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  • 1. Bhattacharyya, Prantik
    et al.
    Rowe, Jeff
    Wu, Felix
    Haigh, Karen
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Johnson, Henric
    Your Best might not be Good enough: Ranking in Collaborative Social Search Engines2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A relevant feature of online social networks like Facebook is the scope for users to share external information from the web with their friends by sharing an URL. The phenomenon of sharing has bridged the web graph with the social network graph and the shared knowledge in ego networks has become a source for relevant information for an individual user, leading to the emergence of social search as a powerful tool for information retrieval. Consideration of the social context has become an essential factor in the process of ranking results in response to queries in social search engines. In this work, we present InfoSearch, a social search engine built over the Facebook platform, which lets users search for information based on what their friends have shared. We identify and implement three distinct ranking factors based on the number of mutual friends, social group membership, and time stamp of shared documents to rank results for user searches. We perform user studies based on the Facebook feeds of two authors to understand the impact of each ranking factor on the result for two queries.

  • 2.
    Brodka, Piotr
    et al.
    Wroclaw Univ Technol, Inst Informat, PL-50370 Wroclaw, Poland..
    Sobas, Mateusz
    Wroclaw Univ Technol, Inst Informat, PL-50370 Wroclaw, Poland..
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Profile Cloning Detection in Social Networks2014In: 2014 EUROPEAN NETWORK INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE (ENIC), IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Profile cloning is a severe security issue in social networks since it is used to make a profile identical to existing ones. Profile cloning detection creates a possibility to detect frauds that would use people's trust to gather social information. This paper proposes two novel methods of profile cloning detection and also presents state-of-the-art research. The first method is based on the similarity of attributes from both profiles and the second method is based on the similarity of relationship networks. The methods are further evaluated with experiments and the results clearly describes that the proposed methods are useful and efficient compared to existing methods. The paper also stress that profile cloning in Facebook is not only possible but also fairly easy to perform.

  • 3.
    Erlandsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Privacy threats related to user profiling in online social networks2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The popularity of Online Social Networks (OSNs) has increased the visibility of users profiles and interactions performed between users. In this paper we structure different privacy threats related to OSNs and describe six different types of privacy threats. One of these threats, named public information harvesting, is previously not documented so we therefore present it in further detail by also presenting the results from a proof-of-concept implementation of that threat. The basis of the attack is gathering of user interactions from various open groups on Facebook which then is transformed into a social interaction graph. Since the data gathered from the OSN originates from open groups it could be executed by any third-party connected to the Internet independently of the users' privacy settings. In addition to presenting the different privacy threats we also we propose a range of different protection techniques.

  • 4.
    Erlandsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Borg, Anton
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Bródka, Piotr
    Wrocław University of Technolog, POL.
    Predicting User Participation in Social Media2016In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science / [ed] Wierzbicki A., Brandes U., Schweitzer F., Pedreschi D., Springer, 2016, Vol. 9564, p. 126-135Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Online social networking services like Facebook provides a popular way for users to participate in different communication groups and discuss relevant topics with each other. While users tend to have an impact on each other, it is important to better understand and ...

  • 5.
    Erlandsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Bródka, Piotr
    Wrocław University of Science and Technology, POL.
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Do We Really Need To Catch Them All?: A New User-Guided Social Media Crawling Method2017In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 19, no 12, article id 686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing use of popular social media services like Facebook and Twitter it is hard to collect all content from the networks without access to the core infrastructure or paying for it. Thus, if all content cannot be collected one must consider which data are of most importance.In this work we present a novel User-Guided Social Media Crawling method (USMC) that is able to collect data from social media, utilizing the wisdom of the crowd to decide the order in which user generated content should be collected, to cover as many user interactions as possible. USMC is validated by crawling 160 Facebook public pages, containing 368 million users and 1.3 billion interactions, and it is compared with two other crawling methods. The results show that it is possible to cover approximately 75% of the interactions on a Facebook page by sampling just 20% of its posts, and at the same time reduce the crawling time by 53%.What is more, the social network constructed from the 20% sample has more than 75% of the users and edges compared to the social network created from all posts, and has very similar degree distribution.

  • 6.
    Erlandsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Bródka, Piotr
    Wrocƚaw University of Technology, POL.
    Borg, Anton
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Finding Influential Users in Social Media Using Association Rule Learning2016In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 18, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influential users play an important role in online social networks since users tend to have an impact on one other. Therefore, the proposed work analyzes users and their behavior in order to identify influential users and predict user participation. Normally, the success of a social media site is dependent on the activity level of the participating users. For both online social networking sites and individual users, it is of interest to find out if a topic will be interesting or not. In this article, we propose association learning to detect relationships between users. In order to verify the findings, several experiments were executed based on social network analysis, in which the most influential users identified from association rule learning were compared to the results from Degree Centrality and Page Rank Centrality. The results clearly indicate that it is possible to identify the most influential users using association rule learning. In addition, the results also indicate a lower execution time compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  • 7.
    Erlandsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Nia, Roozbeh
    Boldt, Martin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Wu, S. Felix
    Crawling Online Social Networks2015In: SECOND EUROPEAN NETWORK INTELLIGENCE CONFERENCE (ENIC 2015), IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers put in tremendous amount of time and effort in order to crawl the information from online social networks. With the variety and the vast amount of information shared on online social networks today, different crawlers have been designed to capture several types of information. We have developed a novel crawler called SINCE. This crawler differs significantly from other existing crawlers in terms of efficiency and crawling depth. We are getting all interactions related to every single post. In addition, are we able to understand interaction dynamics, enabling support for making informed decisions on what content to re-crawl in order to get the most recent snapshot of interactions. Finally we evaluate our crawler against other existing crawlers in terms of completeness and efficiency. Over the last years we have crawled public communities on Facebook, resulting in over 500 million unique Facebook users, 50 million posts, 500 million comments and over 6 billion likes.

  • 8.
    Erlandsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Nia, Roozbeh
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wu, Felix
    Making social interactions accessible in online social networks2013In: Information Services and Use, ISSN 0167-5265, E-ISSN 1875-8789, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) have changed the way people use the internet. Over the past few years these platforms have helped societies to organize riots and revolutions such as the Arab Spring or the Occupying Movements. One key fact in particular is how such events and organizations spread through out the world with social interactions, though, not much research has been focused on how to efficiently access such data and furthermore, make it available to researchers. While everyone in the field of OSN research are using tools to crawl this type of networks our approach differs significantly from the other tools out there since we are getting all interactions related to every single post. In this paper we show means of developing an efficient crawler that is able to capture all social interactions on public communities on OSNs such as Facebook.

  • 9. Hong, Seung-Sun
    et al.
    Wong, Fiona
    Wu, Felix
    Lilja, Bjorn
    Jansson, Tony Y.
    Johnson, Henric
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    TCPtransform: Property-Oriented TCP Traffic Transformation2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A TCPdump file captures not only packets but also various "properties" related to the live TCP sessions on the Internet. It is still an open problem to identify all the possible properties, if ever possible, and more importantly, which properties really matter for the consumers of this particular TCPdump file and how they are related to each other. However, it is quite clear that existing traffic replay tools, for the purpose of system evaluation, such as TCPreplay destroyed at least some of critical properties such as "ghost acknowledgment" (while the origin packet has never been delivered), which is a critical issue in conducting experimental evaluations for intrusion detection systems. In this paper, we present a software tool to transform an existing TCPdump file into another traffic file with different "properties". For instance, if the original traffic is being captured in a laboratory environment, the new file might "appear" to be captured in between US and Sweden. The transformation we have done here is "heuristically consistent" as there might be some hidden properties still being destroyed in the transformation process. One interesting application of our tool is to build long-term profiles to detect anomalous TCP attacks without really running the target application over the Internet. While, in this paper, we only focus on property-oriented traffic transformation, we have built and evaluated an interactive version of this tool, called TCPopera, to evaluate commercial intrusion prevention systems.

  • 10. Isaksson, Lennart
    et al.
    Johnson, Henric
    Fiedler, Markus
    Toward Seamless Integration of Wireless LAN and Cellular Networks2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Networked applications, no matter whether connected in a wired or wireless way, rely upon the ability of timely data delivery. The achievable throughput is a quality measure for the very task of a communication system, which is to transport data in time. This is of particular importance for nowadays trendy streaming applications such as digital TV, Internet Protocol (IP)-telephony, and gaming. Especially the higher throughput offered by 3G mobile systems (and beyond) as compared to earlier generations of mobile communications seems to pave the way for streaming applications into mobile environments. In this report a method is described that makes a decision between different communication technologies depending on different criteria and expectations stated by the end-user and perceived within the network itself. The Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method together with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to achieve the concept of Always Best Connected (ABC). Two different groups of criteria are used: benefits and costs. Within the benefit group three metrics are used: Initial Delay (ID), Link Capacity (LC) and Direction Loss (DL) which are analyzed and used before a decision is made. These three metrics are weighted against each other. Finally a case study is presented, using the AHP together with the weighted metrics.

  • 11. Johnson, Henric
    Lightweight Authentication for Bluetooth2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authentication of Bluetooth devices on a per-packet basis is a challenging research problem since it is a low power technology with limited computational resources and storage capacity. In this paper, we describe a lightweight per-packet authentication protocol well suited for Bluetooth's constrained environment. The proposed authentication protocol is presented with one bit for authentication but could with facility be extended to $k$ bits for a higher security level. Since packets might be lost due to a bad wireless channel or an attack, the protocol needs to be robust and not lose synchronization of the authentication bits. A detailed description of a synchronization algorithm is presented and evaluated via simulation and analysis.

  • 12. Johnson, Henric
    Lightweight Authentication in Wireless Networks2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, we develop and analyse two novel authentication protocols well suited for wireless devices. iven that wireless devices have limited resources such as processing power, bandwidth, storage, and energy, the proposed authentication protocols need to be lightweight. Due to these limitations there is a tradeoff between security and performance. To guarantee complete network access control the authentication is performed on a per-packet basis. Therefore, a Lightweight Authentication Code (LAC) is embedded in each packet as an authenticator. Authentication is necessary to guarantee the identity of a source since, with a wireless network, an adversary could easily inject traffic to get access to a network or launch a Denial-of-Service attack. The protocols are designed to be generic and applicable to standards such as IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth. In order to handle packet loss or an attack, synchronization algorithms are advanced and analysed to synchronize the sender's and the receiver's LACs. We further propose to use the lightweight authentication protocol as part of a detection and response scheme to handle Denial-of-Service attacks such as resource exhaustion. Five Adaptive Packet Discard Mechanisms (APDMs) are presented, in which the lightweight authentication protocols function as a first line of defense to protect the second and much stronger security service from exhaustion. With these mechanisms, we believe it is possible to reduce, if not remove, the effects of a Denial-of-Service attack on complex security systems. Finally, we extend the applicability to secure usage-based accounting, in which lightweight authentication per-packet is necessary to utilize accounting resources efficiently and guarantee accounting correctness.

  • 13. Johnson, Henric
    Security in Lightweight Ad Hoc Networks2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of my research is on security in wireless lightweight ad hoc networks. So far, much research has been concentrated primarily on making ad hoc networks feasible and useful and not on issues of security. However, ad hoc networks are highly vulnerable to attacks. In my research, I will present the requirements of making an ad hoc network secure and scalable, and also provide solutions as to how to authenticate the identity of the nodes by only adding one authentication bit to each packet. This will dramatically reduce the bandwidth and power consumption in the ad hoc network.

  • 14. Johnson, Henric
    Security Issues in Wireless Networks2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I describe my research project in the area of wireless network security. Since in the area of wireless communication, information is propagated through the air instead of through wires, a number of new security risks occur when using the new wireless technologies. Research dealing with these risks and vulnerabilities is, however, rarely seen. Reports about hacker attacks against wireless networks is almost non-existent, but it is only a matter of time before serious attacks will target these systems. Therefore, security aspects of mobile networks 3G and 4G systems and wireless standards like Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), HiperLAN, Bluetooth and wireless LAN standard IEEE 802.11b are central standards of investigation in my research. The main questions, which my research project is concerned with, are whether it is possible to achieve end-to-end security in a wireless network, and, if so, to what costs.

  • 15. Johnson, Henric
    Toward Adjustable Lightweight Authentication for Network Access Control2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of Internet access networks raises the demand for secure and reliable communication for both users and businesses. Traditionally, the aim has been to provide the strongest possible security. However, with the demand for low-power computing it has become desirable to develop security mechanisms which efficiently utilize available resources. The tradeoff between performance and security plays an important role. In general, strong security is added even if there is no attack. The implementation of strong and resource demanding security often implies more than a secure system; it may deteriorate the performance of a device with limited resources and pave the way for new threats such as resource exhaustion. It is, therefore, unwise to use strong cryptographic algorithms for devices with limited resources in the absence of an adversary. It is more efficient to begin with lightweight security, taking further measures when an attack is detected. The overall focus of this thesis is on adjustable and lightweight authentication protocols for network access control. The thesis studies the performance degradation of strong security using empirical tests on IP security (IPSec) with a visual bottleneck indicator based on the time-discrete fluid flow model and throughput histogram differences. The results emphasize the possibility of a Denial of Service (DoS) attack against IPSec itself. The redundant authentication performed in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) also motivates the development and evaluation of novel lightweight authentication protocols for the link and network layer. The developed authentication protocols are resource efficient, per-packet based, and robust in terms of handling packet loss. The protocols are further used as part of a hierarchical defense structure, which has been implemented and evaluated in order to mitigate protocol based DoS attacks. Finally, this thesis presents the concept of Always Best Security (ABS) and a practical decision making model based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. The model takes a number of factors into consideration, including subjective and objective aspects of security in order to select an adequate authentication level. It is a flexible model which formalizes quantitative and qualitative considerations of a defined set of criteria, keeping Quality of Service in mind.

  • 16. Johnson, Henric
    et al.
    Isaksson, Lennart
    Fiedler, Markus
    Wu, Felix
    A Decision System for Adequate Authentication2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A practical decision system is developed for finding the adequate authentication level based on desirable security criteria and alternatives. Even though the notion of lightweight security is acknowledged, the process of determining when to use it instead of strong security is not well understood. The process of making such a decision can be very complex. By defining an overall security goal and a set of criteria with corresponding alternatives, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to select the most suitable, preferred (and thus, adequate) authentication level, which is demonstrated by a realistic case study.

  • 17. Johnson, Henric
    et al.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Oliveira, Daniela A. S. de
    Wu, Felix
    Trustworthy opportunistic sensing: A Social Computing Paradigm2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, technological advances have lead to a society with communication platforms like iPhone and Kinect Xbox that are able to inject sensing presence into online social networks (OSNs). Thus, it is possible to create large-scale opportunistic networks by integrating sensors, applications and social networks and this development could also promote innovative collaborative cyber security models. In this position paper, we discuss how social informatics will play a crucial role in trustworthy pervasive computing. With regard to security, our primary computing paradigm is still about processing information content only in order to make decisions. Given the availability of both digitized social informatics and sensor content, we now have the option to examine these sources simultaneously. We refer to this new era as the Social Computing Paradigm, and we argue that it could be particularly useful in conjunction with opportunistic sensing.

  • 18. Johnson, Henric
    et al.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Zhao, Haifeng
    Wu, Shyhtsun Felix
    On the Concept of Trust in Online Social Networks2011In: Trustworthy Internet / [ed] Salgarelli, Luca; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Blefari-Melazzi, Nicola, Springer , 2011, p. 143-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online Social Networks (OSNs), such as Facebook, Twitter, and Myspace, provide new and interesting ways to communicate, share, and meet on the Internet. On the one hand, these features have arguably made many of the OSNs quite popular among the general population but the growth of these networks has raised issues and concerns related to trust, privacy and security. On the other hand, some would argue that the true potential of OSNs has yet to be unleashed. The mainstream media have uncovered a rising number of potential and occurring problems, including: incomprehensible security settings, unlawful spreading of private or copyrighted information, the occurrence of threats and so on. We present a set of approaches designed to improve the trustworthiness of OSNs. Each approach is described and related to ongoing research projects and to views expressed about trust by surveyed OSN users. Finally, we present some interesting pointers to future work.

  • 19.
    Johnson, Henric
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Engineering, Department of Telecommunication Systems.
    Detection and Response Policies Using a Hierarchical Scheme2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To protect and secure critical wireless network communications, high-end security services are used to encrypt, authenticate and validate packets. This approach opens up a new area of system attacks. Since the security services are time and resource demanding, a service may be easily overworked. Using Adaptive Packet Discard Mechanisms in conjunction with a lightweight packet classifying mechanism, it is possible to reduce, if not remove, the effects of a Denial-of-Service attack on complex security services, and thus creating a hier-archical approach to security.

  • 20. Johnson, Henric
    et al.
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Wireless Network Security2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe and give an overview of the various security aspects and problems that have emerged in the area of wireless communications during the last few years. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), HiperLAN, Bluetooth and wireless LAN standard IEEE 802.11b are central standards of investigation in this paper. In conclusion, we believe that future wireless network systems will probably consist of many different wireless systems linked together, therefore there will be a need for how to harmonize the differences in their security solutions.

  • 21. Johnson, Henric
    et al.
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    Fu, Judy
    Wu, Felix
    Chen, Albert
    Huang, He
    SOLA: A One-bit Identity Authentication Protocol for Access Control in IEEE 802.112002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the wide deployment of IPSec/VPN (Virtual Private Networks) technology, there might be a redundancy in security protection in some configurations. Various commercial companies have replaced 802.11 security with IPSec/VPN to protect the wireless LAN (Local Area Network). How to do it in an efficient and lightweight way is a challenging research problem. This paper introduces a new lightweight identity authentication protocol, SOLA (Statistical One-bit Lightweight Authentication), for access control well suited for IEEE 802.11 networks with IP connections. This protocol prevents unauthorized access on a per packet basis. Since SOLA only adds one identity bit to each packet it will have a low impact on the network bandwidth and power consumption. The performance and efficiency of the SOLA protocol together with IEEE 802.11 is analyzed and evaluated via simulation.

  • 22. Johnson, Henric
    et al.
    Qaisrani, Babar
    Fiedler, Markus
    Wu, Felix
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    Analysis of IPSec Performance2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present the results of an experimental analysis of IPSec performance. IPSec serves as a security service to protect a communication session over unreliable networks using several cryptographic functions. The different IPSec features used to obtain confidentiality, authentication, replay protection, and integrity introduce performance costs brought about by the increased processing overhead. The performance parameters of interest are delay and throughput. However, there is a tradeoff between performance and security. The results of the performance tests indicate the vulnerability of a Denial-of-Service attack against a gateway running IPSec due to resource exhaustion.

  • 23. Johnson, Henric
    et al.
    Qaisrani, Babar
    Fiedler, Markus
    Wu, Felix
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    Hierarchical Defense Structure for Mitigating DoS Attacks2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides the contribution of mitigating a Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack via a developed hierarchical defense structure with proactive functionality. An important aspect is the tradeoff between performance and security. This novel hierarchical architecture is presented with lightweight authentication protocols acting as a classifier to deny access to harmful traffic. An empirical test of the proposed structure has been performed and results are reported which display the capability of the structure to filter and separate the attack traffic before reaching the target of an IPSec gateway. Thus, the filtering of traffic is performed without being the target itself for new resource exhaustion attacks. The considered IPSec environment is based on IPSec gateways for the low-end market, i.e., for small businesses or private networks.

  • 24.
    Kazemi, Samira
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Abghari, Shahrooz
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Ryman, Peter
    Open Data for Anomaly Detection in Maritime Surveillance2013In: Expert Systems with Applications, ISSN 0957-4174, Vol. 40, no 14, p. 5719-5729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime Surveillance has received increased attention from a civilian perspective in recent years. Anomaly detection is one of many techniques available for improving the safety and security in this domain. Maritime authorities use confidential data sources for monitoring the maritime activities; however, a paradigm shift on the Internet has created new open sources of data. We investigate the potential of using open data as a complementary resource for anomaly detection in maritime surveillance. We present and evaluate a decision support system based on open data and expert rules for this purpose. We conduct a case study in which experts from the Swedish coastguard participate to conduct a real-world validation of the system. We conclude that the exploitation of open data as a complementary resource is feasible since our results indicate improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness of the existing surveillance systems by increasing the accuracy and covering unseen aspects of maritime activities.

  • 25. Lavesson, Niklas
    et al.
    Johnson, Henric
    Measuring Profile Distance in Online Social Networks2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) provide new ways for people to communicate with one another and to share content. OSNs have become quite popular among the general population but their rapid growth has raised concerns about privacy and security. Many predict that the OSNs of today provide a glimpse of the future Internet infrastructure. Whether or not that will be true is difficult to say but what is certain is that the privacy, integrity, and security issues and concerns need to be addressed now. In fact, the mainstream media have uncovered a rising number of potential and occurring problems, including: identity theft, unauthorized sharing of private information, malicious behavior of OSN services and applications, and so on. This paper addresses several important security and privacy issues by focusing on one of the core concepts of OSNs; the user profile, which both includes private and public information that the user shares to different parties and the customized security and privacy settings of the user. We present a method for comparing user profiles, by measuring the distance between the profiles in metric space, and for determining how well an OSN application conforms to user privacy settings. We report on a case study in which the proposed method is applied to Facebook to demonstrate the applicability of the method as well as to motivate its theoretical foundation.

  • 26.
    Liu, F.
    et al.
    Shandong Normal Univ, Sch Management Sci & Engn, Jinan 250014, Peoples R China..
    Wang, L.
    Shandong Normal Univ, Sch Management Sci & Engn, Jinan 250014, Peoples R China..
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Zhao, H.
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Comp Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA..
    Analysis of network trust dynamics based on the evolutionary game2015In: SCIENTIA IRANICA, ISSN 1026-3098, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 2548-2557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trust, as a multi-disciplinary research domain, is of high importance in the area of network security and it has increasingly become an important mechanism to solve the issues of distributed network security. Trust is also an effective mechanism to simplify complex society, and is the source to promote personal or social cooperation. From the perspective of network ecological evolution, we propose the model of the P2P Social Ecological Network. Based on game theory, we also put forward network trust dynamics and network eco-evolution by analysis of network trust and the development of the dynamics model. In this article, we further analyze the dynamic equation, and the evolutionary trend of the trust relationship between nodes using the replicator dynamics principle. Finally, we reveal the law of trust evolution dynamics, and the simulation results clearly describe that the dynamics of trust can be effective in promoting the stability and evolution of networks. (C) 2015 Sharif University of Technology. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Liu, Fengming
    et al.
    Shandong Normal University, CHI.
    Zhu, Xiaoqian
    Shandong Normal University, CHI.
    Hu, Yuxi
    UC Davis, USA.
    Ren, Lehua
    Shandong Normal University, CHI.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    A cloud theory-based trust computing model in social networks2017In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to develop a trust management model and then to efficiently control and manage nodes is an important issue in the scope of social network security. In this paper, a trust management model based on a cloud model is proposed. The cloud model uses a specific computation operator to achieve the transformation from qualitative concepts to quantitative computation. Additionally, this can also be used to effectively express the fuzziness, randomness and the relationship between them of the subjective trust. The node trust is divided into reputation trust and transaction trust. In addition, evaluation methods are designed, respectively. Firstly, the two-dimension trust cloud evaluation model is designed based on node's comprehensive and trading experience to determine the reputation trust. The expected value reflects the average trust status of nodes. Then, entropy and hyper-entropy are used to describe the uncertainty of trust. Secondly, the calculation methods of the proposed direct transaction trust and the recommendation transaction trust involve comprehensively computation of the transaction trust of each node. Then, the choosing strategies were designed for node to trade based on trust cloud. Finally, the results of a simulation experiment in P2P network file sharing on an experimental platform directly reflect the objectivity, accuracy and robustness of the proposed model, and could also effectively identify the malicious or unreliable service nodes in the system. In addition, this can be used to promote the service reliability of the nodes with high credibility, by which the stability of the whole network is improved. © 2016 by the authors.

  • 28.
    Lorentzen, Charlott
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    On user perception of safety in online social networks2013In: International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems, ISSN 1754-3916, E-ISSN 1754-3924, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 77-91Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many people share personal information through online social networks. While these networks offer tremendous facilities to share one's life with family, friends and the outer world, users are also exposed to the risk to get their accounts compromized, with consequences for their professional and private lives. A strong password can help to ensure privacy, while in contrast, a weak password may lead to a compromized account. On the other hand, it is observed that users tend to shortcut laborious and time-consuming security measures, which alleges that their perception of their safety on the social network might deviate from the real safety situation. In this article, we investigate how users of social networks perceive safety, and to which extent they contribute to it. First, we examine the question in which way and to which extent a user's perception of safety is affected by increased response times. An investigation was conducted for teenage users of the online social network Facebook. Its results indicate that the users' perception of safety differs significantly in face of increased response times that usually imply worse Quality of Experience. Second, in order to find out to which extent users are aware of the risks associated with weak passwords as well as what measures have been taken to keep themselves secure and to ensure privacy, a survey about password complexity in online social networks was conducted with Swedish users. Our results of the survey indicate differences in password complexity between teenagers with different levels of technical education.

  • 29. Lorentzen, Charlott
    et al.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Johnson, Henric
    Jørstad, Ivar
    Decisive Factors for Quality of Experience of OpenID authentication using EAP-SIM2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When using the web, large response times are bones of contention for users, i.e. they damp the Quality of Experience (QoE). Though, if one knew the cause of a large response time, one can examine what can be done about this obstacle. In this paper, we determine the weak point of the Extensible Authentication Protocol Method for GSM Subscriber Identity Modules (EAP-SIM) with the OpenID service with regards to excessive authentication times, which determine the response times. In order to provoke controlled raises of latter, we emulate bad network performance by introducing bi-directional delay between the supplicant (client) and the authenticator (server). Based on a recent, exponential relationship between QoE and response time, we then identify, quantify and compare the decisive factors for QoE reduction as functions of the components of the authentication times. The results we obtain clearly show that one task of the authentication contributes significantly more to the total response times than the other task, which points out the direction for future optimisation of user perception of authentication times.

  • 30. Lorentzen, Charlott
    et al.
    Fiedler, Markus
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Shaikh, Junaid
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Jørstad, Ivar
    On user perception of web login: a study on QoE in the context of security2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the user point of view, security has shown to be ambivalent; on one hand it is felt necessary, but on the other hand it is felt disturbing. Authentication solutions, for instance, are designed to keep undesired and unauthorized users out; however, allowed users need to spend some effort and waiting time when logging into a system. The question remains to which extent this effort is perceived as positive as security is increased, or negative through the waiting time spent in the process. Excessive waiting times imply the risk of user churn. As there is a lack of such studies, this paper investigates user perception (Quality of Experience, QoE) of the response times (Quality of Service, QoS) of a web authentication procedure, in particular a login to a community web page. Comparing the results to well-known user perception of web performance, we show that the users perceive logins in a similar way as standard web pages, which means that similar limits on user patience apply. The derived QoE-QoS relationship, an exponential function, serves then as the basis for assessing the performance of authentication algorithms in the domain of user acceptability.

  • 31. Mårtensson, Björn
    et al.
    Chevul, Stefan
    Järnliden, Håkan
    Johnson, Henric
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    SuxNet – Implementation of Secure Authentication for WLAN2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless network equipment offers great flexibility for mobile as well as stationary computers. Clients are no longer bound by the length of a network cable. Instead wireless connectivity increases the clients’ mobility. This paper describes an implementation for wireless clients to access a wired computer network through an efficient authentication mechanism. The imple-mentation is called SuxNet, and is a contribution to IP-login [8] and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.1x [3]. The paper also explains and evaluates different security concepts such as Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and IEEE 802.1x.

  • 32. Nia, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Erlandsson, Fredrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Bhattacharyya, Prantik
    Rahman, Mohammad Rezaur
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Wu, S. Felix
    SIN: A Platform to Make Interactions in Social Networks Accessible2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 ASE International Conference on Social Information, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 205-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) are popular platforms for interaction, communication and collaboration between friends. In this paper we develop and present a new platform to make interactions in OSNs accessible. Most of today's social networks, including Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ provide support for third party applications to use their social network graph and content. Such applications are strongly dependent on the set of software tools and libraries provided by the OSNs for their own development and growth. For example, third party companies like CNN provide recommendation materials based on user interactions and user's relationship graph. One of the limitations with this graph (or APIs) is the segregation from the shared content. We believe, and present in this paper, that the content shared and the actions taken on the content, creates a Social Interaction Network (SIN). As such, we extend Facebook's current API in order to allow applications to retrieve a weighted graph instead of Facebooks unweighted graph. Finally, we evaluate the proposed platform based on completeness and speed of the crawled results from selected community pages. We also give a few example uses of our API on how it can be used by third party applications.

  • 33. Nia, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Erlandsson, Fredrik
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Wu, S. Felix
    Leveraging Social Interactions to Suggest Friends2013In: IEEE 33rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems Workshops (ICDCSW), IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 386-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade Online Social Networks (OSNs) have made it possible for people to stay in touch with people they already know in real life; although, they have not been able to allow users to grow their personal social network. Existence of many successful dating and friend finder applications online today show the need and importance of such applications. In this paper, we describe an application that leverages social interactions in order to suggest people to users that they may find interesting. We allow users to expand their personal social network using their own interactions with other users on public pages and groups in OSNs. We finally evaluate our application by selecting a random set of users and asking them for their honest opinion.

  • 34. Oliveira, Daniela
    et al.
    Murthy, Dhiraj
    Johnson, Henric
    Wu, Felix
    Nia, Roozbeh
    Rowe, Jeff
    A socially-aware operating system for trustworthy computing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional security models based on distinguishing trusted from untrusted pieces of data and program behavior continue to face difficulties keeping up with attackers levels of sophistication and ingenuity. In this position paper, we present a novel computing paradigm for trustworthy computing whose application, operating system (OS) and architecture can leverage social trust to enhance the robustness and diversity of security mechanisms of any Internet-based computing environment. Our model would allow online social network (OSN) users to assign trust values to her friends in a privacy-preserving fashion and maintain a trust repository with trust values for objects like URLs, Email addresses, IP addresses and other pieces of data that can be consumed by a socially-aware OS, allowing for finegrained trust decisions that take into account user context and add diversity to host behavior. Our model also automatically infer trust values for people a user is not directly connected. In this paper we sketch the design of a socially-aware operating system kernel and identify several research challenges for this new paradigm.

  • 35.
    Osekowska, Ewa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Grid size optimization for potential field based maritime anomaly detection2014In: 17TH MEETING OF THE EURO WORKING GROUP ON TRANSPORTATION, EWGT2014 / [ed] Benitez, FG Rossi, R, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2014, p. 720-729Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on improving the potential field based maritime data modeling method, developed to extract traffic patterns and detect anomalies, in a clear, understandable and informative way. The method's novelty lies in employing the concept of a potential field for AIS vessel tracking data abstraction and maritime traffic representation. Unlike the traditional maritime surveillance equipment, such as radar or GPS, the AIS system comprehensively represents the identity and properties of a vessel, as well as its behavior, thus preserving the effects of navigational decisions, based on the skills of experienced seamen. In the developed data modeling process, every vessel generates potential charges, which value represent the vessel's behavior, and drops the charges at locations it passes. Each AIS report is used to assign a potential charge at the reported vessel positions. The method derives three construction elements, which define, firstly, how charges are accumulated, secondly, how a charge decays over time, and thirdly, in what way the potential is distributed around the source charge. The collection of potential fields represents a model of normal behavior, and vessels not conforming to it are marked as anomalous. In the anomaly detection prototype system STRAND, the sensitivity of anomaly detection can be modified by setting a geographical coordinate grid precision to more dense or coarse. The objective of this study is to identify the optimal grid size for two different conditions an open sea and a port area case. A noticeable shift can be observed between the results for the open sea and the port area. The plotted detection rates converge towards an optimal ratio for smaller grid sizes in the port area (60-200 meters), than in the open sea case (300-1000 meters). The effective outcome of the potential filed based anomaly detection is filtering out all vessels behaving normally and presenting a set of anomalies, for a subsequent incident analysis using STRAND as an information visualization tool.

  • 36.
    Osekowska, Ewa
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Computing, Department of Computer Science and Engineering.
    Maritime vessel traffic modeling in the context of concept drift2017In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 25, p. 1457-1476Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime traffic modeling serves the purpose of extracting human-readable information and discovering knowledge in the otherwise illegible mass of traffic data. The goal of this study is to examine the presence and character of fluctuations in maritime traffic patterns. The main objective is to identify such fluctuations and capture them in terms of a concept drift, i.e., unforeseen shifts in statistical properties of the modeled target occurring over time. The empirical study is based on a collection of AIS vessel tracking data, spanning over a year. The scope of the study limits the AIS data area to the Baltic region (9-31°E, 53-66°N), which experiences some of the most dense maritime traffic in the world. The investigations employ a novel maritime traffic modeling method based on the potential fields concept, adapted for this study to facilitate the examination of concept drift. The concept drift is made apparent in course of the statistical and visual analysis of the experimental results. This study shows a number of particular cases, in which the maritime traffic is affected by concept drifts of varying extent and character. The visual representations of the traffic models make shifts in the traffic patterns apparent and comprehensible to human eye. Based on the experimental outcomes, the robustness of the modeling method against concept drift in traffic is discussed and improvements are proposed. The outcomes provide insights into regularly reoccurring drifts and irregularities within the traffic data itself that may serve to further optimize the modeling method, and - in turn - the performance of detection based on it. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B. V.

  • 37.
    Rezaee, Shaliz
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    E-Mail Prioritization using Online Social Network Profile Distance2012In: Computer Science & Applications, ISSN 0972-9038, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 70-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) provide new ways for people to communicate with one another and to share content. OSNs have become quite popular among the general population. Their rapid growth has raised concerns about privacy and security on the one hand but increased efficiency in solving everyday online tasks on the other hand. Many predict that the OSNs of today provide a glimpse of the future Internet infrastructure. Whether or not that will be true is difficult to say but what is certain is that privacy, integrity, and security issues related to the world wide web will be as important then as now. This article presents a method for improving efficiency and security of E-mail applications by focusing on one of the core concepts of OSNs; the user profile, which both includes private and public information that the user shares to different parties and the social interaction between users.We present a generic method for comparing user profiles, by measuring the distance between user profile or user vectors and an algorithm that uses this method for prioritizing the E-mail inbox. We report on an experimental case in which the proposed method is used in conjunction with social information from Facebook to demonstrate the applicability as well as to motivate its theoretical foundation.

  • 38. Shahzad, Raja Khurram
    et al.
    Lavesson, Niklas
    Johnson, Henric
    Accurate Adware Detection using Opcode Sequence Extraction2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adware represents a possible threat to the security and privacy of computer users. Traditional signature-based and heuristic-based methods have not been proven to be successful at detecting this type of software. This paper presents an adware detection approach based on the application of data mining on disassembled code. The main contributions of the paper is a large publicly available adware data set, an accurate adware detection algorithm, and an extensive empirical evaluation of several candidate machine learning techniques that can be used in conjunction with the algorithm. We have extracted sequences of opcodes from adware and benign software and we have then applied feature selection, using different configurations, to obtain 63 data sets. Six data mining algorithms have been evaluated on these data sets in order to find an efficient and accurate detector. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to accurately detect both novel and known adware instances even though the binary difference between adware and legitimate software is usually small.

  • 39. Wu, Felix
    et al.
    Johnson, Henric
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    SOLA: Lightweight Security for Access Control in IEEE 802.112004In: IT Professional Magazine, ISSN 1520-9202, E-ISSN 1941-045X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE 802.11 wireless standard provides little support for secure access control. As a result, access control in IEEE 802.11 on a per packet basis requires a new and robust identity authentication protocol. The SOLA (Statistical One-Bit Lightweight Authentication) protocol is well suited in a wireless constrained environment because this protocol's communication overhead is extremely low: only one bit. Furthermore, SOLA fulfills the requirements of being secure, useful, cheap, and robust. The synchronization algorithm performs very well. SOLA also makes it easy to develop a framework to detect and respond to, for instance, denial-of-service attacks or an adversary who tries to guess the identity authentication bit for successive packets.

  • 40. Wu, Felix
    et al.
    Zhao, Fan
    Shin, C.
    Johnson, Henric
    Guo, R.C.
    Liu, Tzong-Jye
    Fan, Kuo-Pao
    Fu, Judy
    draft-wu-pana-dpac-framework-002003Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This informational draft describes the DPAC (Data Packet Access Control) framework, potentially under PANA, to efficiently control "data packets" to access the network. Instead of using potentially more expensive crypto-based mechanisms such as IPSec (layer 3) or IEEE 802.11i (layer 2), DPAC introduces the possibility of using and negotiating a range of light-weight per-data-packet source authentication methods to control the data packets from PANA Clients (PaC). In DPAC, each data packet sent from PaCs to Enhanced Point (EP) can be classified, with high probability, as either valid or invalid. Furthermore, under this framework, it is possible for EP and PAA to account reliably on the network usage of each PaC.

  • 41. Zhao, Fan
    et al.
    Shin, Yongjoo
    Wu, Felix
    Johnson, Henric
    Nilsson, Arne A.
    RBWA: an efficient random-bit window-based authentication protocol2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the wide and rapid depolyment of "visitor networks", how to authenticate the user and account the usage on the per-packet basis securely and yet efficiently is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we explore the tradoff between performance and security, and propose a per-data-packet authentication and access control called RBWA (Random Bit Window based Authentication). Deployed in the IP layer, RBWA can work with various underlying link layer specific mechanisms and network topologies. And comparing to IPSec, it dramatically reduces the overhead and power consumption by adding only a few bits to each packet. Furthermore, RBWA is strong against a suite of attacks such as replay attack, Denial-of-Service attack and spoofing etc. In particular, a robust anti-replay window scheme is developed to counter the svere packet reordering. The performance of RBWA is evaluated via the simulation.

  • 42. Zhao, Haifeng
    et al.
    Kallander, William
    Gbedema, Tometi
    Johnson, Henric
    Wu, Felix
    Read what you trust: An open wiki model enhanced by social context2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wiki systems, such as Wikipedia, provide a multitude of opportunities for large-scale online knowledge collaboration. Despite Wikipedia's successes with the open editing model, dissenting voices give rise to unreliable content due to conflicts amongst contributors. From our perspective, the conflict issue results from presenting the same knowledge to all readers, without regard for the importance of the underlying social context, which both reveals the bias of contributors and influences the knowledge perception of readers. Motivated by the insufficiency of the existing knowledge presentation model for Wiki systems, this paper presents TrustWiki, a new Wiki model which leverages social context, including social background and relationship information, to present readers with personalized and credible knowledge. Our experiment shows, with reliable social context information, TrustWiki can efficiently assign readers to their compatible editor community and present credible knowledge derived from that community. Although this new Wiki model focuses on reinforcing the neutrality policy of Wikipedia, it also casts light on the other content reliability problems in Wiki systems, such as vandalism and minority opinion suppression.

  • 43. Zhao, Haifeng
    et al.
    Kallander, William
    Johnson, Henric
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    Wu, Felix
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Computing.
    SmartWiki: A reliable and conflict-refrained Wiki model based on reader differentiation and social context analysis2013In: Knowledge-Based Systems, ISSN 0950-7051, E-ISSN 1872-7409, Vol. 47, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wiki systems, such as Wikipedia, provide a multitude of opportunities for large-scale online knowledge collaboration. Despite Wikipedia's successes with the open editing model, dissenting voices give rise to unreliable content due to conflicts amongst contributors. Frequently modified controversial articles by dissent editors hardly present reliable knowledge. Some overheated controversial articles may be locked by Wikipedia administrators who might leave their own bias in the topic. It could undermine both the neutrality and freedom policies of Wikipedia. As Richard Rorty suggested "Take Care of Freedom and Truth Will Take Care of Itself"[1], we present a new open Wiki model in this paper, called TrustWiki, which bridge readers closer to the reliable information while allowing editors to freely contribute. From our perspective, the conflict issue results from presenting the same knowledge to all readers, without regard for the difference of readers and the revealing of the underlying social context, which both causes the bias of contributors and affects the knowledge perception of readers. TrustWiki differentiates two types of readers, "value adherents" who prefer compatible viewpoints and "truth diggers" who crave for the truth. It provides two different knowledge representation models to cater for both types of readers. Social context, including social background and relationship information, is embedded in both knowledge representations to present readers with personalized and credible knowledge. To our knowledge, this is the first paper on knowledge representation combining both psychological acceptance and truth reveal to meet the needs of different readers. Although this new Wiki model focuses on reducing conflicts and reinforcing the neutrality policy of Wikipedia, it also casts light on the other content reliability problems in Wiki systems, such as vandalism and minority opinion suppression.

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