a case study on ImpRec, arecommendation System for Software Engineering (RSSE), tailored for CIA at a process automation company. ImpRec builds onassisted tracing, using information retrieval solutions and mining software repositories to recommend development artifacts, potentiallyimpacted when resolving incoming issue reports. In contrast to the majority of tools for automated CIA, ImpRec explicitly targetsdevelopment artifacts that are not source code. We evaluate ImpRec in a two-phase study. First, we measure the correctness ofImpRec’s recommendations by a simulation based on 12 years’ worth of issue reports in the company. Second, we assess the utilityof working with ImpRec by deploying the RSSE in two development teams on different continents. The results suggest that ImpRecpresents about 40 percent of the true impact among the top-10 recommendations. Furthermore, user log analysis indicates thatImpRec can support CIA in industry, and developers acknowledge the value of ImpRec in interviews. In conclusion, our findings showthe potential of reusing traceability associated with developers’ past activities in an RSSE

  • 12.
    Callele, David
    et al.
    Experience First Design Inc., CAN.
    Dueck, Philip
    Experience First Design Inc., CAN.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Hynninen, Peitsa
    Aalto University Espoo, FIN.
    Experience requirements in video games definition and testability2015In: Requirements Engineering Conference (RE), 2015 IEEE 23rd International, IEEE, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A properly formed requirement is testable, a necessity for ensuring that design goals are met. While challenging in productivity applications, entertainment applications such as games compound the problem due to their subjective nature. We report here on our efforts to create testable experience requirements, the associated scope challenges and challenges with test design and result interpretation. We further report on issues experienced when performing focus group testing and provide practitioner guidance.

  • 13.
    Callele, David
    et al.
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    California State University Long Beach, USA.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Public policy challenges: An RE perspective2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Chitchyan R.,Venters C.C.,Penzenstadler B., CEUR-WS , 2018, p. 24-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this perspective paper, we investigate the parallels between public policy and IT projects from the perspective of traditional RE practice. Using the mainstream media as an information source (as would an average citizen), over a period of approximately one year we captured documents that presented analyses of public policy issues. The documents were categorized into eight topic areas, then analyzed to identify patterns that RE practitioners would recognize. We found evidence of policy failures that parallel project failures traceable to requirements engineering problems. Our analysis revealed evidence of bias across all stakeholder groups, similar to the rise of the “beliefs over facts” phenomenon often associated with “fake news”. We also found substantial evidence of unintended consequences due to inadequate problem scoping, terminology definition, domain knowledge, and stakeholder identification and engagement. Further, ideological motivations were found to affect constraint definitions resulting in solution spaces that may approach locally optimal but may not be globally optimal. Public policy addresses societal issues; our analysis supports our conclusion that RE techniques could be utilized to support policy creation and implementation. © 2018 SPIE. All rights reserved.

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  • 14.
    Callele, David
    et al.
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Process for Product and Service Definition2016In: 9th International Workshop on Software Product Management (IWSPM 2016), IEEE, 2016, p. 322-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short paper presents an iterative and incrementalprocess to improve the probability that the product or service definition leading to requirements and implementation is both representative of the market needs and has a reasonable expecta-tion of a financially viable business model. Rather than a relative-ly linear process wherein marketing delivers a product definition to the development team, this process ensures that all assump-tions are validated during the definition stage and that all team members are engaged. The process balances the need to address current challenges against future opportunities, providing short-term customer satisfaction (and justification for purchasing or adoption) and a coherent vision for future development efforts (and maintaining and growing the customer base). The process is applied to a case in the agriculture commodities sector.

  • 15. Callele, David
    et al.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Lund university, SWE.
    More than requirements: Applying requirements engineering techniques to the challenge of setting corporate intellectual policy, an experience report2011In: 2011 Fourth International Workshop on Requirements Engineering and Law, 2011, p. 35-42Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 16.
    Callele, David
    et al.
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Penzenstadler, Birgit
    California State University Long Beach, USA.
    New Frontiers for Requirements Engineering2017In: 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference, RE 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 184-193, article id 8048904Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering (RE) has grown from its humble beginnings to embrace a wide variety of techniques, drawn from many disciplines, and the diversity of tasks currently performed under the label of RE has grown beyond that encom-passed by software development. We briefly review how RE has evolved and observe that RE is now a collection of best practices for pragmatic, outcome-focused critical thinking-A pplicable to any domain. We discuss an alternative perspective on, and de-scription of, the discipline of RE and advocate for the evolution of RE toward a discipline that supports the application of RE prac-tice to any domain. We call upon RE practitioners to proactively engage in alternative domains and call upon researchers that adopt practices from other domains to actively engage with their inspiring domains. For both, we ask that they report upon their experience so that we can continue to expand RE frontiers. © 2017 IEEE.

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  • 17.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Component selection in Software Engineering: Which attributes are the most important in the decision process?2018In: EUROMICRO Conference Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2018, p. 198-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract— Component-based software engineering is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems where different component sourcing options are available: 1)Software developed internally (in-house), 2)Software developed outsourced, 3)Commercial of the shelf software, and 4) Open Source Software. However, there is little available research on what attributes of a component are the most important ones when selecting new components. The object of the present study is to investigate what matters the most to industry practitioners during component selection. We conducted a cross-domain anonymous survey with industry practitioners involved in component selection. First, the practitioners selected the most important attributes from a list. Next, they prioritized their selection using the Hundred-Dollar ($100) test. We analyzed the results using Compositional Data Analysis. The descriptive results showed that Cost was clearly considered the most important attribute during the component selection. Other important attributes for the practitioners were: Support of the component, Longevity prediction, and Level of off-the-shelf fit to product. Next an exploratory analysis was conducted based on the practitioners’ inherent characteristics. Nonparametric tests and biplots were used. It seems that smaller organizations and more immature products focus on different attributes than bigger organizations and mature products which focus more on Cost

  • 18.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, SWE.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Software Engn Res Lab SERL, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Borg, Markus
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, SWE.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Software Engn Res Lab SERL, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. Blekinge Inst Technol, Software Engn Res Lab SERL, Karlskrona, Sweden..
    Component attributes and their importance in decisions and component selection2020In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 567-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering is a common approach in the development and evolution of contemporary software systems. Different component sourcing options are available, such as: (1) Software developed internally (in-house), (2) Software developed outsourced, (3) Commercial off-the-shelf software, and (4) Open-Source Software. However, there is little available research on what attributes of a component are the most important ones when selecting new components. The objective of this study is to investigate what matters the most to industry practitioners when they decide to select a component. We conducted a cross-domain anonymous survey with industry practitioners involved in component selection. First, the practitioners selected the most important attributes from a list. Next, they prioritized their selection using the Hundred-Dollar ($100) test. We analyzed the results using compositional data analysis. The results of this exploratory analysis showed that cost was clearly considered to be the most important attribute for component selection. Other important attributes for the practitioners were: support of the component, longevity prediction, and level of off-the-shelf fit to product. Moreover, several practitioners still consider in-house software development to be the sole option when adding or replacing a component. On the other hand, there is a trend to complement it with other component sourcing options and, apart from cost, different attributes factor into their decision. Furthermore, in our analysis, nonparametric tests and biplots were used to further investigate the practitioners' inherent characteristics. It seems that smaller and larger organizations have different views on what attributes are the most important, and the most surprising finding is their contrasting views on the cost attribute: larger organizations with mature products are considerably more cost aware.

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    Component attributes and their importancein decisions and component selection
  • 19. Chuprina, Tatiana
    et al.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Towards Artefact-based Requirements Engineering for Data-Centric Systems2021In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings / [ed] Aydemir F.B.,Gralha C.,Daneva M.,Groen E.C.,Herrmann A.,Mennig P.,Abualhaija S.,Ferrari A.,Guo J.,Guizzardi R.,Horkoff J.,Perini A.,Susi A.,Breaux T.,Franch X.,Ernst N.,Paja E.,Seyff N., CEUR-WS , 2021, Vol. 2857Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many modern software-intensive systems employ artificial intelligence / machine-learning (AI/ML) components and are, thus, inherently data-centric. The behaviour of such systems depends on typically large amounts of data processed at run-Time rendering such non-deterministic systems as complex. This complexity growth affects our understanding on needs and practices in Requirements Engineering (RE). There is, however, still little guidance on how to handle requirements for such systems effectively: What are, for example, typical quality requirements classes What modelling concepts do we rely on or which levels of abstraction do we need to consider In fact, how to integrate such concepts into approaches for a more traditional RE still needs profound investigations. In this research preview paper, we report on ongoing efforts to establish an artefact-based RE approach for the development of datacentric systems (DCSs). To this end, we sketch a DCS development process with the newly proposed requirements categories and data-centric artefacts and briefly report on an ongoing investigation of current RE challenges in industry developing data-centric systems. © 2021 CEUR-WS. All rights reserved.

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  • 20.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    et al.
    Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Borg, Markus
    SICS Swedish Inst Comp Sci, Kista, Sweden..
    Sentilles, Severine
    Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Carlson, Jan
    Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    SICS Swedish Inst Comp Sci, Kista, Sweden..
    Towards Software Assets Origin Selection Supported by a Knowledge Repository2016In: PROCEEDINGS 2016 1ST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON DECISION MAKING IN SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 22-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architecture is no more a mere system specification as resulting from the design phase, but it includes the process by which its specification was carried out. In this respect, design decisions in component-based software engineering play an important role: they are used to enhance the quality of the system, keep the current market level, keep partnership relationships, reduce costs, and so forth. For non trivial systems, a recurring situation is the selection of an asset origin, that is if going for in-house, outsourcing, open-source, or COTS, when in the need of a certain missing functionality. Usually, the decision making process follows a case-by-case approach, in which historical information is largely neglected: hence, it is avoided the overhead of keeping detailed documentation about past decisions, but it is hampered consistency among multiple, possibly related, decisions. The ORION project aims at developing a decision support framework in which historical decision information plays a pivotal role: it is used to analyse current decision scenarios, take well-founded decisions, and store the collected data for future exploitation. In this paper, we outline the potentials of such a knowledge repository, including the information it is intended to be stored in it, and when and how to retrieve it within a decision case.

  • 21.
    de la Vara, Jose Luis
    et al.
    Carlos III University of Madrid, ESP.
    Borg, Markus
    SICS Swedish ICT AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moonen, Leon
    Certus Centre for S oftware V&V, NOR.
    An Industrial Survey of Safety Evidence Change Impact Analysis Practice2016In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 42, no 12, p. 1095-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In many application domains, critical systems must comply with safety standards. This involves gathering safety evidence in the form of artefacts such as safety analyses, system specifications, and testing results. These artefacts can evolve during a system's lifecycle, creating a need for change impact analysis to guarantee that system safety and compliance are not jeopardised. Objective. We aim to provide new insights into how safety evidence change impact analysis is addressed in practice. The knowledge about this activity is limited despite the extensive research that has been conducted on change impact analysis and on safety evidence management. Method. We conducted an industrial survey on the circumstances under which safety evidence change impact analysis is addressed, the tool support used, and the challenges faced. Results. We obtained 97 valid responses representing 16 application domains, 28 countries, and 47 safety standards. The respondents had most often performed safety evidence change impact analysis during system development, from system specifications, and fully manually. No commercial change impact analysis tool was reported as used for all artefact types and insufficient tool support was the most frequent challenge. Conclusion. The results suggest that the different artefact types used as safety evidence co-evolve. In addition, the evolution of safety cases should probably be better managed, the level of automation in safety evidence change impact analysis is low, and the state of the practice can benefit from over 20 improvement areas.

  • 22. De La Vara, Jose Luis
    et al.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Lund university, SWE.
    Berntsson-Svensson, Richard
    Sánchez, Juan
    Regnell, Björn
    An Empirical Study on the Importance of Quality Requirements in Industry.2011In: SEKE, 2011, p. 438-443Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 23.
    Dehghani, Razieh
    et al.
    Sharif University of Technology, IRN.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ramsin, Raman
    Sharif University of Technology, IRN.
    On Understanding the Relation of Knowledge and Confidence to Requirements Quality2021In: REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING: FOUNDATION FOR SOFTWARE QUALITY (REFSQ 2021) / [ed] Dalpiaz F., Spoletini P., Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, Vol. 12685, p. 208-224Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and Motivation] Software requirements are affected by the knowledge and confidence of software engineers. Analyzing the interrelated impact of these factors is difficult because of the challenges of assessing knowledge and confidence. [Question/Problem] This research aims to draw attention to the need for considering the interrelated effects of confidence and knowledge on requirements quality, which has not been addressed by previous publications. [Principal ideas/results] For this purpose, the following steps have been taken: 1) requirements quality was defined based on the instructions provided by the ISO29148:2011 standard, 2) we selected the symptoms of low qualified requirements based on ISO29148:2011, 3) we analyzed five Software Requirements Specification (SRS) documents to find these symptoms, 3) people who have prepared the documents were categorized in four classes to specify the more/less knowledge and confidence they have regarding the symptoms, and 4) finally, the relation of lack of enough knowledge and confidence to symptoms of low quality was investigated. The results revealed that the simultaneous deficiency of confidence and knowledge has more negative effects in comparison with a deficiency of knowledge or confidence. [Contribution] In brief, this study has achieved these results: 1) the realization that a combined lack of knowledge and confidence has a larger effect on requirements quality than only one of the two factors, 2) the relation between low qualified requirements and requirements engineers’ needs for knowledge and confidence, and 3) variety of requirements engineers’ needs for knowledge based on their abilities to make discriminative and consistent decisions. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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  • 24.
    Dorner, Michael
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Šmite, Darja
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Czerwonka, Jacek
    Microsoft Research, USA.
    Only Time Will Tell: Modelling Information Diffusion in Code Review with Time-Varying Hypergraphs2022In: ESEM '22: Proceedings of the 16th ACM / IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement / [ed] Madeiral F., Lassenius C., Lassenius C., Conte T., Mannisto T., Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, p. 195-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Modern code review is expected to facilitate knowledge sharing: All relevant information, the collective expertise, and meta-information around the code change and its context become evident, transparent, and explicit in the corresponding code review discussion. The discussion participants can leverage this information in the following code reviews; the information diffuses through the communication network that emerges from code review. Traditional time-aggregated graphs fall short in rendering information diffusion as those models ignore the temporal order of the information exchange: Information can only be passed on if it is available in the first place.

    Aim: This manuscript presents a novel model based on time-varying hypergraphs for rendering information diffusion that overcomes the inherent limitations of traditional, time-aggregated graph-based models. 

    Method: In an in-silico experiment, we simulate an information diffusion within the internal code review at Microsoft and show the empirical impact of time on a key characteristic of information diffusion: the number of reachable participants. 

    Results: Time-aggregation significantly overestimates the paths of information diffusion available in communication networks and, thus, is neither precise nor accurate for modelling and measuring the spread of information within communication networks that emerge from code review. 

    Conclusion: Our model overcomes the inherent limitations of traditional, static or time-aggregated, graph-based communication models and sheds the first light on information diffusion through code review. We believe that our model can serve as a foundation for understanding, measuring, managing, and improving knowledge sharing in code review in particular and information diffusion in software engineering in general.

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  • 25.
    Frattini, Julian
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Fischbach, Jannik
    Qualicen GmbH, GER.
    Mendez, Daniel
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Vogelsang, Andreas
    University of Cologne, GER.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Causality in requirements artifacts: prevalence, detection, and impact2023In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 49-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Causal relations in natural language (NL) requirements convey strong, semantic information. Automatically extracting such causal information enables multiple use cases, such as test case generation, but it also requires to reliably detect causal relations in the first place. Currently, this is still a cumbersome task as causality in NL requirements is still barely understood and, thus, barely detectable. In our empirically informed research, we aim at better understanding the notion of causality and supporting the automatic extraction of causal relations in NL requirements. In a first case study, we investigate 14.983 sentences from 53 requirements documents to understand the extent and form in which causality occurs. Second, we present and evaluate a tool-supported approach, called CiRA, for causality detection. We conclude with a second case study where we demonstrate the applicability of our tool and investigate the impact of causality on NL requirements. The first case study shows that causality constitutes around 28 % of all NL requirements sentences. We then demonstrate that our detection tool achieves a macro-F 1 score of 82 % on real-world data and that it outperforms related approaches with an average gain of 11.06 % in macro-Recall and 11.43 % in macro-Precision. Finally, our second case study corroborates the positive correlations of causality with features of NL requirements. The results strengthen our confidence in the eligibility of causal relations for downstream reuse, while our tool and publicly available data constitute a first step in the ongoing endeavors of utilizing causality in RE and beyond. © 2022, The Author(s).

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  • 26.
    Gorschek, Tony
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Third Generation Industrial Co-production in Software Engineering2020In: Contemporary Empirical Methods in Software Engineering / [ed] Michael Felderer, Guilherme Horta Travassos, Springer Nature, 2020, p. 503-525Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry–academia collaboration is one of the cornerstones of empirical software engineering. The role of researchers should be developing new practices and principles that enable industry in meeting the engineering challenges today and in the future. This chapter describes the third generation of industrial co-production in software engineering that includes seven steps. The co-production model and experiences associated with its use represent deep and long-term co-production with over thirty companies, many of which are still active partners in Software Engineering Research Lab (SERL).

  • 27.
    Klotins, Eriks
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Boeva, Veselka
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Unterkalmsteiner, Michael
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A collaborative method for identification and prioritization of data sources in MDREManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements engineering (RE) literature acknowledges the importance of stakeholder identification early in the software engineering activities. However, literature overlooks the challenge of identifying and selecting the right stakeholders and the potential of using other inanimate requirements sources for RE activities for market-driven products.

    Market-driven products are influenced by a large number of stakeholders. Consulting all stakeholders directly is impractical, and companies utilize indirect data sources, e.g. documents and representatives of larger groups of stakeholders. However, without a systematic approach, companies often use easy to access or hard to ignore data sources for RE activities. As a consequence, companies waste resources on collecting irrelevant data or develop the product based on the input from a few sources, thus missing market opportunities.

    We propose a collaborative and structured method to support analysts in the identification and selection of the most relevant data sources for market-driven product engineering. The method consists of four steps and aims to build consensus between different perspectives in an organization and facilitates the identification of most relevant data sources. We demonstrate the use of the method with two industrial case studies.

    Our results show that the method can support market-driven requirements engineering in two ways: (1) by providing systematic steps to identify and prioritize data sources for RE, and (2) by highlighting and resolving discrepancies between different perspectives in an organization.

  • 28.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    Lund universitet, SWE.
    Munir, Hussan
    Lund universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Mols, Carl Eric
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Motivating the contributions: An Open Innovation perspective on what to share as Open Source Software2018In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 135, p. 17-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) ecosystems have reshaped the ways how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to customers. However, firms still need support for strategic product planning in terms of what to develop internally and what to share as OSS. Existing models accurately capture commoditization in software business, but lack operational support to decide what contribution strategy to employ in terms of what and when to contribute. This study proposes a Contribution Acceptance Process (CAP) model from which firms can adopt contribution strategies that align with product strategies and planning. In a design science influenced case study executed at Sony Mobile, the CAP model was iteratively developed in close collaboration with the firm's practitioners. The CAP model helps classify artifacts according to business impact and control complexity so firms may estimate and plan whether an artifact should be contributed or not. Further, an information meta-model is proposed that helps operationalize the CAP model at the organization. The CAP model provides an operational OI perspective on what firms involved in OSS ecosystems should share, by helping them motivate contributions through the creation of contribution strategies. The goal is to help maximize return on investment and sustain needed influence in OSS ecosystems. © 2017

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  • 29.
    Linåker, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Requirements Analysis and Management for Benefiting Openness (RAMBO)2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 24th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 344-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements Engineering has recently been greatly influenced by the way how firms use Open Source Software (OSS) and Software Ecosystems (SECOs) as a part of their product development and business models. This is further emphasized by the paradigm of Open Innovation, which highlights how firms should strive to use both internal and external resources to advance their internal innovation and technology capabilities. The evolution from market-driven requirements engineering and management processes, has reshaped the understanding of what a requirement is, and how it is documented and used. In this work, we suggest a model for analyzing and managing requirements that is designed in the context of OSS and SECOs, including the advances and challenges that it brings. The model clarifies how the main stages of requirements engineering and management processes can be adjusted to benefit from the openness that the new context offers. We believe that the model is a first step towards the inevitable adaptation of requirements engineering to an open and informal arena, where processes and collaboration are decentralized, transparency and governance are the key success factors.

  • 30.
    Madeyski, Lech
    et al.
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, POL.
    Kitchenham, Barbara Ann
    Keele University, GBR.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Introduction to the special section on Enhancing Credibility of Empirical Software Engineering2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 99, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ali, Nauman bin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression testing goals: View of practitioners and researchers2017In: 24th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference Workshops (APSECW), IEEE, 2017, p. 25-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Regression testing is a well-researched area. However, the majority regression testing techniques proposed by the researchers are not getting the attention of the practitioners. Communication gaps between industry and academia and disparity in the regression testing goals are the main reasons. Close collaboration can help in bridging the communication gaps and resolving the disparities.Objective: The study aims at exploring the views of academics and practitioners about the goals of regression testing. The purpose is to investigate the commonalities and differences in their viewpoints and defining some common goals for the success of regression testing.Method: We conducted a focus group study, with 7 testing experts from industry and academia. 4 testing practitioners from 2companies and 3 researchers from 2 universities participated in the study. We followed GQM approach, to elicit the regression testing goals, information needs, and measures.Results: 43 regression testing goals were identified by the participants, which were reduced to 10 on the basis of similarity among the identified goals. Later during the priority assignment process, 5 goals were discarded, because the priority assigned to these goals was very low. Participants identified 47 information needs/questions required to evaluate the success of regression testing with reference to goal G5 (confidence). Which were then reduced to10 on the basis of similarity. Finally, we identified measures to gauge those information needs/questions, which were corresponding to the goal (G5).Conclusions: We observed that participation level of practitioners and researchers during the elicitation of goals and questions was same. We found a certain level of agreement between the participants regarding the regression testing definitions and goals.But there was some level of disagreement regarding the priorities of the goals. We also identified the need to implement a regression testing evaluation framework in the participating companies.

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  • 32.
    Minhas, Nasir Mehmood
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Regression testing for large-scale embedded software development: Exploring the state of practice2020In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 120, article id UNSP 106254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: A majority of the regression testing techniques proposed by the research have not been adopted in industry. To increase adoption rates, we need to better understand the practitioners' perspectives on regression testing.

    Objective: This study aims at exploring the regression testing state of practice in the large-scale embedded software development. The study has two objectives, 1) to highlight the potential challenges in practice, and 2) to identify the industry-relevant research areas regarding regression testing.

    Method: We conducted a qualitative study in two large-scale embedded software development companies, where we carried out semi-structured interviews with representatives from five software testing teams. We did conduct the detailed review of the process documentation of the companies to complement/validate the findings of the interviews.

    Results: Mostly, the practitioners run regression testing with a selected scope, the selection of scope depends upon the size, complexity, and location of the change. Test cases are prioritized on the basis of risk and critical functionality. The practitioners rely on their knowledge and experience for the decision making regarding selection and prioritization of test cases.The companies are using both automated and manual regression testing, and mainly they rely on in-house developed tools for test automation. The challenges identified in the companies are: time to test, information management, test suite maintenance, lack of communication, test selection/prioritization, lack of assessment, etc. The proposed improvements are in line with the identified challenges. Regression testing goals identified in this study are customer satisfaction, critical defect detection, confidence, effectiveness, efficiency, and controlled slip through of faults.

    Conclusions: Considering the current state of practice and identified challenges we conclude that there is a need to reconsider the regression test strategy in the companies. Researchers need to analyze the industry perspective while proposing new regression testing techniques. The industry-academia collaboration projects would be a good platform in this regard.

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  • 33.
    Mols, Carl-Eric
    et al.
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Charting the market disruptive nature of open source: Experiences from sony mobile2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2017 IEEE/ACM 39TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING COMPANION (ICSE-C 2017), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, p. 175-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) has substantial impact on how software-intensive firms develop products and deliver value to the customers. These companies need both strategic and operational support on how to adapt OSS as a part of their products and how to adjust processes and organizations to increase the benefits from OSS participation. This work presents the key insights from the journey that Sony Mobile has made from a company developing proprietary software to a respected member of OSS communities. We framed the experiences into an Open Source Maturity Model that includes two scenarios: engineering-driven and business-driven open source. We outline the most important decisions, roles, processes and implications. © 2017 IEEE.

  • 34.
    Mols, Carl-Eric
    et al.
    Sony Mobile, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Linåker, Johan
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    The open source officer role – experiences2017In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Springer-Verlag New York, 2017, Vol. 496, p. 55-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This papers describe the Open Source Officer role and the experiences from introducing this role in several companies. We outline the role description, main responsibilities, and interfaces to other roles and organizations. We investigated the role in several organization and bring interesting discrepancies and overlaps of how companies operate with OSS. © The Author(s) 2017.

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  • 35.
    Munir, Husan
    et al.
    Lund University, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund University, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A theory of openness for software engineering tools in software organizations2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 97, p. 26-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The increased use of Open Source Software (OSS) affects how software-intensive product development organizations (SIPDO) innovate and compete, moving them towards Open Innovation (OI). Specifically, software engineering tools have the potential for OI, but require better understanding regarding what to develop internally and what to acquire from outside the organization, and how to cooperate with potential competitors. Aim: This paper aims at synthesizing a theory of openness for software engineering tools in SIPDOs, that can be utilized by managers in defining more efficient strategies towards OSS communities. Method: We synthesize empirical evidence from a systematic mapping study, a case study, and a survey, using a narrative method. The synthesis method entails four steps: (1) Developing a preliminary synthesis, (2) Exploring the relationship between studies, (3) Assessing the validity of the synthesis, and (4) Theory formation. Result: We present a theory of openness for OSS tools in software engineering in relation to four constructs: (1) Strategy, (2) Triggers, (3) Outcomes, and (4) Level of openness. Conclusion: The theory reasons that openness provides opportunities to reduce the development cost and development time. Furthermore, OI positively impacts on the process and product innovation, but it requires investment by organizations in OSS communities. By betting on openness, organizations may be able to significantly increase their competitiveness. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

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  • 36.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Linåker, Johan
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Runeson, Per E.R.
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Regnell, Björn
    Lunds universitet, SWE.
    Open innovation using open source tools: a case study at Sony Mobile2018In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 186-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest of Open Innovation (OI) in Software Engineering (SE), little is known about what triggers software organizations to adopt it and how this affects SE practices. OI can be realized in numerous of ways, including Open Source Software (OSS) involvement. Outcomes from OI are not restricted to product innovation but also include process innovation, e.g. improved SE practices and methods. This study explores the involvement of a software organization (Sony Mobile) in OSS communities from an OI perspective and what SE practices (requirements engineering and testing) have been adapted in relation to OI. It also highlights the innovative outcomes resulting from OI. An exploratory embedded case study investigates how Sony Mobile use and contribute to Jenkins and Gerrit; the two central OSS tools in their continuous integration tool chain. Quantitative analysis was performed on change log data from source code repositories in order to identify the top contributors and triangulated with the results from five semi-structured interviews to explore the nature of the commits. The findings of the case study include five major themes: i) The process of opening up towards the tool communities correlates in time with a general adoption of OSS in the organization. ii) Assets not seen as competitive advantage nor a source of revenue are made open to OSS communities, and gradually, the organization turns more open. iii) The requirements engineering process towards the community is informal and based on engagement. iv) The need for systematic and automated testing is still in its infancy, but the needs are identified. v) The innovation outcomes included free features and maintenance, and were believed to increase speed and quality in development. Adopting OI was a result of a paradigm shift of moving from Windows to Linux. This shift enabled Sony Mobile to utilize the Jenkins and Gerrit communities to make their internal development process better for its software developers and testers. © 2017 The Author(s)

  • 37.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Linåker, Johan
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Runeson, Per
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Regnell, Bjorn
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Open Innovation through the Lens of Open Source Tools: A case study at Sony Mobile2018In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Empirical Software Engineering Journal, Vol. 23, p. 186-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite growing interest of Open Innovation (OI) in Software Engineering (SE), little is known about what triggers software organizations to adopt it and how this affects SE practices. OI can be realized in numerous of ways, including Open Source Software (OSS) involvement. Outcomes from OI are not restricted to product innovation but also include process innovation, e.g. improved SE practices and methods. This study explores the involvement of a software organization (Sony Mobile) in OSS communities from an OI perspective and what SE practices (requirements engineering and testing) have been adapted in relation to OI. It also highlights the innovative outcomes resulting from OI. An exploratory embedded case study investigates how Sony Mobile use and contribute to Jenkins and Gerrit; the two central OSS tools in their continuous integration tool chain. Quantitative analysis was performed on change log data from source code repositories in order to identify the top contributors and triangulated with the results from five semi-structured interviews to explore the nature of the commits. The findings of the case study include five major themes: i) The process of opening up towards the tool communities correlates in time with a general adoption of OSS in the organization. ii) Assets not seen as competitive advantage nor a source of revenue are made open to OSS communities, and gradually, the organization turns more open. iii) The requirements engineering process towards the community is informal and based on engagement. iv) The need for systematic and automated testing is still in its infancy, but the needs are identified. v) The innovation outcomes included free features and maintenance, and were believed to increase speed and quality in development. Adopting OI was a result of a paradigm shift of moving from Windows to Linux. This shift enabled Sony Mobile to utilize the Jenkins and Gerrit communities to make their internal development process better for its software developers and testers.

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  • 38.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lunds Universitet, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    How Companies Use OSS Tools Ecosystems for Open Innovation2019In: IT Professional Magazine, ISSN 1520-9202, E-ISSN 1941-045X, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 40-45, article id 8896157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving toward the open innovation (OI) model requires multifaceted transformations within companies. It often involves giving away the tools for product development or sharing future product directions with open tools ecosystems. Moving from the traditional closed innovation model toward an OI model for software development tools shows the potential to increase software development competence and efficiency of organizations. We report a case study in software-intensive company developing embedded devices (e.g., smartphones) followed by a survey in OSS communities such as Gerrit, Git, and Jenkins. The studied branch focuses on developing Android phones. This paper presents contribution strategies and triggers for openness. These strategies include avoid forking OSS tools, empower developers to participate in the ecosystem, steer ecosystems through contributions, create business through differentiation, and create new ecosystems. The triggers of openness are from 30 different companies with examples. Finally, openness requires a cultural change aligned with strategies and business models. © 1999-2012 IEEE.

  • 39.
    Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Lund university, SWE.
    Runeson, Per
    Lund university, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Open tools for software engineering: Validation of a theory of openness in the automotive industry2019In: PROCEEDINGS OF EASE 2019 - EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Association for Computing Machinery , 2019, p. 2-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Open tools (e.g., Jenkins, Gerrit and Git) offer a lucrative alternative to commercial tools. Many companies and developers from OSS communities make a collaborative effort to improve the tools. Prior to this study, we developed an empirically based theory for companies’ strategic choices on the development of these tools, based on empirical observations in the telecom domain. Aim: The aim of this study is to validate the theory of openness for tools in software engineering, in another domain, automotive. Specifically, we validated the theory propositions and mapped the case companies onto the model of openness. Method: We run focus groups in two automotive companies, collecting data in a survey and followup discussions. We used the repertory grid technique to analyze the survey responses, in combination with qualitative data from the focus group, to validate the propositions. Results: Openness of tools has the potential to reduce development costs and time, and may lead to process and product innovation. This study confirms three out of five theory propositions, on cost and time reduction, and the complementary role of open tools. One propositions was not possible to validate due to lack of investment in OSS tools communities by both companies. However, our findings extend the fifth proposition to require management being involved for both the proactive and reactive strategy. Further, we observe that the move towards open tools happen with a paradigm shift towards openness in the automotive domain, and lead to standardization of tools. Both companies confirm that they need legal procedures for the contribution, as well as an internal champion, driving the open tools strategy. Conclusion: We validated the theory, originating from the telecom domain, partially using two automotive companies. Both case companies are classified as laggards (reactive, cost saving) in the model of openness presented in the theory. Furthermore, we would like to have more validations studies to validate the remaining quadrants (e.g., leverage, lucrativeness and leaders). © 2019 Association for Computing Machinery.

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  • 40. Munir, Hussan
    et al.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Lund University, SWE.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Moayyed, Misagh
    An experimental evaluation of test driven development vs. test-last development with industry professionals2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development approach where test cases are written before actual development of the code in iterative cycles. Context: TDD has gained attention of many software practitioners during the last decade since it has contributed several benefits to the software development process. However, empirical evidence of its dominance in terms of internal code quality, external code quality and productivity is fairly limited. Objective: The aim behind conducting this controlled experiment with professional Java developers is to see the impact of Test-Driven Development (TDD) on internal code quality, external code quality and productivity compared to Test-Last Development (TLD). Results: Experiment results indicate that values found related to number of acceptance test cases passed, McCabe's Cyclomatic complexity, branch coverage, number of lines of code per person hours, number of user stories implemented per person hours are statistically insignificant. However, static code analysis results were found statistically significant in the favor of TDD. Moreover, the results of the survey revealed that the majority of developers in the experiment prefer TLD over TDD, given the lesser required level of learning curve as well as the minimum effort needed to understand and employ TLD compared to TDD.

  • 41.
    Münch, Jürgen
    et al.
    Reutlingen University, DEU.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Workshops and tutorials2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. Code 221089, p. 365-369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 19th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement (PROFES 2018) hosted two workshops and three tutorials. The workshops and tutorials complemented and enhanced the main conference program, offering a wider knowledge perspective around the conference topics. The topics of the two workshops were Hybrid Development Approaches in Software Systems Development (HELENA) and Managing Quality in Agile & Rapid Software Development Processes (QUaSD). The topics of the tutorials were The human factor in agile transitions – Using the personas concept in agile coaching, Process Management 4.0 – Best Practices, and Domain-specific languages for specification, development, and testing of autonomous systems. The workshop organizers would like to thank all persons that organized the workshop or contributed to the workshops as well as the presenters of the tutorials. The workshops and tutorials provided interesting forums for discussing ideas, presenting novel work, learning and networking. In the following the workshop and tutorials are summarized based on the content of the respective workshop and tutorial web descriptions. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

  • 42.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski Univ, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Quo Vadis Mergers and Acquisitions in Software Business?2019In: VISION 2025: EDUCATION EXCELLENCE AND MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIONS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE / [ed] Soliman, K S, INT BUSINESS INFORMATION MANAGEMENT ASSOC-IBIMA , 2019, p. 5502-5507Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This vision paper investigates the last three decades of mergers and acquisitions in the software industry and explores if the takeover strategy is still valid and promising and what implications could be drawn for software business. Our main findings highlight that the number of deals is decreasing but the average deal size is increasing. We also discover that the frequency of M&As is decreasing despite the growing capital market (S&P 500 index). We discuss the possible hypothesis and implications from these observations.

  • 43.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski University, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Takeovers in software business - Recap and days to come2021In: IBIMA Business Review, E-ISSN 1947-3788, Vol. 2021, article id 796491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article summarizes the last 30 years of the M&A market in the software industry. The authors verify a hypothesis if the takeover strategy is still effective and promising. A dataset of over 18,000 transactions was analyzed. It has been noticed that while company valuations and the S&P 500 index have been increasing over the last decade, the frequency of transactions in the software industry has decreased. One of the few countries that have increased its market share in the last decade was China. Moreover, compared to the dotcom bubble, the number of transactions decreased, while the average deal value increased significantly. Implications and research directions for the software market are also provided in this paper. © 2021 IBIMA Business Review. All rights reserved.

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  • 44.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski University, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Callele, David
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    On the use of Financial Valuation Techniques in Requirements Engineering2018In: 2018 1ST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LEARNING FROM OTHER DISCIPLINES FOR REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING (D4RE 2018) / [ed] Trapp M.,Hess A.,Lauenroth K., IEEE Communications Society, 2018, p. 16-17, article id 8595128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates methods and techniquesfrom finance for supporting value estimation for features orrequirements. We discuss the applicability and challenges as-sociated with applying financial techniques for feature valueestimation and for supporting requirements prioritization

  • 45.
    Ocieszak, Marcin
    et al.
    Kozminski University, POL.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Callele, David
    University of Saskatchewan, CAN.
    Using financial valuation techniques to minimize waste in requirements scoping2019In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE 27th International Requirements Engineering Conference Workshops, REW 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 3-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents our initial experiences with employing option theory and NPV techniques for optimizing waste reduction in requirements scoping. Inspired by financial market theories, we analyze a large requirements scoping decision making history from the mobile handset domain. We outline how we can optimize waste reduction in requirements scoping by modeling the neutral, positive and negative scenarios, giving each of the scenarios appropriate budget and development team commitment. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 46.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    QREME: Quality Requirements Management Model for Supporting Decision-Making2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer International Publishing , 2018, p. 173-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Context and motivation] Quality requirements (QRs) are inherently difficult to manage as they are often subjective, context-dependent and hard to fully grasp by various stakeholders. Furthermore, there are many sources that can provide input on important QRs and suitable levels. Responding timely to customer needs and realizing them in product portfolio and product scope decisions remain the main challenge.

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  • 47.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    An empirical study on decision making for quality requirements2019In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 149, p. 217-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Quality requirements are important for product success yet often handled poorly. The problems with scope decision lead to delayed handling and an unbalanced scope. Objective: This study characterizes the scope decision process to understand influencing factors and properties affecting the scope decision of quality requirements. Method: We studied one company's scope decision process over a period of five years. We analyzed the decisions artifacts and interviewed experienced engineers involved in the scope decision process. Results: Features addressing quality aspects explicitly are a minor part (4.41%) of all features handled. The phase of the product line seems to influence the prevalence and acceptance rate of quality features. Lastly, relying on external stakeholders and upfront analysis seems to lead to long lead-times and an insufficient quality requirements scope. Conclusions: There is a need to make quality mode explicit in the scope decision process. We propose a scope decision process at a strategic level and a tactical level. The former to address long-term planning and the latter to cater for a speedy process. Furthermore, we believe it is key to balance the stakeholder input with feedback from usage and market in a more direct way than through a long plan-driven process. © 2018 Elsevier Inc.

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  • 48.
    Olsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering. RISE Reserach Institutes of Sweden, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Jansen, Slinger
    LUT University, FIN.
    A validated model for the scoping process of quality requirements: a multi-case study2021In: Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 26, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality requirements are vital to developing successful software products. However, there exist evidence that quality requirements are managed mostly in an “ad hoc” manner and down-prioritized. This may result in insecure, unstable, slow products, and unhappy customers. We have developed a conceptual model for the scoping process of quality requirements – QREME – and an assessment model – Q-REPM – for companies to benchmark when evaluating and improving their quality requirements practices. Our model balances an upfront forward-loop with a data-driven feedback-loop. Furthermore, it addresses both strategic and operational decisions. We have evaluated the model in a multi-case study at two companies in Sweden and three companies in The Netherlands. We assessed the scoping process practices for quality requirements and provided improvement recommendations for which practices to improve. The study confirms the existence of the constructs underlying QREME. The companies perform, in the median, 24% of the suggested actions in Q-REPM. None of the companies work data-driven with their quality requirements, even though four out of five companies could technically do so. Furthermore, on the strategic level, quality requirements practices are not systematically performed by any of the companies. The conceptual model and assessment model capture a relevant view of the quality requirements practices and offer relevant improvement proposals. However, we believe there is a need for coupling quality requirements practices to internal and external success factors to motive companies to change their ways of working. We also see improvement potential in the area of business intelligence for QREME in selecting data sources and relevant stakeholders.

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  • 49.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Britto, Ricardo
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Ouriques, João Felipe
    Ericsson, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    A Method to Evaluate Knowledge Resources in Agile Software Development2019In: Proceeding of The ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement ESEM 2019, IEEE, 2019, article id 8870167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizations adopting Agile Software Development (ASD) use different Knowledge Management (KM) practices to retain and share knowledge. However, it is often the case that knowledge retention is carried out in an ad-hoc way.

    Aims: In this study, we report our experience from proposing the Knowledge Critically Evaluation Method (KCEM) to evaluate knowledge items (KIT). Our main goal with KCEMs is to support companies to systematically retain knowledge in ASD contexts.

    Method: We conducted an improvement case study to develop and evaluate KCEM. This research follows the guidelines for technology transfer between industry and academia. The case and unit of analysis is Ericsson, a Swedish company that develops telecommunication solutions.

    Results: In this paper, we provide initial results of both lab and static validation, enriched by the lessons learned.

    Conclusions: The preliminary results show that KCEM is easy to understand and use, provides a different perspective on the KIT by visualizing in the criticality chart, and reduces the level of abstraction associated to a knowledge subject area.

  • 50.
    Ouriques, Raquel
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Berntsson Svensson, Richard
    Chalmers, SWE.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Software Engineering.
    Thinking strategically about knowledge management in agile software development2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. Code 221089, p. 389-395Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile methodologies gave teams more autonomy regarding planning tasks and executing them. As a result, coordination gets more flexible, but much relevant knowledge remains undocumented and inside teams’ borders, due to informal communication and reduced development documentation. Since knowledge plays an essential role in software development, it is important to have effective knowledge management (KM) practices that contribute to a better knowledge resource allocation. Several KM practices have been reported in empirical studies in Agile Software Development (ASD). However, these practices are not evaluated regarding its effectiveness or how do they affect product quality. Besides, the studies do not demonstrate connections between the KM practices in the project level and the strategic level. The lack of connection between these levels can result in deviations from the company’s corporate strategy, wasted resources and irrelevant knowledge acquisition. This paper discusses how the strategic management can contribute to an integrated approach to KM in ASD; considering the organizational structure and the corporate strategy. Based on this discussion, we propose research areas that may help with planning KM strategies that can have their effectiveness measured and contribute to product quality. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

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